182 results found
Rockall A, Barwick T, Wilson W, et al., 2021, Diagnostic accuracy of FEC-PET/CT, FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI in detection of nodal metastases in surgically treated endometrial and cervical carcinoma, Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN: 1078-0432
Purpose:Pre-operative nodal staging is important for planning treatment in cervical cancer (CC) and endometrial cancer (EC) but remains challenging. We compare nodal staging accuracy of 18F-ethyl-choline-(FEC)-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose-(FDG)-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted-MRI (DW-MRI) with conventional morphological MRI.Experimetal Design:A prospective, multicentre observational study of diagnostic accuracy for nodal metastases was undertaken in 5 gyne-oncology centres. FEC-PET/CT, FDG-PET/CT and DW-MRI were compared to nodal size and morphology on MRI. Reference standard was strictly correlated nodal histology. Eligibility included operable CC stage=>1B1 or EC (grade 3 any stage with myometrial invasion or grade 1-2 stage=>II). Results:Among 162 consenting participants, 136 underwent study DW-MRI and FDG-PET/CT, and 60 underwent FEC-PET/CT. 267 nodal regions in 118 women were strictly correlated at histology (nodal positivity rate 25%). Sensitivity per-patient (n=118) for nodal size, morphology, DW-MRI, FDG- and FEC-PET/CT were 40%*, 53%, 53%, 63%* and 67% for all cases (*p=0.016); 10%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 25% in CC (n=40); 65%, 75%, 70%, 80% and 88% in EC (n=78). FDG-PET/CT outperformed nodal size (p=0.006) and size ratio (p=0.04) for per-region sensitivity. False positive rates were all <10%. Conclusions:All imaging techniques had low sensitivity for detection of nodal metastases and cannot replace surgical nodal staging. The performance of FEC-PET/CT was not statistically different to other techniques that are more widely available. FDG-PET/CT had higher sensitivity than size in detecting nodal metastases. False positive rates were low across all methods. The low false positive rate demonstrated by FDG-PET/CT may be helpful in arbitration of challenging surgical planning decisions.
Ahmed-Salim Y, Saso S, Meehan H, et al., 2021, A novel application of calcium electroporation to cutaneous manifestations of gynaecological cancer, European Journal of Gynecological Oncology, Vol: 42, Pages: 662-672, ISSN: 0392-2936
Introduction: Calcium electroporation (CaEP) is a new technique whereby intracellular concentrations of calcium are elevated by transient permeabilisation of the cell membrane using high-voltage electrical pulses. Tumour necrosis is induced with little damage to healthy tissue. Within gynaecological cancer, vulval cancer and vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) pose challenges for treatment, given the high recurrence rate, persistent symptoms and repeated resections required. In certain cases, CaEP may provide a suitable alternative.Methods: We present a case series of six patients with recurrent vulval squamous cell carcinoma(n=2), VIN III (n=2) and metastatic ovarian cancer (n=2), five of whom were treated with CaEP. This is the first known application of CaEP to gynaecological cancers .Results: The median follow-up time was 14 months (range 2-18 months). Within the cohort of patients, CaEP was applied a total of 10 times, achieving a complete response five times and partial response four times. Symptoms improved within six weeks for eight episodes following CaEP application. Beyond six weeks, symptoms eventually recurred in all patients and four patients required more than one CaEP procedure. CaEP was useful for palliation of distressing symptoms in one case of metastatic ovarian cancer. No intra-operative or post-operative complications have been reported to date. Conclusion: CaEP may be a promising short-term treatment in selected patients with recurrent VIN and vulval cancer, where other treatments had failed. If validated, it could provide an acceptable alternative where surgery is unacceptable. Long term follow-up is required to evaluate effects on recurrence.
