Imperial College London

ProfessorSebastianJohnston

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Asthma UK Clinical Chair
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3764s.johnston

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mr Christophe Tytgat +44 (0)20 7594 3849

 
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Location

 

343Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

470 results found

Finney LJ, Belchamber KBR, Fenwick PS, Kemp SV, Edwards MR, Mallia P, Donaldson G, Johnston SL, Donnelly LE, Wedzicha JAet al., 2018, Human Rhinovirus Impairs the Innate Immune Response to Bacteria in Alveolar Macrophages in COPD., Am J Respir Crit Care Med

Rationale Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a common cause of COPD exacerbations. Secondary bacterial infection is associated with more severe symptoms and delayed recovery. Alveolar macrophages clear bacteria from the lung and maintain lung homeostasis through cytokine secretion. These processes are defective in COPD. The effect of HRV on macrophage function is unknown. Objectives To investigate the effect of HRV on phagocytosis and cytokine response to bacteria by alveolar macrophages and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) in COPD and healthy controls. Methods Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoscopy and MDM by adherence. Macrophages were exposed to HRV 16 (multiplicity of infection 5), polyI:C 30μg/ml, interferon (IFN)-β 10μg/ml, IFN-γ 10μg/ml or medium control for 24 hours. Phagocytosis of fluorescently-labelled Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae was assessed by fluorimetry. CXCL8, TNF and IL-10 release was measured by ELISA. Main Results HRV significantly impaired phagocytosis of H. influenzae by 23% in MDM (n=37) and 18% in alveolar macrophages (n=20) in COPD. HRV also significantly reduced phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae by 33% in COPD MDM. There was no effect in healthy controls. Phagocytosis of H. influenzae was impaired by polyI:C but not IFN-β or IFN-γ. HRV significantly reduced cytokine responses to H. influenzae. The IL-10 response to H. influenzae was significantly impaired by polyI:C, IFN-β and IFN-γ. Conclusions HRV impairs phagocytosis of bacteria in COPD which may lead to an outgrowth of bacteria. HRV also impairs cytokine responses to bacteria via the TLR3/IFN pathway which may prevent resolution of inflammation leading to prolonged exacerbations in COPD.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Farne H, Groves HT, Gill SK, Stokes I, McCulloch S, Karoly E, Trujillo-Torralbo M-B, Johnston SL, Mallia P, Tregoning JSet al., 2018, Comparative Metabolomic Sampling of Upper and Lower Airways by Four Different Methods to Identify Biochemicals That May Support Bacterial Growth, FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR AND INFECTION MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2235-2988

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lan F, Zhong H, Zhang N, Johnston SL, Wen W, Papadopoulos N, Zhang L, Bachert Cet al., 2018, IFN-λ1 enhances Staphylococcus aureus clearance in healthy nasal mucosa but not in nasal polyps., J Allergy Clin Immunol

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by TH2-skewed inflammation and increased colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. IFN-λ1 is known for its antiviral activity, but there is little information on its antibacterial role. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the expression and release of IFN-λ1 from nasal mucosal tissue of healthy subjects and patients with CRSwNP on exposure to S aureus and assess its potential role in antibacterial defense mechanisms. METHODS: Nasal tissue from healthy subjects and patients with CRSwNP was exposed to S aureus, and we assessed expression of IFN-λ1, MUC5AC, and MUC5B. THP1-derived macrophages incubated with or without IFN-λ1 were assessed for uptake and killing of S aureus and expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 and intracellular reactive oxidase substrate (ROS), the IFN-λ1 receptor IL-28 receptor (IL-28R), and the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 pathway by means of immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: S aureus infection increased IFN-λ1 expression in tissue from patients with CRSwNP. IFN-λ1 (10 ng/mL) significantly decreased the number of S aureus colony-forming units in healthy control tissue but not in tissue from patients with CRSwNP and upregulated MUC5AC and MUC5B expression in control tissue on S aureus infection. IFN-λ1 stimulation increased intracellular killing of S aureus in THP1-derived macrophages and substantially increased lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1, IL-28R, ROS, and STAT signaling in macrophages incubated with S aureus. All of these effects were attenuated by blocking IL-28R and ROS activities. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-λ1 favors clearance of S aureus in healthy nasal mucosa and enhances antibacterial function of macrophages through IFN-λ1-IL-28R-ROS-Janus kinase-STAT signaling pathways.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Greiller CL, Suri R, Jolliffe DA, Kebadze T, Hirsman AG, Griffiths CJ, Johnston SL, Martineau ARet al., 2018, Vitamin D attenuates rhinovirus-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) in respiratory epithelial cells., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol

