Imperial College London

ProfessorRichardJardine

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Consul for the Faculty of Engineering & the Business School
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6083r.jardine CV

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Sue Feller +44 (0)20 7594 6077

 
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Location

 

532Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

337 results found

Quinteros S, Gundersen A, L'Heureux JS, Lunne T, Harb Carraro JA, Jardine Ret al., 2019, Øysand research site: Geotechnical characterisation of deltaic sandy-silty soils, AIMS Geosciences, Vol: 4, Pages: 750-783, ISSN: 2471-2132

This paper describes the geology and geotechnical engineering properties of the fluvial and 18 deltaic gravelly-sandy-silty sediments at Øysand, Norway. Geophysical and geotechnical site 19 investigations carried out between 2016 and 2018 at the site are presented. Field testing included state-20 of-the-practice and state-of-the-art soil characterisation techniques such as total sounding, seismic 21 cone penetration testing, seismic flat dilatometer, multichannel analysis of surface waves, electrical 22 resistivity tomography, ground penetrating radar, piezometers, thermistors strings, slug tests, and 23 permeability tests using a newly developed CPT permeability probe from NGI. Several sampling 24 techniques were used at the site to assess sample quality. Laboratory testing consisted of index tests 25 and advanced triaxial tests with bender elements to estimate shear strength and stiffness. Data 26 interpretation, engineering soil properties and state variables derived from this analysis are presented, 27 along with comments on data quality. Engineering problems investigated at Øysand so far, are related 28 to: the impact of using different CPTU types, sample quality assessment by obtaining soils with state-29 of-the-practice and state-of-the-art techniques (such as gel push sampler and ground freezing), and 30 frost heave susceptibility.

Journal article

Buckley R, Jardine R, Kontoe S, Schroeder F, Barbosa Pet al., 2019, The design of axially loaded driven piles in chalk, XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering

Conference paper

Jardine RICHARD, Buckley R, Byrne B, Kontoe S, Liu T, Ross M, Ken Vet al., 2019, The ALPACA research project to improve design of piles driven in chalk, XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering

The proceedings are freely available at https://www.ecsmge-2019.com/

Conference paper

Dominguez-Quintans C, Quinteros VS, Carraro JAH, Zdravkovic L, Jardine RJet al., Quality assessment of a new in-mould slurry deposition method for triaxial specimen reconstitution of clean and silty sands, 7th International Symposium on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials - IS Glasgow 2019

An innovative specimen reconstitution technique for sandy and silty soils that simulates underwater deposition is presented and evaluated. The technique is an upgraded version for triaxial testing of the well-established slurry deposition method. This novel setup integrates the reconstitution mould and the mixing tube into a single unit to avoid transferring the sample from the mixing tube to the mould. This subtle, but critical, modification enables reconstitution of very loose specimens as sample transfer disturbance, which can be significant, is eliminated. The quality of specimens prepared by the new reconstitution method was assessed by experiments on a clean sand from the UK (Ham River sand) and a silty sand from Norway (Øysand). The method, as any slurry-based procedure, is capable of producing homogeneous specimens with high initial degree of saturation, even in the absence of back pressure. The procedure is shown to be suitable for sands with or without fines. Moreover, the new method is able to achieve a wide range of initial void ratios, from very loose to very dense, without imposing any particle crushing in the latter case.

Conference paper

Liu T, Chen H, Buckley RM, Quinteros VS, Jardine RJet al., 2019, Characterisation of sand-steel interface shearing behaviour for the interpretation of driven pile behaviour in sands, ISSN: 2555-0403

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. The installation and loading of steel piles driven in sands modifies both the piles’ surface topography and the characteristics of the granular materials present adjacent to the pile shaft. Large-displacement ring shear interface tests incorporating pre-conditioning stages are capable of reproducing such physical processes in the laboratory and can generate case-specific interface design parameters. This paper summarises laboratory research that characterised the interface shearing behaviour of three natural sandy soils retrieved from field test sites (Dunkirk, France; Blessington, Ireland; Larvik, SE Norway) where extensive piling studies on micro and industrial scale driven piles have been carried out. The programme examined the influences of soil characteristics (physical properties and chemical compositions), interface type (mild steel or stainless steel) and surface roughness, and highlighted the significant effects of normal effective stress level and ageing time duration. Remarkable trends of increasing interface friction angles with elevated normal effective stress levels and prolonged ageing were observed. The results from supplementary small-displacement direct shear interface tests and triaxial tests are also reported. The experiments are interpreted with reference to earlier studies to develop an overview of interface shearing characteristics between steels and sandy soils and provide important insights into the mechanisms of axial capacity increases applying to steel piles driven in sands.

