Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Reader in Biomechatronics



+44 (0)20 7594 7020r.vaidyanathan CV




717City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Russell, F and Zhu, Y and Hey, W and Vaidyanathan, R and Ellison, P},
doi = {1748-3190/aad39d},
journal = {Bioinspiration and Biomimetics},
title = {A biomimicking design for mechanical knee joints},
url = {},
volume = {13},

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - In this paper we present a new bioinspired bicondylar knee joint that requires a smaller actuator size when compared to a constant moment arm joint. Unlike existing prosthetic joints, the proposed mechanism replicates the elastic, rolling and sliding elements of the human knee. As a result, the moment arm that the actuators can impart on the joint changes as function of the angle, producing the equivalent of a variable transmission. By employing a similar moment arm—angle profile as the human knee the peak actuator force for stair ascent can be reduced by 12% compared to a constant moment arm joint addressing critical impediments in weight and power for robotics limbs. Additionally, the knee employs mechanical 'ligaments' containing stretch sensors to replicate the neurosensory and compliant elements of the joint. We demonstrate experimentally how the ligament stretch can be used to estimate joint angle, therefore overcoming the difficulty of sensing position in a bicondylar joint.
AU - Russell,F
AU - Zhu,Y
AU - Hey,W
AU - Vaidyanathan,R
AU - Ellison,P
DO - 1748-3190/aad39d
SN - 1748-3182
TI - A biomimicking design for mechanical knee joints
T2 - Bioinspiration and Biomimetics
UR -
UR -
VL - 13
ER -