84 results found
Cash P, Dekoninck EA, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2017, Supporting the development of shared understanding in distributed design teams, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol: 28, Pages: 147-170, ISSN: 0954-4828
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of engineering design work. One key factor in the success of these teams is the development of short- and longer-term shared understanding. A lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context of globally distributed engineering activities. A major antecedent for shared understanding is question asking and feedback. Building on question-asking theory this work uses a quasi-experimental study to test the impact of questioning support on homogeneous and heterogeneous teams. The results show significant improvement in shared understanding for both team types (27% improvement for heterogeneous and 16% for homogeneous), as well as substantial differences in how this improvement is perceived. This extends theoretical insight on the development of shared understanding and contributes one of few empirical studies directly comparing homogeneous and heterogeneous teams in the engineering design context. This has implications for how distributed teams can be more effectively supported in practice, as well as how shared understanding can be facilitated in engineering design.
Perez Mata M, Ahmed-Kristensen S, Brockhoff PB, et al., 2017, Investigating the influence of product perception and geometric features, Research in Engineering Design, Vol: 28, Pages: 357-379, ISSN: 0934-9839
© 2016, Springer-Verlag London. Research in emotional design and Kansei Engineering has shown that aesthetics play a significant role in the appeal of a product. This paper contributes to establishing a methodology to identify the relationships between perceptions, aesthetic features, desire to own and background of consumers. Surveys were conducted with 71 participants to gather their perceptions of 11 vase concepts. Advanced statistical analyses, including mixed models, were applied to allow generalisation of the results beyond the data sample. Significant relations between the desire to own a product and how the product is perceived were found (the desire to own was found to be related to beautiful, expensive, elegant, exciting, feminine, common and dynamic vases), as well as between the perceptions and the parameters describing the form of the vases (a vase was perceived as beautiful if it had many curved lines and was simple and tall). An automated mixed model analysis was conducted and revealed that general rules can be found between aesthetic features, perceptions and ownership, which can apply across gender and culture. The findings include design rules that link aesthetic features with perceptions. These contribute to research as guidelines for design synthesis and can either be implemented via shape grammars or parametric modelling approaches. These rules are also interesting for 3D printing applications, especially important when the consumer is the designer. Some of these design rules are linked to the desire to own a product, they have implications for industry, and they offer guidelines to creating attractive products that people want to own.
Cramer-Petersen CL, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2016, Argumentation and reasoning in design: An empirical analysis of the effects of verbal reasoning on idea value in group idea generation, Pages: 957-966, ISSN: 1847-9073
Soendergaard E, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2016, Developing a support tool for global product development decisions, Pages: 727-737, ISSN: 1847-9073
Stavrakos S-K, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2016, Methods of 3D data applications to inform design decisions for physical comfort., Work, Vol: 55, Pages: 321-334
BACKGROUND: Past research on anthropometry, especially in the industry of external ear worn products, stresses that positive comfort is enhanced when there is sufficient knowledge of human factors; however, most anthropometric studies focus only on the acquirement and presentation of data. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide with different methods to support design applications of 3-dimensional head and ear data with a focus on external ear products. METHODS: Two hundred persons representing the Danish population were scanned. The 3D data was collected, refined and analysed in 3 meaningful ways: Advanced geometry, visualisations of data and for the generation of archetypes. RESULTS: A matrix containing 29 new ear dimensions was generated. The application of methods led to the development of 9 additional dimensions. The paper finally presents all phases of the analysis of the 3D data in the form of a methodological framework. CONCLUSIONS: The paper contributes with, in addition to the methodological framework, techniques to extract data based on product understanding and how the data can be used to define archetypes for focus groups and other qualitative assessments. In their endeavour to develop successful and comfortable products designers should focus more on fitting the task into the human by benchmarking human dimensions against product data.
Stavrakos S-K, Ahmed-Kristensen S, Goldman T, 2016, Using archetypes to create user panels for usability studies: Streamlining focus groups and user studies, APPLIED ERGONOMICS, Vol: 56, Pages: 108-116, ISSN: 0003-6870
Søndergaard E, Oehmen J, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2016, Extension of internationalisation models: drivers and processes for the globalisation of product development – a comparison of Danish and Chinese engineering firms, Production Planning and Control, Vol: 27, Pages: 1112-1123, ISSN: 0953-7287
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Abstract: This paper develops an extension to established production- and supply chain management focused internationalisation models. It applies explorative case studies in Danish and Chinese engineering firms to discover how the globalisation process of product development differs from Danish and Chinese perspectives. The paper uses internationalisation and global product development theory to explain similarities and differences in the approaches. Grounded in case study results, a new model for internationalisation is proposed. The new model expands the internationalisation process model to include steps of product development and collaborative distributed development beyond sourcing, sales and production elements. The paper then provides propositions for how to further develop the suggested model, and how western companies can learn from the Chinese approaches, and globalise their product development activities from the front end of the value chain rather than from the back-end.