Conference paper

Chan DLH, Buckley RM, Liu T, Jardine RJet al., 2019, Laboratory investigation of interface shearing in chalk, ISSN: 2555-0403

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. Chalk, a soft fine-grained Cretaceous limestone, is encountered across northern Europe where recent offshore windfarm, oil, gas and onshore developments have called for better foundation design methods, particularly for driven piles whose shaft capacities are controlled by an effective stress Coulomb interface failure criterion. Interface type and roughness is known to affect both interface friction angles, δ' and the magnitude of dilation required for shaft failure to develop. Site-specific interface ring-shear tests are recommended for offshore pile design in sands and clays to account for driven pile shaft materials, roughnesses and shear displacements. However, few such tests have been reported for chalks and it is also unclear whether δ' angle changes contribute to the striking axial capacity increases, or set-up, noted over time with piles driven in chalk. This paper describes an interface shear study on low-to-medium density chalk from the St. Nicholas-at-Wade research test site in Kent, UK, where extensive field driven pile studies have been conducted [1, 2]. Direct shear and Bishop ring shear apparatus were employed to investigate the influences of interface material and surface roughness, as well as ageing under constant normal effective stresses (σn'). It is shown that the high relative roughness of the interface compared to the chalk grain size results in the ultimate interface shearing angles falling close to the chalk-chalk shearing resistance angles. The δ' angles also increased by up to 5° over 38 days of ageing.

Conference paper

Vinck K, Liu T, Ushev E, Jardine RJet al., 2019, An appraisal of end conditions in advanced monotonic and cyclic triaxial testing on a range of geomaterials, ISSN: 2555-0403

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. Compressing samples between rigid platens, as in triaxial testing, induce non-uniform specimen stress, strain and pore water distributions. Although well recognised historically, the effects of such platen restraints are often disregarded or overlooked when performing or interpreting monotonic and cyclic experiments. This paper presents an updated appraisal of end conditions based on laboratory experiments run on sand, glacial till, intact and puttified chalk as part of offshore piling research projects. Monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are reported that incorporated local strain and pore pressure sensors and a range of platen configurations. New insights are reported regarding the small-to-large behaviour and undrained cyclic pore water pressure measurement.

Conference paper

Buckley R, Jardine R, Kontoe S, Barbosa P, Schroeder Fet al., Full-scale observations of dynamic and static axial responses of offshore piles driven in chalk and tills, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

This paper describes and interprets tests on piles driven through glacial tills and chalk at a Baltic Sea windfarm, covering an advance trial campaign and later production piling. The trials involved six instrumented 1.37m diameter steel open-ended tubes driven in water depths up to 42m. Three piles were tested statically, with dynamic re-strike tests on paired piles, at 12-15 week ages. Instrumented dynamic driving and re-strike monitoring followed on up to 3.7m diameter production piles. During driving, the shaft resistances developed at fixed depths below sea-bed fell markedly during driving, with particularly sharp reductions occurring in the chalk. Shaft resistances increased markedly after driving and good agreement was seen between long-term capacities interpreted from parallel static and dynamic tests. Analyses employing the sites’ geotechnical profiles show long-term shaft resistances in the chalk that far exceed those indicated by current design recommendations, while newly proposed procedures offer good predictions. The shaft capacities mobilised in the low-plasticity tills also grew significantly over time, within the broad ranges reported for sandy soils. The value of offshore field testing in improving project outcomes and design rules is demonstrated; the approach described may be applied to other difficult seabed conditions.

Journal article

Jardine R, Buckley R, Byrne B, Kontoe S, Liu T, McAdam R, Schranz F, Vinck Ket al., 2019, Rationalising the design of piles driven in chalk through the ALPACA project, 2nd International Conference on Natural Hazards & Infrastructure

Conference paper

Jardine R, Geotechnics, energy and climate change: The 56th Rankine Lecture, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

