70 results found
Yu M, Cheng C, Evangelou S, et al., Robust Control for a Full-Car Prototype of Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension, 2019 IEEE 58th Conference on Decision and Control
Yu M, Evangelou S, Dini D, Position control of parallel active link suspension with backlash, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN: 0278-0046
In this paper, a position control scheme for the novel Parallel Active Link Suspension (PALS) with backlash is developed to enhance the vehicle ride comfort and road holding. A PALS-retrofitted quarter car test rig is adopted, with the torque flow and backlash effect on the suspension performance analyzed. An elastic linear equivalent model of the PALS-retrofitted quarter car, which bridges the actuator position and the equivalent force between the sprung and unsprung masses, is proposed and mathematically derived, with both the geometry and backlash nonlinearities compensated. A position control scheme is then synthesized, with an outer-loop H∞ control for ride comfort and road holding enhancement and an inner-loop cascaded proportional-integral control for the reference position tracking. Experiments with the PALS-retrofitted quarter car test rig are performed over road cases of a harmonic road, a smoothed bump and frequency swept road excitation. As compared to a conventional torque control scheme, the newly proposed position control maintains the performance enhancement by the PALS, while it notably attenuates the overshoot in the actuator’s speed variation, and thereby it benefits the PALS with less power demand and less suspension deflection increment.
Li X, Evangelou S, Torque-leveling threshold-changing rule-based control for parallel hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN: 0018-9545
A novel rule-based control strategy is proposed for the energy management of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs): the torque-leveling threshold-changing strategy (TTS). In contrast to the most commonly used heuristic electric assist control strategy (EACS) that is designed based on the load following approach, the TTS proposes and applies the new fundamental concept of torque leveling. This mechanism operates the engine with a constant torque when the engine is active, thus ensuring the engine works at an efficient operating point. The TTS additionally extends and uses a design concept that has previously been proposed in the context of series HEVs, thethreshold-changing mechanism, to operate the HEV in a chargesustaining manner. By exploiting this new set of design principles for parallel HEVs, the TTS realizes energy source control sharing behavior that is reminiscent to optimization-based methods. To show its effectiveness, the TTS is implemented to a through-theroad (TTR) HEV and benchmarked against two conventional control strategies: Dynamic Programming (DP) and the EACS. The results show that the TTS, despite its simplicity, is able to deliver comparable fuel economy as the global optimization approach DP and thus achieve significant improvement compared to the EACS. In addition, to facilitate real-time application, a simplified version of the TTS (STTS) is also developed, which is able to deliver similar performance as the TTS but is more simple to implement in practice.
Luo C, Shen Z, Evangelou S, et al., 2019, The Combination of Two Control Strategies for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles, IEEE-CAA JOURNAL OF AUTOMATICA SINICA, Vol: 6, Pages: 596-608, ISSN: 2329-9266
Shabbir W, Evangelou S, 2019, Threshold-changing control strategy for series hybrid electric vehicles, Applied Energy, Vol: 235, Pages: 761-775, ISSN: 0306-2619
This paper proposes a new set of design principles to classify and design rule-based control strategies for the powertrain energy management of series hybrid electric vehicles. The design principles proposed consider the two most established rule-based control strategies for series hybrid electric vehicles, the Thermostat and the Power follower control strategies, and also an optimization-based control strategy, the Equivalent consumption minimization strategy, in terms of the mechanisms they employ to ensure charge sustaining operation and fuel efficient driving. Thus, the work then reflects upon the most effective design principles and derives a novel and superior rule-based control strategy for series hybrid electric vehicles that is claimed to outperform all the existing rule-based schemes in terms of fuel economy: the optimal primary source strategy (OPSS). The OPSS is implemented and then compared on a high fidelity hybrid electric vehicle model to Thermostat, Power follower and Equivalent consumption minimization strategies, as well as to a recently developed rule-based control strategy, the Exclusive operation strategy. As compared to conventional rule-based control strategies, the OPSS is found to deliver significantly improved fuel economy and which is remarkably close to that achieved by the optimization-based Equivalent consumption minimization strategy, while the design of the OPSS is simple and robust as compared to optimization-based strategies. The impressive performance is partly attributed to the recent improvements in engine start stop system technology. It is also shown that the battery is operated in a more steady manner, with a lower depth of discharge, consequently reducing battery degradation.
