Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Chair in Mucosal Infection and Immunity



+44 (0)20 7594 5206r.shattock




453Wright Fleming WingSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Veazey, RS and Siddiqui, A and Klein, K and Buffa, V and Fischetti, L and Doyle-Meyers, L and King, DF and Tregoning, JS and Shattock, RJ},
doi = {10.1080/21645515.2015.1070998},
journal = {Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics},
pages = {2913--2922},
title = {Evaluation of mucosal adjuvants and immunization routes for the induction of systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses in macaques},
url = {},
volume = {11},
year = {2015}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Delivering vaccine antigens to mucosal surfaces is potentially very attractive, especially as protection from mucosal infections may be mediated by local immune responses. However, to date mucosal immunization has had limited successes, with issues of both safety and poor immunogenicity. One approach to improve immunogenicity is to develop adjuvants that are effective and safe at mucosal surfaces. Differences in immune responses between mice and men have overstated the value of some experimental adjuvants which have subsequently performed poorly in the clinic. Due to their closer similarity, non-human primates can provide a more accurate picture of adjuvant performance. In this study we immunised rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a unique matrix experimental design that maximised the number of adjuvants screened while reducing the animal usage. Macaques were immunised by the intranasal, sublingual and intrarectal routes with the model protein antigens keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), β-galactosidase (β-Gal) and ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with the experimental adjuvants Poly(I:C), Pam3CSK4, chitosan, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP), MPLA and R848 (Resiquimod). Of the routes used, only intranasal immunization with KLH and R848 induced a detectable antibody response. When compared to intramuscular immunization, intranasal administration gave slightly lower levels of antigen specific antibody in the plasma, but enhanced local responses. Following intranasal delivery of R848, we observed a mildly inflammatory response, but no difference to the control. From this we conclude that R848 is able to boost antibody responses to mucosally delivered antigen, without causing excess local inflammation.
AU - Veazey,RS
AU - Siddiqui,A
AU - Klein,K
AU - Buffa,V
AU - Fischetti,L
AU - Doyle-Meyers,L
AU - King,DF
AU - Tregoning,JS
AU - Shattock,RJ
DO - 10.1080/21645515.2015.1070998
EP - 2922
PY - 2015///
SN - 2164-5515
SP - 2913
TI - Evaluation of mucosal adjuvants and immunization routes for the induction of systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses in macaques
T2 - Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
UR -
UR -
VL - 11
ER -