Geotechnical Engineering has matured sufficiently to contribute to resolving some of society’s grand challenges. The 56th Rankine Lecture considered one of the most pressing global problems: maintaining vital energy supplies while also recognising, mitigating and reducing the climate consequences of fossil fuel consumption. This written version reports geotechnical research relating to these wide-ranging issues, considering paired topics within its three main parts and illustrating these with specific practical examples. Part 1 focuses on supporting offshore hydrocarbon production, considering advances in understanding and designing the driven piles that support most continental shelf platforms, before moving to the large underwater landslides that can affect deeper water developments. Part 2 describes investigations into the geotechnical impact of climate change in a permafrost region and a peatland study that contributes to alleviating flood risks exacerbated by climate change. Part 3 outlines research that is improving the economics of renewable offshore wind energy for multi-pile and monopile supported turbines. Integrating geology and rigorous analysis with advanced laboratory and field experiments is shown to be essential to resolving the complex geotechnical problems considered, as is careful full-scale checking and monitoring. Close cooperation with co-workers from industry and academia was central to the studies described and the contributions of many collaborators are emphasised. The concluding section identifies examples of significant questions from each of the six topic areas that remain to be resolved fully.

Journal article

Carroll R, Carotenuto P, Dano C, Salama I, Silva M, Rimoy S, Gavin K, Jardine Ret al., 2019, Field experiments at three sites to investigate the effects of age on steel piles driven in sand, Géotechnique, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 0016-8505

This paper investigates the influences that steel type, in situ soil properties, water table depth, pile diameter, roughness and driving procedures have on the ageing behaviour of piles driven in sand. Tension tests have been performed on 51 open-ended steel micro-piles, with 48 to 60 mm outside diameter, driven at well-established research sites at Larvik in Norway, Dunkirk in France and Blessington in Ireland to better understand the processes that control axial capacity set-up trends in the field. Mild steel, stainless and galvanised steel micro-piles were driven and left to age undisturbed for periods of between 2 h and 696 days before being subjected to first-time axial tension load tests. In addition to reporting and interpreting these experiments, further investigations of the sites’ geotechnical profiles are reported, including new piezocone and seismic cone penetration soundings as well as laboratory tests. Integration with earlier ageing studies at the same sites with larger (340 to 508 mm outside diameter) open-ended steel piles driven to 7 to 20 m embedments and experiments that varied the piles’ initial surface roughness shows that corrosion, pile scale, roughness, the bonding of soil particles and the driving process can all be highly significant. New insights are gained into the mechanisms that control the axial capacity of piles driven in sand.

Journal article

Taborda D, Zdravkovic L, Potts DM, Burd HJ, Byrne BW, Gavin K, Houlsby GT, Jardine RJ, Liu T, Martin CM, McAdam RAet al., Finite element modelling of laterally loaded piles in a dense marine sand at Dunkirk, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

The paper presentsthedevelopment of a three-dimensional finite element model for pile tests in dense Dunkirk sand,conducted as part of the PISA project.The projectwas aimed at developing improved design methods for laterally loadedpiles, as used in offshore wind turbine foundations. The importance of the consistent and integrated interpretation of the soil data from laboratory and field investigations is particularly emphasised. The chosen constitutive model for sand is an enhanced version of the state parameter-based bounding surface plasticity model, which, crucially, is able to reproduce the dependency of sand behaviour on void ratio and stress level. The predictions from three-dimensional finite element analyses,performed before the field tests, show good agreement with the measured behaviour, proving the adequacy of the developed numerical model and the calibration process for the constitutive model. This numerical model directly facilitated the development of new soil reaction curves for use in Winkler-type design models for laterally loaded piles in natural marine sands.

Journal article

Byrne BW, Burd HJ, Gavin K, Houlsby GT, Jardine RJ, McAdam RA, Martin CM, Potts DM, Taborda DMG, Zdravkovic Let al., 2019, PISA: Recent developments in offshore wind turbine monopile design, 1st Vietnam Symposium on Advances in Offshore Engineering, Publisher: Springer

This paper provides a brief overview of the Pile Soil Analysis (PISA) project, recently completed in the UK. The research was aimed at developing new design methods for laterally loaded monopile foundations, such as those supporting offshore wind turbine structures. The paper first describes the background to the project and briefly outlines the key research elements completed. The paper concludes with a brief description of the anticipated impact of the work and describes initiatives that have followed since.