Cheng C, Evangelou S, 2019, Series active variable geometry suspension robust control based on full-vehicle dynamics, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol: 141, ISSN: 0022-0434
This paper demonstrates the ride comfort and road holding performance enhancement of the new road vehicle series active variable geometry suspension (SAVGS) concept using an H∞ control technique. In contrast with the previously reported work that considered simpler quarter-car models, the present work designs and evaluates control systems using full-car dynamics thereby taking into account the coupled responses from the four independently actuated corners of the vehicle. Thus, the study utilizes a nonlinear full-car model that represents accurately the dynamics and geometry of a high performance car with the new double wishbone active suspension concept. The robust H∞ control design exploits the linearized dynamics of the nonlinear model at a trim state, and it is formulated as a disturbance rejection problem that aims to reduce the body vertical accelerations and tire deflections while guaranteeing operation inside the existing physical constraints. The proposed controller is installed on the nonlinear full-car model, and its performance is examined in the frequency and time domains for various operating maneuvers, with respect to the conventional passive suspension and the previously designed SAVGS H∞ control schemes with simpler vehicle models.
Luo C, Shen Z, Evangelou S, et al., 2018, A Control Strategy Combined Thermostat Control with DC-Link Voltage Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles, 21st IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 294-299, ISSN: 2153-0009
Yu M, Arana C, Evangelou S, et al., 2018, Parallel active link suspension: a quarter car experimental study, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, ISSN: 1083-4435
In this paper, a novel electro-mechanical active suspension for cars, the Parallel Active Link Suspension (PALS), is proposed and then experimentally studied. PALS involves the introduction of a rotary-actuator-driven rocker-pushrod mechanism in parallel with the conventional passive suspension assembly, to exert an additional controlled force between the chassis and the wheel. The PALS geometric arrangement is designed and optimized to maximize the rocker torque propagation onto the tire load increment. A quarter car test rig with double wishbone suspension is utilized for the PALS physical implementation. Based on a linear equivalent model of the PALS quarter car, a conservative and an aggressive robust H∞ control schemes are synthesized separately to improve the ride comfort and the road holding, with different levels of control effort allowed in each of the control schemes. Simulations with a theoretical nonlinear model of the PALS quarter car are performed to evaluate the potential in suspension performance enhancement and power demand in the rocker actuator. Experiments with a harmonic road, a smoothed bump and hole, and swept frequency are conducted with the quarter car test rig to validate the practical feasibility of the novel PALS, the ride comfort enhancement, as well as the accuracy of the theoretical model and of a further nonlinear model in which practical features existing in the test rig are identified and included.
Yu M, Evangelou S, Dini D, 2018, Control design for a quarter car test rig with parallel active linkSuspension, 2018 Annual American Control Conference (ACC), ISSN: 2378-5861
In this paper, a recently proposed novel vehicle suspension of Parallel Active Link Suspension (PALS) is adapted on a quarter car test rig. Control strategies with the PALS are studied and synthesized for ride comfort and road holding performance enhancement. A linear equivalent model of the PALS-retrofitted quarter car is derived, with geometric nonlinearity compensated. A linear control scheme is then synthesized, with an outer-loop H-infinity control and an inner-loop actuator torque tracking. Nonlinear simulations with the model of the PALS-retrofitted quarter car test rig are performed over typical road profiles, including 2 Hz harmonic road, smoothed bump and hole, and ISO random road. Results are discussed to evaluate the potential of the PALS-retrofitted quarter car test rig in ride comfort and road holding performance enhancement, as well as the power consumption in the actuator.
Li X, Nazemi A, Evangelou SA, Real-time Adaptive Heuristic Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles, the 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
Li X, Evangelou SA, Lot R, Integrated management of powertrain and engine cooling system for parallel hybrid electric vehicles, 2018 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Publisher: IEEE
In this work, a supervisory control strategy is pro-posed for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The controlstrategy is based on the equivalent consumption minimizationstrategy (ECMS) but it also considers the power consumedby the engine cooling system to optimize the overall fueleconomy of the vehicle. To verify its effectiveness, the proposedcooling-sensitive ECMS is implemented on a through-the-road(TTR) HEV, after the mathematical model of the TTR HEV isdeveloped based on power flows, and engine thermal dynamicsis also included. Simulations are performed with different drivecycles, and the results show that the cooling-sensitive ECMS isable to improve the fuel economy by 2.7% compared to thebaseline ECMS. Furthermore, it is shown that cooling-sensitiveECMS operates in a charge-sustaining manner provided thatthe equivalence factors are optimally selected.