Taylor T, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2016, Global product development: KPI selection support, Pages: 1615-1624, ISSN: 1847-9073
Ahmed-Kristensen S, Vianello G, 2015, A model for reusing service knowledge based on an empirical case, Research in Engineering Design, Vol: 26, Pages: 57-76
Lenau TA, Keshwani S, Chakrabarti A, et al., 2015, Biocards and level of abstraction, Pages: 177-186, ISSN: 2220-4334
Biocards are formal descriptions of biological phenomena and their underlying functional principles. They are used in bioinspired design to document search results and to communicate the findings for use in the further design process. The present study explored the effect of abstraction level used in biocards. This was done in two workshops conducted with design students in Denmark and India. Students were given a design assignment and instructions for how to perform the BID ideation work. Half of the students were given biocards with abstract descriptions while the other half got biocards with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work.
Li X, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2015, Understand the design requirement in companies, Pages: 63-74, ISSN: 2220-4334
Design requirement identification is often the initial step in the product development process, for market-pull cases. Understanding the nature of design requirements and the sources, from where they can or should be captured, is critical to minimise this risk of generating poorly defined requirements. However, a clear view of the sources for eliciting design requirements is still lacking in academic studies, especially in the engineering design field. Hence, the aim of this paper is to better understand design requirement type and design requirement source, and to explore the interconnections between them through empirical studies. The research consisted of primary case studies in three Danish manufacturing companies and secondary data from a survey with 93 valid answers from the industry. The research findings enriched the understanding of where and how design requirements can be identified. This knowledge can be used to support companies to focus their efforts on the right sources according to the specific context. The development of a design requirement source- Type model together with supportive toolboxes is suggested as the next step for further research.
Mata MP, Ahmed-Kristensen S, Shea K, 2015, Spatial grammar for design synthesis targeting perceptions: (Case study on beauty)
Copyright © 2015 by ASME. Tools to aid designers achieve specific perceptions through the aesthetics of their products are needed in order to compete and stand out in the current consumer society. This research aims to develop a spatial grammar to include perceptions. This is conducted through a case study where rules from previous research are used to guide the spatial grammar development and generation of solutions. Results show that it is possible to develop a spatial grammar to design for perception rules extracted from consumers using Semantic Differential (SD) scales and advanced statistics. These elements combined can generate a tool that provides designers with many new aesthetically pleasing solutions. The Spapper module within the FreeCAD software is used for the implementation. Initial work examines only two perception rules (simplicity and tall), and shows the need for the third (curves) to obtain the expected results. Future work should focus on expanding the shapes available for generation (i.e. 3D primitives) to include spheres, ellipsoids, tori, revolved profiles and sweeps, which could increase the number of valid solutions.
Perez Mata M, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2015, Principles for designing for perception, Pages: 239-248, ISSN: 2220-4334
The paper presents an overview on the different design principles that influence the aesthetic experience of consumers regarding products. Three levels of design principles are presented: 1) general principles regarding how humans group elements together, 2) principles that when applied to products can generate a range of emotional responses and; 3) detailed principles relating aesthetics with perceptions (normally product or category specific). Results from the evaluation of the literature show that more research is necessary in areas where a large number of terms are not defined to a level that is detailed enough to show what the influence of modifying the aesthetic properties are in regards to the perception one wants to achieve. Future work could focus on building generative design tools (e.g. spatial grammars) or tools for the evaluation of designs (e.g. using fuzzy logics).
Taylor TP, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2015, A longitudinal study of globally distributed design teams: The impacts on product development, Pages: 437-446, ISSN: 2220-4334
Globally distributing design teams during Product Development is increasingly common across a wide range of industries. Factors impacting the success such as communication, documentation and maintaining a common vision are intensified in comparison to when design teams are co-located. Much of the research towards the impacts on the Product Development process in distributed design teams consists of interviews and observations of short design sessions, with few observational studies focusing on the whole process of Product Development. With the results from a longitudinal observational study and interviews with key members of a project team, this paper investigates the factors impacting the success of Product Development when teams are distributed globally, from the early planning and development phase through to the final testing and refinement. The results indicate an increased requirement for project control strategies during the early phases of Product development to ensure a common vision is maintained throughout the phases of Product Development.