Jones BP, Kasaven L, Vali S, et al., 2021, Uterine Transplantation: Review of Livebirths and Reproductive Implications, TRANSPLANTATION, Vol: 105, Pages: 1695-1707, ISSN: 0041-1337
Marcus D, King A, Yazbek J, et al., 2021, Anxiety and stress in women with suspected endometrial cancer: Survey and paired observational study, Psycho-Oncology: journal of the psychological, social and behavioral dimensions of cancer, Vol: 30, Pages: 1939-1400, ISSN: 1057-9249
ObjectiveTo determine the anxiety and stress levels of women with suspected endometrial cancer and factors affecting this.MethodsProspective survey and paired observational study of consecutive women with suspected endometrial cancer in a rapid access gynaecology clinic. Structured questionnaire including a GAD-7 anxiety test and a modified stress thermometer were used. Patients ranked their perception of a cancer diagnosis on 0-5 Likert scale (0 = confident not cancer and 5 = cancer). Patients requiring an endometrial tissue biopsy were asked to rank their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), this was paired with the survey results.Results250 patients completed the study and 23 of which underwent an endometrial tissue biopsy. The median age was 50-59 years old and 59% of women spoke English as their first language. 32% of patients had significant levels of anxiety with GAD-7 score ≥10. The median stress score was three out of five on Likert scale. GAD-7 anxiety scores were higher in women who perceived that they received insufficient information prior to clinic (sufficient information 5 vs. insufficient information 9.5, P = 0.00036) or had a disability (disability 9 vs. no disability 5.5, P = 0.00374). The median VAS score from the biopsies was seven out of 10 (range 1-10). Patients with higher anxiety levels (GAD-7 scores) were more likely to believe they had cancer P <0.00001.ConclusionsThese findings confirm high levels of anxiety and stress in women with suspected endometrial cancer. Adequate pre-clinic information is essential, particularly for minority groups.
Keefe D, 2021, Fertility Treatment and Cancers-The Eternal Conundrum: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL SURVEY, Vol: 76, Pages: 343-344, ISSN: 0029-7828
Marcus D, Yongue G, Shen Y, et al., 2021, Do delays to surgery influence survival in endometrial cancer?, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 69-69, ISSN: 1470-0328
Ahmed-Salim Y, Galazis N, Bracewell-Milnes T, et al., 2021, The application of metabolomics in ovarian cancer management: a systematic review, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER, Vol: 31, Pages: 754-774, ISSN: 1048-891X
Jones BP, Saso S, Yazbek J, et al., 2021, Uterine Transplantation Scientific Impact Paper No. 65 April 2021, BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Vol: 128, Pages: E51-E66, ISSN: 1470-0328
Allott L, Amgheib A, Barnes C, et al., 2021, Radiolabelling an F-18 biologic via facile IEDDA "click" chemistry on the GE FASTLab (TM) platform, Reaction Chemistry and Engineering, Vol: 6, Pages: 1070-1078, ISSN: 2058-9883
The use of biologics in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important area of radiopharmaceutical development and new automated methods are required to facilitate their production. We report an automated radiosynthesis method to produce a radiolabelled biologic via facile inverse electron demand Diels–Alder (IEDDA) “click” chemistry on a single GE FASTLab™ cassette. We exemplified the method by producing a fluorine-18 radiolabelled interleukin-2 (IL2) radioconjugate from a trans-cyclooctene (TCO) modified IL2 precursor. The radioconjugate was produced using a fully automated radiosynthesis on a single FASTLab™ cassette in a decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY, d.c.) of 19.8 ± 2.6% in 110 min (from start of synthesis); the molar activity was 132.3 ± 14.6 GBq μmol−1. The in vitro uptake of [18F]TTCO-IL2 correlated with the differential receptor expression (CD25, CD122, CD132) in PC3, NK-92 and activated human PBMCs. The automated method may be adapted for the radiosynthesis of any TCO-modified protein via IEDDA chemistry.