Chen B, Evangelou SA, Lot R, Fuel efficiency optimization methodologies for series hybrid electric vehicles, 2018 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Publisher: IEEE
This paper provides an overview of various opti-mization formulations that can lead to improved fuel economyfor a series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The relevance andimprovement to the current state-of-the-art are discussed. Theformulated optimal control problems (OCP) consist of twoindividual optimization challenges: vehicle speed optimizationand powertrain power-split optimization. These OCPs can bemerged leading to a practical and global problem, where allthe aspects are optimized simultaneously for a prescribed routeand traveling time. Alternatively, the global problem can beapproximated by solving individual OCPs, one for each aspect,in steps and combined a posteriori. The optimal solutionsin each case are investigated and compared by simulationexamples to expose the trade-off between optimality of fueleconomy achieved by global optimization and reduction incomputational complexity and hence practicality of the two-step solution approximation.
Li X, Evangelou SA, Load-following Threshold-changing Rule-based Strategy for Energy Management of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles, The 14th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control
Yu M, Evangelou SIMOS, Dini DANIELE, Chassis Leveling Control with Parallel Active Link Suspension, 14th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control
Chen B, Evangelou S, Lot R, Impact of optimally controlled continuously variable transmission on fuel economy of a series hybrid electric vehicle, European Control Conference (ECC) 2018, Publisher: IEEE
This paper investigates energy efficiency of a serieshybrid electric vehicles (HEV) that utilizes a continuouslyvariable transmission (CVT) to connect the electric motor tothe wheels. In contrast with a fixed transmission (FT) thatemploys a fixed final drive ratio, the CVT offers variabletransmission ratio that can be freely controlled, so that themotor is driven more efficiently. The performance of the CVTis evaluated within an optimal control framework under anurban drive mission, which is specified in terms of the roadgeometry and the traveling time for the journey. Apart fromthe CVT operation, vehicle speed and the energy managementare also simultaneously optimized by an indirect optimal controlmethod, based on the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP).The simulation results illustrate the benefit of the CVT ascompared to a fixed transmission in terms of fuel economy.
Moreno Ramırez C, Tomas-Rodriguez M, Evangelou SA, 2018, Dynamic analysis of double wishbone front suspension systems on sport motorcycles, Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol: 91, Pages: 2347-2368, ISSN: 0924-090X
In this paper, two alternative front suspension sys-tems and their influence on motorcycle nonlinear dynamicsare investigated. Based on an existing high-fidelity motor-cycle mathematical model, the front end is modified to ac-commodate both Girder and Hossack suspension systems.Both of them have in common a double wishbone designthat varies the front end geometry on certain manoeuvringsand, consequently, the machine’s behaviour. The kinemat-ics of the two systems and their impact on the motorcycleperformance is analysed and compared to the well knowntelescopic fork suspension system. Stability study for bothsystems is carried out by combination of nonlinear dynami-cal simulation and root-loci analysis methods.
Chen B, Evangelou SA, Lot R, 2018, Impact of Optimally Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission on Fuel Economy of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle, European Control Conference (ECC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 576-581
Yu M, Arana C, Evangelou S, et al., 2017, Quarter-Car Experimental Study for Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN: 1063-6536
In this paper, the recently introduced series active variable geometry suspension (SAVGS) for road vehicles is experimentally studied. A realistic quarter-car test rig equipped with double-wishbone suspension is designed and built to mimic an actual grand tourer real axle, with a single-link variant of the SAVGS and a road excitation mechanism implemented. A linear equivalent modeling method is adopted to synthesize an H-infinity control scheme for the SAVGS, with the geometric nonlinearity compensated. Simulations with a theoretical nonlinear quarter-car indicate the SAVGS potential to enhance suspension performance, in terms of ride comfort and road holding. Practical features in the test rig are further considered and included in the nonlinear model to compensate the difference between the theoretical and testing behaviors. Experiments with a sinusoidal road, a smoothed bump and hole, and a random road are performed to evaluate the SAVGS practical feasibility and performance improvement, the accuracy of the model, and the robustness of the control schemes. Compared with the conventional passive suspension, ride comfort improvements of up to 41% without any deterioration of the suspension deflection are demonstrated, while the SAVGS actuator power is kept very low, at levels below 500 W.