Conference paper

Altuhafi FN, Jardine RJ, Georgiannou VN, Moinet WW, Ciantia MO, Arroyo M, Gens Aet al., Effects of particle breakage and stress reversal on the behaviour of sand around displacement piles, Géotechnique, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0016-8505

Journal article

Zdravkovic L, Taborda D, Potts D, Abadias Gomez D, Burd HJ, Byrne BW, Gavin K, Houlsby GT, Jardine RJ, Martin CM, McAdam RA, Ushev Eet al., Finite element modelling of laterally loaded piles in a stiff glacial clay till at Cowden, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

The PISA project was a combined field testing/numerical modelling study with the aim ofdevelopingimproved design procedures for large diameter piles subjected to lateral loading. This paper describes the development ofa three-dimensional finite elementmodel for the medium-scale pile tests that were conducted in Cowden tillas part of the PISA work.The paper places particular emphasis on the consistent interpretation of the soil data determined from the available field and laboratory information.An enhancedversion of the modified Cam clay model was employedin the numerical analyses, featuring a non-linear Hvorslevsurface, a generalised shape for the yield and plastic potential surfaces in the deviatoric planeand a non-linear formulation for the elastic shear modulus.Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed prior to the field tests.Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated behaviourfora range of pile geometrieswas observed, demonstrating the accuracy of the numerical model and the adequacy of the calibration process for theconstitutive model.The developed numerical modelconfirmed the premise of the PISA design method that site-specific ground characterisation and advanced numerical modelling candirectly facilitate the development of additionalsoil reaction curves for use in new design models for laterally loaded piles in a stiff clay till.

Journal article

Byrne B, McAdam RA, Burd HJ, Beuckelaers WJAP, Gavin K, Houlsby GT, Igoe D, Jardine RJ, Martin CM, Muir Wood A, Potts DM, Skov Gretlund J, Taborda D, Zdravkovic Let al., Monotonic laterally loaded pile testing in a stiff glacial clay till at Cowden, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

This paper describes theresults obtained from a field testing campaign on laterally-loaded monopiles conducted at Cowden, UK, where the soil consists principally of aheavilyoverconsolidatedglacial till. These tests formed part of the PISA projecton the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. Results obtained for monotonic loading tests on piles of three different diameters (0.273m, 0.762m and 2.0m) are presented. The piles had length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of between 3 and 10. Thetests includedthe application of monotonic loading incorporating periods of constant load to investigate creep effects,and investigations on the influence of loading rate. Data are presented on measured bending moments and inclinations induced in the piles. Inferred data on lateral displacements of the embedded section of the pilesare determined usingan optimisedstructural model. Thesefield data support the developmentof a new 1D modelling approach forthe design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines.They also form a unique database of field measurements in an overconsolidated clay, from lateral loading of piles at a vertical distance abovethe ground surface.

Journal article

Buckley R, Jardine R, Kontoe S, Lehane Bet al., 2018, Effective stress regime around a jacked steel pile during installation, ageing and load testing in chalk, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol: 55, Pages: 1577-1591, ISSN: 0008-3674

This paper reports experiments with 102 mm diameter closed-ended instrumented Imperial College piles (ICPs) jacked into low- to medium-density chalk at a well-characterized UK test site. The “ICP” instruments allowed the effective stress regime surrounding the pile shaft to be tracked during pile installation, equalization periods of up to 2.5 months, and load testing under static tension and one-way axial cyclic loading. Installation resistances are shown to be dominated by the pile tip loads. Low installation shaft stresses and radial effective stresses were measured that correlated with local cone penetration test (CPT) tip resistances. Marked shaft total stress reductions and steep stress gradients are demonstrated in the vicinity of the pile tip. The local interface shaft effective stress paths developed during static and cyclic loading displayed trends that resemble those seen in comparable tests in sands. Shaft failure followed the Coulomb law and constrained interface dilation was apparent as the pile experienced drained loading to failure, although with a lesser degree of radial expansion than with sands. Radial effective stresses were also found to fall with time after installation, leading to reductions in shaft capacity as proven by subsequent static tension testing. The jacked, closed-ended, piles’ ageing trends contrast sharply with those found with open piles driven at the same site, indicating that ageing is affected by pile tip geometry and (or) installation method.

