Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Chair in Mucosal Infection and Immunity



+44 (0)20 7594 5206r.shattock




453Wright Fleming WingSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Vamvaka, E and Evans, A and Ramessar, K and Krumpe, LRH and Shattock, RJ and O'Keefe, BR and Christou, P and Capell, T},
doi = {10.1007/s00299-016-1963-5},
journal = {Plant Cell Reports},
pages = {1309--1319},
title = {Cyanovirin-N produced in rice endosperm offers effective pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV-1BaL infection in vitro},
url = {},
volume = {35},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a lectin with potent antiviral activity that has been proposed as a component of microbicides for the prevention of infection with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The production of protein-based microbicide components requires a platform that is sufficiently economical and scalable to meet the demands of the large at-risk population, particularly in resource poor developing countries. We, therefore, expressed CV-N in rice endosperm, because the dried seed is ideal for storage and transport and crude extracts could be prepared locally and used as a microbicide component without further purification. We found that crude extracts from rice seeds expressing up to 10 µg CV-N per gram dry seed weight showed dose-dependent gp120 binding activity, confirming that the protein was soluble, correctly folded and active. The recombinant lectin (OSCV-N) reduced the infectivity of HIV-1BaL (an R5 virus strain representing the majority of transmitted infections) by ~90 % but showed only weak neutralization activity against HIV-1RF (representative of X4 virus, rarely associated with transmission), suggesting it would be highly effective for pre-exposure prophylaxis against the vast majority of transmitted strains. Crude extracts expressing OSCV-N showed no toxicity towards human cells at working dilutions indicating that microbicide components produced in rice endosperm are safe for direct application as topical microbicides in humans.
AU - Vamvaka,E
AU - Evans,A
AU - Ramessar,K
AU - Krumpe,LRH
AU - Shattock,RJ
AU - O'Keefe,BR
AU - Christou,P
AU - Capell,T
DO - 10.1007/s00299-016-1963-5
EP - 1319
PY - 2016///
SN - 1432-203X
SP - 1309
TI - Cyanovirin-N produced in rice endosperm offers effective pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV-1BaL infection in vitro
T2 - Plant Cell Reports
UR -
VL - 35
ER -