This paper studies the trajectory tracking problem for the nonlinear model of a scooter and presents a robust H∞ controller based on measurements of the tracking errors, the roll angle, the yaw angle and the steering angle. The study first introduces the full nonlinear model developed in Autosim which has 12 degrees of freedom. This is far more complex than a simple bicycle model and provides a good description of the scooter. Then a robust H∞ controller based on the linearization of the nonlinear model is designed. Finally, the effectiveness of the controller is verified by means of two case studies.
Evangelou SA, Rehman-Shaikh MA, 2017, Hybrid electric vehicle fuel minimization by DC-DC converter dual-phase-shift control, Control Engineering Practice, Vol: 64, Pages: 44-60, ISSN: 1873-6939
The paper introduces an advanced DC-link variable voltage control methodology that improves significantly the fuel economy of series Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). The DC-link connects a rectifier, a Dual Active Bridge (DAB) DC-DC converter and an inverter, interfacing respectively the two sources and the load in a series HEV powertrain. The introduced Dual Phase Shift (DPS) proportional voltage conversion ratio control scheme is realized by manipulating the phase shifts of the gating signals in the DAB converter, to regulate the amount of DAB converter power flow in and out of the DC-link. Dynamic converter efficiency models are utilized to account for switching, conduction, copper and core losses. The control methodology is proposed on the basis of improving the individual efficiency of the DAB converter but with its parameters tuned to minimize the powertrain fuel consumption. Since DPS control has one additional degree of freedom as compared to Single Phase Shift (SPS) voltage control schemes, a Lagrange Multiplier optimization method is applied to minimize the leakage inductance peak current, the main cause for switching and conduction losses. The DPS control scheme is tested in simulations with a full HEV model and two associated conventional supervisory control algorithms, together with a tuned SPS proportional voltage conversion ratio control scheme, against a conventional PI control in which the DC-link voltage follows a constant reference. Nonlinear coupling difficulties associated with the integration of varying DC-link voltage in the powertrain are also exposed and addressed.
Yu M, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2017, Model Identification and Control for a Quarter Car Test Rig of Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension, 20th IFAC World Congress, Publisher: Elsevier, ISSN: 1474-6670
In this paper, a quarter car test rig is utilized to perform an experimental study of the singlelinkvariant of the Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension (SAVGS). A nonlinear model of the testrig is identified with the use of a theoretical quarter car model and the rig’s experimental frequencyresponse. A linear equivalent modeling method that compensates the geometric nonlinearity is alsoadopted to synthesize an H-infinity control scheme. The controller actively adjusts the single-linkvelocity in the SAVGS to improve the suspension performance. Experiments are performed to evaluatethe SAVGS practical feasibility, the performance improvement, the accuracy of the nonlinear model andthe controller’s robustness.
Arana C, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2016, Series active variable geometry suspension application to comfort enhancement, Control Engineering Practice, Vol: 59, Pages: 111-126, ISSN: 1873-6939
This paper explores the potential of the Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension (SAVGS) for comfort and road holding enhancement. The SAVGS concept introduces significant nonlinearities associated with the rotation of the mechanical link that connects the chassis to the spring-damper unit. Although conventional linearization procedures implemented in multi-body software packages can deal with this configuration, they produce linear models of reduced applicability. To overcome this limitation, an alternative linearization approach based on energy conservation principles is proposed and successfully applied to one corner of the car, thus enabling the use of linear robust control techniques. An H∞ controller is synthesized for this simplified quarter-car linear model and tuned based on the singular value decomposition of the system's transfer matrix. The proposed control is thoroughly tested with one-corner and full-vehicle nonlinear multi-body models. In the SAVGS setup, the actuator appears in series with the passive spring-damper and therefore it would typically be categorized as a low bandwidth or slow active suspension. However, results presented in this paper for an SAVGS-retrofitted Grand Tourer show that this technology has the potential to also improve the high frequency suspension functions such as comfort and road holding.