Journal article

Zdravkovic L, Jardine R, Taborda DMG, Abadias Gomez D, Burd HJ, Byrne BW, Gavin K, Houlsby GT, Igoe D, Liu T, Martin CM, McAdam RA, Muir Wood A, Potts D, Skov Gretlung J, Ushev Eet al., Ground characterisation for PISA pile testing and analysis, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

This paper is the first of a set of linked publications on the PISA Joint Industry Research Project, which was concerned with the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations in offshore wind applications. PISA involved large-scale pile tests in overconsolidated glacial till at Cowden, north-east England,and in dense normally consolidated marine sand at Dunkirk, northern France. The paper presents the characterisationof the two sites, whichwas crucial to the design of the field experiments and advanced numerical modelling of the pile-soil interactions. The studies described, which had to be completed at an early stage of the PISA project, added new laboratory and field campaignsto historic investigations at both sites.Theyenabledanaccurate description ofsoilbehaviour from small strains to ultimate statesto be derived, allowing analyses to be undertaken that captured both the serviceability and limit statebehaviour of the test monopiles.

Journal article

Burd HJ, Beuckelaers WJAP, Byrne BW, Gavin K, Houlsby GT, Igoe D, Jardine RJ, Martin CM, McAdam RA, Muir Wood A, Potts DM, Skov Gretlund J, Taborda DMG, Zdravkovic Let al., New data analysis methods for instrumented medium scale monopile field tests, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

The PISA Joint Industry Research Project was concerned with the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations in offshore wind applications. PISA involved large-scale pile tests in overconsolidated glacial till at Cowden, north-east England, andin dense normally consolidated marine sand at Dunkirk, northern France. This paper describes the experimental set up for pile testing, with unique features of load-application mechanisms and built-in fibre optic strain gauges.New procedures are describedfor the interpretation of pile loading data, and specifically for providing precise interpretation of pile displacements.

Journal article

McAdam RA, Byrne BW, Houlsby GT, Beuckelaers WJAP, Burd HJ, Gavin K, Igoe D, Jardine RJ, Martin CM, Muir Wood A, Potts DM, Skov Gretlund J, Taborda DMG, Zdravkovic Let al., Monotonic lateral loaded pile testing in a dense marine sand at Dunkirk, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505

Theresults obtained from a field testing campaignon laterally-loaded monopiles,conducted ata dense sand site inDunkirk, Northern Franceare described.These tests formed part of thePISA projecton the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. Results obtained frommonotonic loading tests on piles of three different diameters (0.273m, 0.762m and 2.0m) are presented. The piles had aspectratios (L/D) of between 3 and 10. Thetests consisted principally of the application of monotonic loads,incorporating periods of held constant load to investigate creep effects.The influence of loading ratewas also investigated. Data are presented on the overall load displacement behaviour of each of the test piles. Measured data on bending moments and inclinations induced in the pilesare also provided.Inferences are made forthe displacements in the embedded length of the piles. Thesefield data will support the development of a new 1D modelling approach forthe design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines.They also form a unique database of field measurements in a dense sand, from lateral loading of piles at a vertical distance abovethe ground surface.

Journal article

Jardine RJ, Yang ZX, 2018, Joint research into the behaviour of driven piles, China–Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 961-972, ISSN: 1866-8755

Large driven piles are used widely in both onshore and offshore construction. Predicting their limiting capacities and load-displacement behaviour under a range of static and cyclic, axial, lateral and moment loading conditions is critical to many engineering applications. This paper reviews relevant recent joint research by groups at Imperial College London (ICL) and Zhejiang University China (ZJU). Two tracks of enquiry are outlined: (i) assembling and analysing a major and open database of high quality load tests conducted on industrial scale piles at well characterised sites; and (ii) modelling the effective stress regime developed around piles driven in sands. Both avenues of research are vital to enabling scientifically well-founded and yet industrially credible improvements to practical pile design methods. The scope of future joint research is also outlined.

Conference paper

Altuhafi F, Jardine RJ, Georgiannou VN, Moinet WWet al., 2018, Effects of particle breakage and stress reversal on the behaviour of sand around displacement piles, Géotechnique, Vol: 68, Pages: 546-555, ISSN: 0016-8505

The stresses acting in the soil mass adjacent to the tips and shafts of displacement piles during installation and loading in medium-dense sand have been simulated in triaxial stress path tests on Fontainebleau NE34 sand. The very high normal and shear stresses recorded in calibration chamber model pile tests involving the same sand were first reproduced in high-pressure triaxial tests, so changing the sand's physical properties markedly. The behaviour of the mutated sand was then examined in second, lower stress, stages of the same experiments, demonstrating important changes in the sand's mechanical behaviour, including a significant increase in the angle of shearing resistance and a relocation of the sand's critical state line in the e−log p′ plane. Image analysis confirmed changes in the sand particles' micro-characteristics. The particles' size distributions altered and grain surface roughness increased markedly, while particle sphericity was only mildly affected. Similar surface roughness changes were noted between the particulate characteristics of specimens examined after the triaxial laboratory tests and those sampled from around the shafts of the calibration chamber model piles.

