Imperial College London

Professor Richard Reynolds, BSc AKC PhD

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Medicine

Professor of Cellular Neurobiology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6668r.reynolds

 
 
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Location

 

E414Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

143 results found

Bevan R, Evans R, Griffiths L, Rees M, Fitzerald D, Allen I, Reynolds R, Neal J, Howell Oet al., 2018, Meningeal inflammation and cortical demyelination in early multiple sclerosis, 119th Meeting of the British-Neuropathological-Society (BNS) / Epilepsy Neuropathology Symposium, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 25-25, ISSN: 0305-1846

CONFERENCE PAPER

Griffiths L, Evans R, Rees M, Neal J, Gveric D, Reynolds R, Howell Oet al., 2018, Cortical demyelination and 'affected' normal grey matter in progressive multiple sclerosis, 119th Meeting of the British-Neuropathological-Society (BNS) / Epilepsy Neuropathology Symposium, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 44-45, ISSN: 0305-1846

CONFERENCE PAPER

Magliozzi R, Howell OW, Nicholas R, Cruciani C, Castellaro M, Romualdi C, Rossi S, Pitteri M, Benedetti MD, Gajofatto A, Pizzini FB, Montemezzi S, Rasia S, Capra R, Bertoldo A, Facchiano F, Monaco S, Reynolds R, Calabrese Met al., 2018, Inflammatory intrathecal profiles and cortical damage in multiple sclerosis., Ann Neurol

OBJECTIVE: Grey matter (GM) damage and meningeal inflammation have been associated with early disease onset and a more aggressive disease course in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but can these changes be identified in the patient early in the disease course? METHODS: To identify possible biomarkers linking meningeal inflammation, GM damage and disease severity, gene and protein expression were analysed in meninges and CSF from 27 post-mortem secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and 14 control cases. Combined cytokine/chemokine CSF profiling and 3T-MRI were performed at diagnosis in two independent cohorts of MS patients (35 and 38 subjects) and in 26 non-MS patients. RESULTS: Increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNF, IL2 and IL22) and molecules related to sustained B-cell activity and lymphoid-neogenesis (CXCL13, CXCL10, LTα, IL6, IL10) was detected in the meninges and CSF of post-mortem MS cases with high levels of meningeal inflammation and GM demyelination. Similar pro-inflammatory patterns, including increased levels of CXCL13, TNF, IFNγ, CXCL12, IL6, IL8 and IL10, together with high levels of BAFF, APRIL, LIGHT, TWEAK, sTNFR1, sCD163, MMP2 and pentraxin III, were detected in the CSF of MS patients with higher levels of GM damage at diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: A common pattern of intrathecal (meninges and CSF) inflammatory profile strongly correlates with increased cortical pathology, both at time of the diagnosis and of death. These results suggest a role for detailed CSF analysis combined with MRI, as a prognostic marker for more aggressive MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Calabrese M, Castellaro M, Bertoldo A, De Luca A, Pizzini FB, Ricciardi GK, Pitteri M, Zimatore S, Magliozzi R, Benedetti MD, Manganotti P, Montemezzi S, Reynolds R, Gajofatto A, Monaco Set al., 2017, Epilepsy in multiple sclerosis: The role of temporal lobe damage, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, Vol: 23, Pages: 473-482, ISSN: 1352-4585

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Castellaro M, Magliozzi R, Palombit A, Pitteri M, Silvestri E, Camera V, Montemezzi S, Pizzini FB, Bertoldo A, Reynolds R, Monaco S, Calabrese Met al., 2017, Heterogeneity of Cortical Lesion Susceptibility Mapping in Multiple Sclerosis, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEURORADIOLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 1087-1095, ISSN: 0195-6108

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Cencioni MT, Magliozzi R, Nicholas R, Ali R, Malik O, Reynolds R, Borsellino G, Battistini L, Muraro PAet al., 2017, Programmed death 1 is highly expressed on CD8(+) CD57(+) T cells in patients with stable multiple sclerosis and inhibits their cytotoxic response to Epstein-Barr virus, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 152, Pages: 660-676, ISSN: 0019-2805

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Delgado PG, Reynolds R, Faisal A, 2017, Axo-glial pathology in multiple sclerosis and its effects on neurotransmission, ISN-ESN Meeting, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 96-96, ISSN: 0022-3042

CONFERENCE PAPER

Elson JL, Kochaj R, Reynolds R, Pienaar ISet al., 2017, Temporal-Spatial Profiling of Pedunculopontine Galanin-Cholinergic Neurons in the Lactacystin Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease., Neurotox Res

Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline. Here we determined the temporal-spatial profile of progressive expression of endogenous galanin within degenerating cholinergic neurons, across the rostro-caudal axis of the PPN, by utilizing the lactacystin-induced rat model of PD. First, we show progressive neuronal death affecting nigral dopaminergic and PPN cholinergic neurons, reflecting that seen in PD patients, to facilitate use of this model for assessing the therapeutic potential of bioactive peptides. Next, stereological analyses of the lesioned brain hemisphere found that the number of PPN cholinergic neurons expressing galanin increased by 11%, compared to sham-lesioned controls, and increasing by a further 5% as the neurodegenerative process evolved. Galanin upregulation within cholinergic PPN neurons was most prevalent closest to the intra-nigral lesion site, suggesting that galanin upregulation in such neurons adapt intrinsically to neurodegeneration, to possibly neuroprotect. This is the first report on the extent and pattern of galanin expression in cholinergic neurons across distinct PPN subregions in both the intact rat CNS and lactacystin-lesioned rats. The findings pave the way for future work to target galanin signaling in the PPN, to determine the extent to which upregulated galanin expression could offer a viable treatment strategy for ameliorating PD symptoms associated with cholinergic degeneration.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Farina G, Magliozzi R, Pitteri M, Reynolds R, Rossi S, Gajofatto A, Benedetti MD, Facchiano F, Monaco S, Calabrese Met al., 2017, Increased cortical lesion load and intrathecal inflammation is associated with oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis patients: a combined CSF and MRI study, JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1742-2094

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fuentes-Font L, Glover C, Reynolds R, 2017, A molecular characterisation of meningeal inflammatory infiltrates in the progressive multiple sclerosis brain, ISN-ESN Meeting, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 96-96, ISSN: 0022-3042

CONFERENCE PAPER

James R, Fuentes L, Mazarakis N, Reynolds Ret al., 2017, Persistent cytokine production induced in the cerebral meninges in a rat model of MS gives rise to chronic cortical pathology, ISN-ESN Meeting, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 168-169, ISSN: 0022-3042

CONFERENCE PAPER

Magliozzi R, Roncaroli F, Muraro P, Howell O, Reynolds R, Friede T, Nicholas Ret al., 2017, The impact of high level of perivenular inflammation on active white matter lesions and disease progression in multiple sclerosis, 7th Joint European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS)-Americas-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ACTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 172-172, ISSN: 1352-4585

CONFERENCE PAPER

Raffel J, Wallace A, Gveric D, Reynolds R, Friede T, Nicholas Ret al., 2017, Patient-reported outcomes and survival in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year retrospective cohort study using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29, PLOS MEDICINE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1549-1676

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Bevan R, Griffiths L, Watkins L, Evans R, McInerney B, Rees M, Calabrese M, Magliozzi R, Reynolds R, Allen I, Fitzgerald D, Howell Oet al., 2016, Significant meningeal inflammation and cortical neurodegeneration in a post-mortem cohort of short disease duration multiple sclerosis, 32nd Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 468-468, ISSN: 1352-4585

CONFERENCE PAPER

James R, Browne E, Mazarakis N, Reynolds Ret al., 2016, Persistent cytokine production induced in the cerebral meninges in a rat model of MS gives rise to chronic cortical pathology., 32nd Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 27-27, ISSN: 1352-4585

CONFERENCE PAPER

Kesingland A, Browne E, Coello C, Tang SP, Matusiak N, Keat N, Nuesslein-Hildesheim B, Reynolds R, Wells Let al., 2016, TSPO AVAILABILITY IS A ROBUST MEASURE OF SEVERITY IN A RAT MODEL OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, 27th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function / 12th International Conference on Quantification of Brain Function with PET, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 39-40, ISSN: 0271-678X

CONFERENCE PAPER

Matthews PM, Roncaroli F, Waldman A, Sormani MP, De Stefano N, Giovannoni G, Reynolds Ret al., 2016, A practical review of the neuropathology and neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis., Pract Neurol, Vol: 16, Pages: 279-287