Ahmed-Kristensen S, Christensen BT, Lenau T, 2014, Naturally original: Stimulating creative design through biological analogies and Random images, Pages: 427-436, ISSN: 1847-9073
Li X, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2014, Product development in China: Comparison between Danish and Chinese companies, Pages: 1581-1590, ISSN: 1847-9073
Li X, Zhang Z, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2014, The Sources and Methods of Engineering Design Requirement, 21st ISPE Inc International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, Publisher: IOS PRESS, Pages: 112-121, ISSN: 2352-7528
Perez Mata M, Ahmed-Kristensen S, Brockhoff PB, 2014, Influence of consumer's background on product perception, Pages: 2125-2134, ISSN: 1847-9073
Søndergaard E, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2014, Decision making in global product development, Pages: 1683-1692, ISSN: 1847-9073
Stavrakos K, Ahmed-Kristensen S, Goldman T, 2014, Using archetypes to create user panels for usability studies, Pages: 2157-2166, ISSN: 1847-9073
Taylor TP, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2014, The applicability and coherence of key performance indicators in global product development, Pages: 1703-1712, ISSN: 1847-9073
Nadja Lee Hansen Z, Zhang Y, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2013, Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective: Addressing and managing risks, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol: 24, Pages: 154-173, ISSN: 1741-038X
Companies are increasingly engaged with global engineering networks through offshoring of product development activities from R & D to production. This creates many new challenges as operations get physically and culturally decoupled. The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling the associated risks of engineering offshoring will be a key area of the investigation. The research approach is based on the engineering design research methodology developed by Blessing and Chakrabarti, including a descriptive phase and a prescriptive phase. Four case studies of large multinational corporations in Denmark were carried out. Data gathering was mainly documentary studies and interviews. The main data analysis approaches were coding (Strauss and Corbin) and pattern-matching (Yin). The dataset was analysed using the GEN framework suggested by Zhang et al. and Zhang and Gregory. Engineering offshoring presents companies with challenges related to communication and knowledge sharing which is addressed through formal and informal mechanisms as well as a more streamlined operation. However, this did not remove the challenges. The GEN framework suggests a systematic approach to understanding global engineering networks through investigating their contextual features, critical capabilities to compete in a particular contextual circumstance, and configuration characteristics to deliver the capabilities. Using the GEN framework, the challenges faced by companies and the risks associated with their engineering offshoring activities can be explained as a mismatch between the required capabilities and the companies' ability to deliver these capabilities. This paper p
Pérez Mata M, Ahmed-Kristensen S, Yanagisawa H, 2013, Perception of aesthetics in consumer products, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Vol: 7 DS75-07, Pages: 527-536
In today's highly saturated consumer markets, competition among products is high. Emotional design, kansei engineering and aesthetics are tools increasingly used to make products stand out from their competitors. This study investigates how the desire to own a product is related to the perceptions and aesthetics of the product. Surveys were conducted with 97 participants to gather their perceptions of 11 vases. Findings from the case study indicate that there exist significant relations between the desire to own a product and how the product is perceived; and also between the perceptions and the parameters of the vases. The results from this study are a set of design guidelines for creating products, in this case vases, targeting desire for ownership and evoking specific perceptions. The results are specific to vases or similar product categories although the method can be applied to other product categories. © 2013 The Design Society.
Stavrakos KS, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2013, Investigating the role of aesthetics for interaction design, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Vol: 7 DS75-07, Pages: 557-566
Two important aspects when designing products is to focus on comfort and to define the aesthetic and emotional value of the product. The main purpose of this research is to answer the question of how attractiveness perceived through the sensory inputs affects the assessment of comfort as well as to explore associations between comfort and product descriptors. The findings of this research are expected to assist designers in developing successful new products by focusing more on softer factors. A study of twenty three respondents assessing comfort in three phases found that comfort scores increase when the levels of attractiveness increase and vice versa. The findings further indicate that there are strong, significant correlations between scores of comfort and product adjectives commonly used to describe product attributes such as size, weight and surface material. Hence, there is an emotional dimension of comfort which is initiated by the visual input during a human - product interaction and is affected by the attractiveness towards the product. In their endeavor to develop successful and comfortable products designers should focus more on attractiveness. © 2013 The Design Society.
Ahmed-Kristensen S, Babar MA, 2012, COMPARISON OF PROBLEM SOLVING FROM ENGINEERING DESIGN TO SOFTWARE DESIGN, ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers Information in Engineering Conference, Publisher: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Pages: 569-+
Hansen ZNL, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2012, Connecting engineering operations to strategic management: A framework for decision making in engineering offshoring, International Journal of Product Development, Vol: 17, Pages: 204-227, ISSN: 1477-9056
This paper investigates the implications for management and engineering functions and strategies when the product development process is globalised. Five case studies of Danish multinational corporations were conducted. The findings showed that offshoring engineering presented companies with challenges to both management and engineering. These challenges are addressed by management at the operational level. However, this resulted in both positive and negative impacts. We propose this is because there is a decoupling between global engineering operations and the strategic level of the organisation. The Global Decision-Making (GDM) framework described here is a decision-making framework for engineering offshoring decisions for product development activities. The framework proposes that risks in engineering offshoring can be reduced by connecting engineering operations to strategic management. This paper, built upon empirical data, provides a framework wherein to view engineering offshoring which both strengthens the academic field and responds to the needs of practitioners. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Hansen ZNL, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2012, Connecting global product development with corporate strategy, Pages: 465-474, ISSN: 1847-9073
Marini VK, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2012, Decision-making and feedback as FOCI for knowledge-based strategies supporting concept development, Pages: 61-70, ISSN: 1847-9073
Stavrakos SK, Ahmed-Kristensen S, 2012, Assessment of anthropometric methods in headset design, Pages: 1123-1132, ISSN: 1847-9073
Vianello G, Ahmed S, 2012, Transfer of knowledge from the service phase: a case study from the oil industry, RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING DESIGN, Vol: 23, Pages: 125-139, ISSN: 0934-9839
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