Journal article

Buckley RM, Jardine R, Kontoe S, Parker D, Schroeder FCet al., 2018, Ageing and cyclic behaviour of axially loaded piles driven in chalk, Geotechnique, Vol: 68, Pages: 146-161, ISSN: 1751-7656

This paper reports a programme of static and cyclic loading tests on seven open steel tubes driven in low to medium density chalk at a well characterised test site, describing their response to driving, ageing in situand loading under both static and cyclic conditions. Back analysis of dynamic monitoring identifies the distributions of notably low shaft resistances that develop during installation, showing that these depend strongly on the relative pile tip depth (h/R). The shaft capacities available to ‘virgin’ piles are shown to increase markedly after driving, following a hyperbolic trend that led to a fivefold gain after 250days.Pre-failed piles do not follow the same trend when re-tested. Pile exhumation confirmed that driving remoulded the chalk, creating a puttified zone around the shaft. Excess pore water pressure dissipation, whichis likely to have been rapid during and after driving,led to markedly lower water contents close to the shaft. Axial cyclic testing conducted around 250 days after driving led to a range of responses, from manifesting stable behaviour over 1000 cycles to failing after low numbers of cycles after developing sharp losses of static capacity. The dependence of permanent displacement on the cyclic loading parameters is explored and characterised. The experiments provide the first systematic study of which the Authors are aware into the effects ofundisturbed ageingand cyclic loading onpreviously unfailedpiles driven in chalk. Potential predictive tools may now be tested against the reported field measurements.

Journal article

Carotenuto P, Meyer VM, Stem PJ, Cabarkapa Z, St John H, Jardine Ret al., 2018, Installation and axial capacity of the Sheringham Shoal offshore wind farm monopiles - A case history, Pages: 117-122

© 2018 Engineering in Chalk - Proceedings of the Chalk 2018 Conference. All rights reserved. The Sheringham Shoal offshore wind farm is located in the North Sea, approximately 20 km north of the Norfolk coast. At this location, Quaternary sediments of the Swarte Bank, Egmond Ground, Bolders Bank and Botney Cut Formations are found directly on top of the Cretaceous chalk. The chalk is thought to be similar to the high porosity upper Campanian (84-74 million years) chalks found in Norfolk and to be comprised of the Paramoudra and Beeston Chalks. Monopile foundations we re installed at the Sheringham Shoal Offshore Wind Farm in Summer 2011. Low driving resistances were encountered during installation of some of the monopiles, particularly in areas with shallow subcropping chalk. In some instances pile 'run-out' occurred (i.e. continued penetration under the weight of the pile and hammer alone). This paper presents a case history of the available information, including an overview of the geological and geotechnical conditions at the site together with the pile driving records. Results from back-analysis of the driving records to assess the Soil Resistance to Driving (SRD) are presented and provide possible explanations for the observed pile driving responses. The long-term axial capacity of the monopiles is discussed. The properties of the chalk are based on a review of the available literature and site-specific laboratory and field tests.

Conference paper

Jardine RJ, Buckley RM, Kontoe S, Barbosa P, Schroeder FCet al., 2018, Behaviour of piles driven in chalk, Pages: 33-51

© 2018 Engineering in Chalk - Proceedings of the Chalk 2018 Conference. All rights reserved. Driving resistance is difficult to predict in chalk strata, with both pile free-fall self-weight 'runs' and refusals being reported. Axial capacity is also highly uncertain after driving. This paper reviews recent research that has explored these topics. Programmes of onshore tests and novel, high-value offshore, experiments involving static, dynamic and cyclic loading are described. The key findings form the basis of the Chalk ICP-18 approach for estimating the driving resistance and axial capacity of piles driven in low-to medium-density chalk. The new approach is presented and the highly significant impact of set-up after driving is emphasised. It is shown that Chalk ICP-18 overcomes the main limitations of the industry's current design guidelines by addressing the underlying physical mechanisms. While further tests are required to enlarge the available test database, the new approach is able to provide better predictions for tests available from suitably characterised sites. A new Joint Industry Project is outlined that extends the research to cover further axial, lateral, static and cyclic loading cases.