Barcroft JF, Galazis N, Jones BP, et al., 2021, Fertility treatment and cancers-the eternal conundrum: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Human Reproduction, Vol: 36, Pages: 1093-1107, ISSN: 0268-1161
STUDY QUESTION: Does fertility treatment (FT) significantly increase the incidence of breast, ovarian, endometrial or cervical cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall, FT does not significantly increase the incidence of breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer and may even reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertility affects more than 14% of couples. Infertility and nulliparity are established risk factors for endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer, yet the association with FT is more contentious. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A literature search was carried out using Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and Google Scholar up to December 2019. Peer-reviewed studies stating cancer incidence (breast, ovarian, endometrial or cervical) in FT and no-FT groups were identified. Out of 128 studies identified, 29 retrospective studies fulfilled the criteria and were included (n = 21 070 337). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: In the final meta-analysis, 29 studies were included: breast (n = 19), ovarian (n = 19), endometrial (n = 15) and cervical (n = 13), 17 studies involved multiple cancer types and so were included in each individual cancer meta-analysis. Primary outcome of interest was cancer incidence (breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical) in FT and no-FT groups. Secondary outcome was cancer incidence according to specific fertility drug exposure. Odds ratio (OR) and random effects model were used to demonstrate treatment effect and calculate pooled treatment effect, respectively. A meta-regression and eight sub-group analyses were performed to assess the impact of the following variables, maternal age, infertility, study size, outliers and specific FT sub-types, on cancer incidence. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Cervical cancer incidence was significantly lower in the FT group compared with the no-FT group: OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-0.99). The incidences
Jones BP, Rajamanoharan A, Williams NJ, et al., 2021, Uterine Transplantation Using Living Donation: A Cross-sectional Study Assessing Perceptions, Acceptability, and Suitability, TRANSPLANTATION DIRECT, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2373-8731
Sundar S, Manchanda R, Gourley C, et al., 2021, British Gynaecological Cancer Society/British Association of Gynaecological Pathology consensus for germline and tumor testing for BRCA1/2 variants in ovarian cancer in the United Kingdom, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER, Vol: 31, Pages: 272-278, ISSN: 1048-891X
Jones BP, Rajamanoharan A, Vali S, et al., 2021, Perceptions and Motivations for Uterus Transplant in Transgender Women, JAMA NETWORK OPEN, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2574-3805
Natoli M, Gallon J, Lu H, et al., 2021, Transcriptional analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cohorts reveals prognostic and immunomodulatory consequences of ERV expression, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2051-1426
Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) play a role in a variety of biological processes, including embryogenesis and cancer. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi)-induced ERV expression triggers interferon responses in ovarian cancer cells via the viral sensing machinery. Baseline expression of ERVs also occurs in cancer cells, though this process is poorly understood and previously unexplored in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Here, the prognostic and immunomodulatory consequences of baseline ERV expression was assessed in EOC.Methods ERV expression was assessed using EOC transcriptional data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and from an independent cohort (Hammersmith Hospital, HH), as well as from untreated or DNMTi-treated EOC cell lines. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression defined an ERV expression score to predict patient prognosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted on the HH cohort. Combination of DNMTi treatment with γδ T cells was tested in vitro, using EOC cell lines and patient-derived tumor cells.Results ERV expression was found to define clinically relevant subsets of EOC patients. An ERV prognostic score was successfully generated in TCGA and validated in the independent cohort. In EOC patients from this cohort, a high ERV score was associated with better survival (log-rank p=0.0009) and correlated with infiltration of CD8+PD1+T cells (r=0.46, p=0.0001). In the TCGA dataset, a higher ERV score was found in BRCA1/2 mutant tumors, compared to wild type (p=0.015), while a lower ERV score was found in CCNE1 amplified tumors, compared to wild type (p=0.019). In vitro, baseline ERV expression dictates the level of ERV induction in response to DNMTi. Manipulation of an ERV expression threshold by DNMTi resulted in improved EOC cell killing by cytotoxic immune cells.Conclusions These findings uncover the potential for baseline ERV expression to robustly inform EOC patient prognosis, influence
Phelps DL, Saso S, Ghaem-Maghami S, 2020, Is ovarian cancer surgery stuck in the dark ages?: a commentary piece reviewing surgical technologies, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 123, Pages: 1471-1473, ISSN: 0007-0920
Phelps DL, Saso S, Ghaem-Maghami S, 2020, Analysis of worldwide surgical outcomes in COVID-19-infected patients: a gynecological oncology perspective, Future Science OA, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2056-5623
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) guidance limits all but the most urgent surgery in the United Kingdom. We review the literature and our experience in gynecology to assess perioperative outcomes. PubMed was searched with (surg*[Title])AND(COVID[Title]), (surg*[Title])AND(2019-nCoV[Title]), and (surg*[Title])AND(SARS-CoV-2[Title]), and 67 COVID-19-positive surgical patients across ten hospitals in four countries are included. Median mortality was 33%. Cardiac and pulmonary co-morbidities associated with higher risk of COVID-19-positive postoperative death. Mortality was high in neurosurgery (80%) and the lowest in gynecological oncology surgery (none). This analysis provides an evidence base on which to consider surgical risk assessment for different specialties. Risk of perioperative death needs to be assessed in the context of patients’ co-morbidities and surgical specialty. An individualized approach toward surgical decision making is imperative.