Evangelou SA, Shabbir W, 2016, Dynamic modeling platform for series hybrid electric vehicles, 8th IFAC International Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 533-540, ISSN: 1474-6670
This paper introduces a simulation model that can be used to develop and testdesigns and control systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The work involves a novelsimulating platform, developed in Simulink, where each component of a series HEV is developedusing a first-principles approach in a modular fashion, validated by available experimental dataand then integrated to form a coupled nonlinear dynamic model. The vehicle model is capable toact as a platform for the design of supervisory control systems (SCSs) that optimize the energyflow in the powertrain. Simulations with two distinct SCSs and two driving cycles are used toanalyze the vehicle performance under varying driving and operating conditions. The resultsdemonstrate the applicability of the model for realistic prediction of both vehicle behavior andcomponent energy losses, design optimization and control system design.
Roche M, Shabbir W, Evangelou SA, 2016, Voltage control for enhanced power electronic efficiency in series hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol: 66, Pages: 3645-3658, ISSN: 1939-9359
The paper presents a DC-link voltage controlscheme by which the power losses associated with the powerelectronic converters of a series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)powertrain are reduced substantially. A DC-link commonlyconnects the three powertrain branches associated with seriesHEVs, presently interfaced by a three-phase rectifier, a threephaseinverter and a Dual Active Bridge (DAB) DC/DC converter.Dynamic efficiency models of the converters are developed anda methodology is proposed by which the DC-link voltage isvaried with respect to its default value, based on the ratiobetween the battery and DC-link voltages. The voltage controlscheme introduced varies the phase shift between the gatingsignals of the two DAB converter bridges, proportionally tothe ratio of converter input voltage to output voltage referredto the transformer primary. This level of instantaneous controlforces the converter to operate in boost mode when the batterycharges and buck mode when the battery discharges, allowingthe converter to persistently avoid Hard Switching (HS) lossesover its entire operating range. The control scheme is tested insimulations with a full HEV model by comparing its performancewith constant voltage and unity voltage conversion ratio PIcontrol schemes. The scheme proves most effective for vehicleswith high hybridization factor, driving in an urban environment.
Shabbir W, Evangelou S, 2016, Exclusive Operation Strategy for the Supervisory Control of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol: 24, Pages: 2190-2198, ISSN: 1558-0865
Supervisory control systems (SCSs) are used to managethe powertrain of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This paperpresents a novel SCS called Exclusive operation strategy (XOS)that applies simple rules based on the idea that batteries areefficient at lower loads while engines and generators are efficientat higher loads. The XOS is developed based on insights gainedfrom three conventional SCSs for series HEVs: Thermostat controlstrategy (TCS), Power follower control strategy (PFCS) andGlobal equivalent consumption minimization strategy (GECMS).Also, recent technological developments have been considered tomake the XOS more suited to modern HEVs than conventionalSCSs. The resulting control decisions are shown to emulatethe operation of approximate global optimal solutions and thusachieve significant improvement in fuel economy as comparedto TCS and PFCS. In addition, the generally linear relationshipbetween required power and engine power for the XOS providesauditory cues to the driver that are comparable to conventionalvehicles, thus reducing barriers to adopting HEVs. The simplicityand effectiveness of the XOS makes it a practical SCS.
Das HB, Evangelou SA, Dhinagar SJ, 2015, An objective analysis of drivability for two wheeler powertrain with control oriented dynamic model, Pages: 292-299, ISSN: 1474-6670
© 2015, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. The objective of this work is to estimate drivability characteristics parameters of two wheeler powertrain with control oriented powertrain model. The evaluation is essential for defining drivability characteristics for a future electric variable transmission (EVT) powertrain. The mathematical model for the complete powertrain is developed using suitable modeling approaches for the different sub-modules of the complete system. The Spark Ignition (SI) engine model used for this work is developed from mean value model approach and experimentally validated with test data from TVS Motor Company, India. The model is integrated with two types of transmission models, Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and Manual Transmission (MT). It simulates dynamic power-flow from the engine to wheel for analyzing longitudinal drivability of the vehicle for both powertrain configurations. It is proposed that the drivability can be measured with certain parameters which show good correlation with subjective assessments for vehicle launch as well as tip in condition. The objective assessment of both types of powertrains is performed using the above mentioned powertrain models. The results of the simulation for drivability tests are discussed in this paper.