Conference paper

Doughty LJ, Buckley RM, Jardine RJ, 2018, Investigating the effect of ageing on the behaviour of chalk putty, Pages: 695-701

© 2018 Engineering in Chalk - Proceedings of the Chalk 2018 Conference. All rights reserved. Substantial recent investment in offshore wind energy developments and other foundation projects in chalk dominated locations has created an urgent need for a better understanding of how driven piles behave in this variable and unpredictable material. Pile driving in chalk is known to create a remoulded zone of chalk 'putty' around the pile which mobilises low shaft resistance on installation; however, shaft capacity has been reported to increase over time through a process referred to as pile 'set-up' or ageing. Although field evidence of ageing has been reported, the potential role of the chalk putty's behaviour in the ageing process is not well understood. This is partly due to a lack of published laboratory testing on chalk samples which have been conditioned to represent the conditions adjacent to a pile after driving. This paper presents selected results from a suite of laboratory tests undertaken at Imperial College London. Specimens from intact Maas-trichtian Chalk were reduced to putty by Proctor compaction applied at natural water content and subjected to either drained or undrained ageing for periods of between 0 and 28 days. Consolidated undrained triaxial tests, with pore water pressure measurement and local strain measurements, were undertaken on the aged specimens, along with thixotropy testing on unconsolidated samples employing a fall cone. An interpretation of the test results within a critical state framework combined with a conceptual small strain stiffness model is presented. The ageing of chalk putty is shown to encompass a combination of consolidation, thixotropic hardening and re-cementation, with small increases in undrained shear strength seen due to thixotropic hardening, and larger increases in strength evident following consolidation.

Conference paper

Burd HJ, Byrne BW, McAdam R, Houlsby GT, Martin CM, Beuckelaers WJAP, Zdravkovic L, Taborda DMG, Potts DM, Jardine RJ, Gavin K, Doherty P, Igoe D, Skov Gretlund J, Pacheco Andrade M, Muir Wood Aet al., 2017, Foundation Design of Offshore Wind Structures, TC209 Workshop on Foundation Design of Offshore Wind Structures, 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering

This paper describes the outcome of a recently completed research project – known as PISA – on the development of a new process for the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine support structures. The PISA research was concerned with the use of field testing and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis to develop and calibrate a new one-dimensional (1D) design model. The resulting 1D design model is based on the same basic assumptions and principles that underlie the current p-y method, but the method is extended to include additional components of soil reaction acting on the pile, and enhanced to provide an improved representation of the soil-pile interaction behaviour. Mathematical functions – termed ‘soil reaction curves’ – are employed to represent the individual soil reaction components in the 1D design model. Values of the parameters needed to specify the soil reaction curves for a particular design scenario are determined using a set of 3D finite element calibration analyses. The PISA research was focused on two particular soil types (overconsolidated clay till and dense sand) that commonly occur in north European coastal waters. The current paper provides an overview of the field testing and 3D modelling aspects of the project, and then focuses on the development, calibration and application of the PISA design approach for monopiles in dense sand.

Conference paper

Buckley R, Jardine R, Kontoe S, liu T, Ushev, Lehane BM, Pine T, Schroeder FC, Barbosa Pet al., 2017, Field investigations into the axial loading response of displacement piles in chalk, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Offshore Site Investigation and Geotechnics: Smarter Solutions for Future Offshore Developments, Publisher: Th e Society for Underwater Technology, Pages: 1178-1185

Conference paper

Buckley R, Kontoe S, Jardine R, Maron M, Schroeder FC, Barbosa Pet al., 2017, Common pitfalls of pile driving resistance analysis - A case study of the Wikinger offshore windfarm, 978-0-906940-57-0, Publisher: Society for Underwater Technology, Pages: 1246-1253

Conference paper

Byrne BW, McAdam RA, Burd H, Houlsby GT, Martin CM, Beuckelaers WJAP, Zdravkovic L, Taborda DMG, Potts DM, Jardine RJ, Ushev E, Liu T, Abadias Gomez D, Gavin K, Igoe D, Doherty P, Skov Gretlund J, Pacheco Andrade M, Muir Wood A, Schroeder FC, Turner S, Plummer MALet al., 2017, PISA: new design methods for offshore wind turbine monopiles, Proceedings of the Society for Underwater Technology Offshore Site Investigation and Geotechnics 8th International Conference on “Smarter Solutions for Future Offshore Developments"

Conference paper

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