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Paraskevaidi M, et al., 2020, The intelligent knife (iKnife) and its intraoperative diagnostic advantage for the treatment of cervical disease (vol 117, pg 7338, 2020), PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 117, Pages: 18892-18892, ISSN: 0027-8424
Natoli M, Bonito N, Robinson JD, et al., 2020, Human ovarian cancer intrinsic mechanisms regulate lymphocyte activation in response to immune checkpoint blockade, Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, Vol: 69, Pages: 1391-1401, ISSN: 0340-7004
Immune checkpoint blocking antibodies are currently being tested in ovarian cancer (OC) patients and have shown some responses in early clinical trials. However, it remains unclear how human OC cancer cells regulate lymphocyte activation in response to therapy. In this study, we have established and optimised an in vitro tumour-immune co-culture system (TICS), which is specifically designed to quantify the activation of multiple primary human lymphocyte subsets and human cancer cell killing in response to PD-1/L1 blockade. Human OC cell lines and treatment naïve patient ascites show differential effects on lymphocyte activation and respond differently to PD-1 blocking antibody nivolumab in TICS. Using paired OC cell lines established prior to and after chemotherapy relapse, our data reveal that the resistant cells express low levels of HLA and respond poorly to nivolumab, relative to the treatment naïve cells. In accordance, knockdown of IFNγ receptor expression compromises response to nivolumab in the treatment naïve OC cell line, while enhanced HLA expression induced by a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor promotes lymphocyte activation in TICS. Altogether, our results suggest a 'cross resistance' model, where the acquired chemotherapy resistance in cancer cells may confer resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy through down-regulation of antigen presentation machinery. As such, agents that can restore HLA expression may be a suitable combination partner for immunotherapy in chemotherapy-relapsed human ovarian cancer patients.
