Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Research Fellow



+44 (0)20 7594 7909r.nyman Website




704Huxley BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Walker, BT and Flatten, LC and Hesten, HJ and Mintert, F and Hunger, D and Trichet, AAP and Smith, JM and Nyman, RA},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-018-0270-1},
journal = {Nature Physics},
pages = {1173--1177+},
title = {Driven-dissipative non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of less than ten photons},
url = {},
volume = {14},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - In a Bose–Einstein condensate, bosons condense in the lowest-energy mode available and exhibit high coherence. Quantum condensation is inherently a multimode phenomenon, yet understanding of the condensation transition in the macroscopic limit is hampered by the difficulty in resolving populations of individual modes and the coherences between them. Here, we report non-equilibrium Bose–Einstein condensation of 7 ± 2 photons in a sculpted dye-filled microcavity, where the extremely small particle number and large mode spacing of the condensate allow us to measure occupancies and coherences of the individual energy levels of the bosonic field. Coherence of the individual modes is found to generally increase with increasing photon number. However, at the break-down of thermal equilibrium we observe phase transitions to a multimode condensate regime wherein coherence unexpectedly decreases with increasing population, suggesting the presence of strong intermode phase or number correlations despite the absence of a direct nonlinearity. Experiments are well-matched to a detailed non-equilibrium model. We find that microlaser and Bose–Einstein statistics each describe complementary parts of our data and are limits of our model in appropriate regimes, providing elements to inform the debate on the differences between the two concepts1,2.
AU - Walker,BT
AU - Flatten,LC
AU - Hesten,HJ
AU - Mintert,F
AU - Hunger,D
AU - Trichet,AAP
AU - Smith,JM
AU - Nyman,RA
DO - 10.1038/s41567-018-0270-1
EP - 1177
PY - 2018///
SN - 1745-2473
SP - 1173
TI - Driven-dissipative non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of less than ten photons
T2 - Nature Physics
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 14
ER -