The variability in the severity and clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has as its basis an extreme heterogeneity in the location, nature and extent of pathology in the brain and spinal cord. Understanding the underlying neuropathology and associated pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease helps to communicate the rationale for treatment and disease monitoring to patients. Neuroimaging is an important tool for this: it allows clinicians to relate neuropathological changes to clinical presentations and to monitor the course of their disease. Here, we review MS neuropathology and its imaging correlates to provide a practical guide for using MRI to assess disease severity and treatment responses. This provides a foundation for optimal management of patients based on the principle that they show 'no evidence of disease activity'.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Nicholas R, Magliozzi R, Campbell G, Mahad D, Reynolds Ret al., 2016, Temporal lobe cortical pathology and inhibitory GABA interneuron cell loss are associated with seizures in multiple sclerosis, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, Vol: 22, Pages: 25-35, ISSN: 1352-4585

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Sellebjerg F, Cadavid D, Steiner D, Maria Villar L, Reynolds R, Mikol Det al., 2016, Exploring potential mechanisms of action of natalizumab in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS, Vol: 9, Pages: 31-43, ISSN: 1756-2856

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Wallace A, Raffel J, Reynolds R, Friede T, Nicholas Ret al., 2016, Increased multiple sclerosis impact scale-29 score is associated with reduced survival in multiple sclerosis, 32nd Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 455-456, ISSN: 1352-4585

CONFERENCE PAPER

Watkins LM, Neal JW, Loveless S, Michailidou I, Ramaglia V, Rees MI, Reynolds R, Robertson NP, Morgan BP, Howell OWet al., 2016, Complement is activated in progressive multiple sclerosis cortical grey matter lesions, JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1742-2094

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Calabrese M, Magliozzi R, Ciccarelli O, Geurts JJG, Reynolds R, Martin Ret al., 2015, Exploring the origins of grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis, NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 16, Pages: 147-158, ISSN: 1471-003X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Calabrese M, Reynolds R, Magliozzi R, Castellaro M, Morra A, Scalfari A, Farina G, Romualdi C, Gajofatto A, Pitteri M, Benedetti MD, Monaco Set al., 2015, Regional Distribution and Evolution of Gray Matter Damage in Different Populations of Multiple Sclerosis Patients, PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Durrenberger PF, Fernando FS, Kashefi SN, Bonnert TP, Seilhean D, Nait-Oumesmar B, Schmitt A, Gebicke-Haerter PJ, Falkai P, Gruenblatt E, Palkovits M, Arzberger T, Kretzschmar H, Dexter DT, Reynolds Ret al., 2015, Common mechanisms in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation: a BrainNet Europe gene expression microarray study, JOURNAL OF NEURAL TRANSMISSION, Vol: 122, Pages: 1055-1068, ISSN: 0300-9564

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gautier HOB, Evans KA, Volbracht K, James R, Sitnikov S, Lundgaard I, James F, Lao-Peregrin C, Reynolds R, Franklin RJM, Karadottir RTet al., 2015, Neuronal activity regulates remyelination via glutamate signalling to oligodendrocyte progenitors, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2041-1723

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Giannetti P, Politis M, Su P, Turkheimer FE, Malik O, Keihaninejad S, Wu K, Waldman A, Reynolds R, Nicholas R, Piccini Pet al., 2015, Increased PK11195-PET binding in normal-appearing white matter in clinically isolated syndrome, BRAIN, Vol: 138, Pages: 110-119, ISSN: 0006-8950

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Zhang A, Desmazieres A, Zonta B, Melrose S, Campbell G, Mahad D, Li Q, Sherman DL, Reynolds R, Brophy PJet al., 2015, Neurofascin 140 Is an Embryonic Neuronal Neurofascin Isoform That Promotes the Assembly of the Node of Ranvier, JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 35, Pages: 2246-2254, ISSN: 0270-6474

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Giannetti P, Politis M, Su P, Turkheimer F, Malik O, Keihaninejad S, Wu K, Reynolds R, Nicholas R, Piccini Pet al., 2014, Microglia activation in multiple sclerosis black holes predicts outcome in progressive patients: An in vivo [(11)C](R)-PK11195-PET pilot study, NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE, Vol: 65, Pages: 203-210, ISSN: 0969-9961

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lieury A, Chanal M, Androdias G, Reynolds R, Cavagna S, Giraudon P, Confavreux C, Nataf Set al., 2014, Tissue Remodeling in Periplaque Regions of Multiple Sclerosis Spinal Cord Lesions, GLIA, Vol: 62, Pages: 1645-1658, ISSN: 0894-1491

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Markoullis K, Sargiannidou I, Schiza N, Roncaroli F, Reynolds R, Kleopa KAet al., 2014, Oligodendrocyte Gap Junction Loss and Disconnection From Reactive Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Gray Matter, JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY, Vol: 73, Pages: 865-879, ISSN: 0022-3069

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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