Natoli M, Bonito N, Robinson JD, et al., 2020, Human ovarian cancer intrinsic mechanisms regulate lymphocyte activation in response to immune checkpoint blockade (vol 45, pg 203, 2020), CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY, Vol: 69, Pages: 1403-1408, ISSN: 0340-7004
Du Bois A, Sehouli J, Vergote I, et al., 2020, Randomized phase III study to evaluate the impact of secondary cytoreductive surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer: Final analysis of AGO DESKTOP III/ENGOT-ov20., Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology (ASCO), Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X
Jones BP, Vali S, Saso S, et al., 2020, Endometrial autotransplantation in rabbits: Potential for fertility restoration in severe Asherman's syndrome, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY, Vol: 248, Pages: 14-23, ISSN: 0301-2115
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Paraskevaidi M, et al., 2020, The intelligent-Knife (i-Knife) and its intraoperative diagnostic advantage for the treatment of cervical disease, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol: 117, Pages: 7338-7346, ISSN: 0027-8424
Clearance of surgical margins in cervical cancer prevents the need for adjuvant chemoradiation and allows fertility preservation. In this study, we determined the capacity of the rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS), also known as intelligent knife (iKnife), to discriminate between healthy, preinvasive, and invasive cervical tissue. Cervical tissue samples were collected from women with healthy, human papilloma virus (HPV) ± cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or cervical cancer. A handheld diathermy device generated surgical aerosol, which was transferred into a mass spectrometer for subsequent chemical analysis. Combination of principal component and linear discriminant analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator was employed to study the spectral differences between groups. Significance of discriminatory m/z features was tested using univariate statistics and tandem MS performed to elucidate the structure of the significant peaks allowing separation of the two classes. We analyzed 87 samples (normal = 16, HPV ± CIN = 50, cancer = 21 patients). The iKnife discriminated with 100% accuracy normal (100%) vs. HPV ± CIN (100%) vs. cancer (100%) when compared to histology as the gold standard. When comparing normal vs. cancer samples, the accuracy was 100% with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 83.9 to 100) and specificity 100% (79.4 to 100). Univariate analysis revealed significant MS peaks in the cancer-to-normal separation belonging to various classes of complex lipids. The iKnife discriminates healthy from premalignant and invasive cervical lesions with high accuracy and can improve oncological outcomes and fertility preservation of women treated surgically for cervical cancer. Larger in vivo research cohorts are required to validate these findings.
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Kalliala I, et al., 2019, THE IKNIFE AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF CERVICAL ABNORMALITIES, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A589-A589, ISSN: 1048-891X
Marcus D, Savage A, Balog J, et al., 2019, ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: CAN THE IKNIFE DIAGNOSE ENDOMETRIAL CANCER?, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A100-A101, ISSN: 1048-891X
L'Heveder A, Jones BP, Saso S, et al., 2019, Conservative management of uterine adenosarcoma: lessons learned from 20 years of follow-up, ARCHIVES OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS, Vol: 300, Pages: 1383-1389, ISSN: 0932-0067
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Lever S, et al., 2019, ONCOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE OUTCOMES AFTER FERTILITY-SPARING SURGERY IN WOMEN WITH CERVICAL CANCER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A76-A77, ISSN: 1048-891X
Crosbie EJ, Ryan NAJ, Arends MJ, et al., 2019, The Manchester International Consensus Group recommendations for the management of gynecological cancers in Lynch syndrome, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 2390-2400, ISSN: 1098-3600
PURPOSE: There are no internationally agreed upon clinical guidelines as to which women with gynecological cancer would benefit from Lynch syndrome screening or how best to manage the risk of gynecological cancer in women with Lynch syndrome. The Manchester International Consensus Group was convened in April 2017 to address this unmet need. The aim of the Group was to develop clear and comprehensive clinical guidance regarding the management of the gynecological sequelae of Lynch syndrome based on existing evidence and expert opinion from medical professionals and patients. METHODS: Stakeholders from Europe and North America worked together over a two-day workshop to achieve consensus on best practice. RESULTS: Guidance was developed in four key areas: (1) whether women with gynecological cancer should be screened for Lynch syndrome and (2) how this should be done, (3) whether there was a role for gynecological surveillance in women at risk of Lynch syndrome, and (4) what preventive measures should be recommended for women with Lynch syndrome to reduce their risk of gynecological cancer. CONCLUSION: This document provides comprehensive clinical guidance that can be referenced by both patients and clinicians so that women with Lynch syndrome can expect and receive appropriate standards of care.
Jones BP, Saso S, Bracewell-Milnes T, et al., 2019, Human uterine transplantation: a review of outcomes from the first 45 cases, BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Vol: 126, Pages: 1310-1319, ISSN: 1470-0328
Jones B, Saso S, Chan M, et al., 2019, Implementing uterine transplantation into multi-organ retrieval setting: specialist nurse in organ donation and intensive care nurse perspectives, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 195-195, ISSN: 1470-0328
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