Cheng C, Evangelou SA, Arana C, et al., 2015, Active Variable Geometry Suspension robust control for improved vehicle ride comfort and road holding, American Control Conference (ACC), 2015, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3440-3446, ISSN: 0743-1619
This paper investigates the design of robust ℋ∞ control for road vehicle Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension (SAVGS). The objective is to improve ride comfort and road holding, while guaranteeing operation inside existing physical constraints. The study utilizes a nonlinear quarter car model that represents accurately the vertical dynamics and geometry of one quarter of a high performance car with a double wishbone suspension. The control objective is to reduce the body vertical acceleration, tire deflection and suspension travel under the impact of road perturbations. Therefore, the selection of the weighting functions for a linear ℋ∞ control, designed for the linearized quarter car, is based on these objectives. The proposed controller is then applied to the nonlinear quarter car model and investigated by nonlinear simulation for a range of road disturbance inputs. The results show that the designed controller when applied on the SAVGS is effective in improving the vehicle ride comfort and road holding.
Arana C, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2015, Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension application to chassis attitude control, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol: PP, ISSN: 1083-4435
This paper explores the application of the recently introduced Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension (SAVGS) to the control of chassis attitude motions and the directional response of cars. A co-design methodology, involving a component dimensioning framework and a multi-objective control scheme, is developed to maximize the SAVGS control capabilities while respecting vehicle and actuator design constraints. The dimensioning framework comprises: a steady-state mathematical model based on the principle of virtual work; a parameter sensitivity analysis that sheds light on the dependencies that exist between the properties of the passive suspension, the SAVGS and the chassis; and an algorithm to size the main SAVGS components for any given vehicle and steady-state performance objectives. The general multi-objective control scheme is presented for general application, and the particular case of combined chassis attitude control and overturning couple distribution control is developed in detail. The proposed scheme is subsequently applied to a high performance sports car and a fully laden SUV and tested under a wide range of operating conditions through the simulation of standard open-loop maneuvers. Results demonstrate the SAVGS potential to favorably regulate the attitude motions and directional response in both vehicle classes.
Das HB, Evangelou SA, Jabez Dhinagar S, 2015, An Objective Evaluation of Characterisation Matrix for Two Wheeler Powertrain with Control Oriented Mathematical Model, SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition, Publisher: SAE International
The objective of this paper is to estimate characteristics parameters of two wheeler powertrain with simulated vehicle model. The evaluation is applied to define required characteristics for future motor integrated powertrain. The main parameters for the characteristics matrix are Fuel consumption and NOx gas emission. In the 1st phase of work, a mathematical model for the complete powertrain is developed using suitable modelling approach for different sub-modules of the complete system. The objectives of the model are, to simulate dynamic power-flow from the engine to wheel and to simulate NOx gas emission. The powertrain model consists of a carburetted spark ignition (S.I) engine and gear transmission system. The S.I engine model is capable of simulating dynamic torque output of engine as well as the NOx gas emission. The model is experimentally compared with available test data of production ready engine from TVS Motor Company, India. The dynamic effects of change of ignition timing and fueling on torque output and NOx gas emissions are simulated based on this model and discussed on the paper. The paper adapted two types of transmission model, one with Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and other one with Fixed Geared Transmission. The mathematical model for the CVT system is developed to capture automatic gear shift actuation and power transfer to the wheel. The model simulates the toque control system of the driven pulley as well as speed control system of the drive pulley. The mathematical model for the fixed gear ratio system with wet clutch system is proposed to simulate the manual gear based powertrain. The above mentioned model demands computationally intensive resources due to presence of higher order dynamics, mathematical discontinuity and non-linear functions. So this model is not suitable for control design application. In 2nd phase of work, the model is converted to lower complexity control oriented model by using feed-forward approach. The contr
Arana C, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2015, Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension for Road Vehicles, IEEE-ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, Vol: 20, Pages: 361-372, ISSN: 1083-4435
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