Human rhinoviruses commonly cause upper respiratory infections, which may be complicated by secondary bacterial infection. Vitamin D replacement reduces risk of acute respiratory infections in vitamin D-deficient individuals, but the mechanisms by which such protection is mediated are incompletely understood. We therefore conducted experiments to characterise the influence of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) on responses of a respiratory epithelial cell line (A549 cells) to infection with a major group human rhinovirus (RV-16). Pre-treatment of A549 respiratory epithelial cells with a physiological concentration (10-7M) of 25(OH)D induced transient resistance to infection with RV-16 and attenuated RV-16-induced expression of the genes encoding intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, a cell surface glycoprotein that acts as the cellular receptor for major group rhinoviruses) and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR, a G-protein coupled receptor implicated in adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to respiratory epithelial cells). These effects were associated with enhanced expression of the genes encoding the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα and the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37. Our findings suggest possible mechanisms by which vitamin D may enhance resistance to rhinovirus infection and reduce risk of secondary bacterial infection in vitamin D-deficient individuals.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jolliffe DA, Greiller CL, Mein CA, Hoti M, Bakhsoliani E, Telcian AG, Simpson A, Barnes NC, Curtin JA, Custovic A, Johnston SL, Griffiths CJ, Walton RT, Martineau ARet al., 2018, Vitamin D receptor genotype influences risk of upper respiratory infection, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 120, Pages: 891-900, ISSN: 0007-1145

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Tang HHF, Teo SM, Belgrave DCM, Evans MD, Jackson DJ, Brozynska M, Kusel MMH, Johnston SL, Gern JE, Lemanske RF, Simpson A, Custovic A, Sly PD, Holt PG, Holt KE, Inouye Met al., 2018, Trajectories of childhood immune development and respiratory health relevant to asthma and allergy, ELIFE, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2050-084X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Teo SM, Tang HHF, Mok D, Judd LM, Watts SC, Pham K, Holt BJ, Kusel M, Serralha M, Troy N, Bochkov YA, Grindle K, Lemanske RF, Johnston SL, Gern JE, Sly PD, Holt PG, Holt KE, Inouye Met al., 2018, Airway Microbiota Dynamics Uncover a Critical Window for Interplay of Pathogenic Bacteria and Allergy in Childhood Respiratory Disease, CELL HOST & MICROBE, Vol: 24, Pages: 341-+, ISSN: 1931-3128

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mallia P, Webber J, Gill SK, Trujillo-Torralbo M-B, Calderazzo MA, Finney L, Bakhsoliani E, Fame H, Singanayagam A, Footitt J, Hewitt R, Kebadze T, Aniscenko J, Padmanaban V, Molyneaux PL, Adcock IM, Barnes PJ, Ito K, Elkin SL, Kon OM, Cookson WO, Moffat MF, Johnston SL, Tregoning JSet al., 2018, Role of airway glucose in bacterial infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 142, Pages: 815-+, ISSN: 0091-6749

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lan F, Zhang N, Holtappels G, De Ruyck N, Krysko O, Van Crombruggen K, Braun H, Johnston SL, Papadopoulos NG, Zhang L, Bachert Cet al., 2018, Staphylococcus aureus Induces a Mucosal Type 2 Immune Response via Epithelial Cell-derived Cytokines, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 198, Pages: 452-463, ISSN: 1073-449X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Potaczek DP, Unger SD, Zhang N, Taka S, Michel S, Akda─č N, Lan F, Helfer M, Hudemann C, Eickmann M, Skevaki C, Megremis S, Sadewasser A, Alashkar Alhamwe B, Alhamdan F, Akdis M, Edwards MR, Johnston SL, Akdis CA, Becker S, Bachert C, Papadopoulos NG, Garn H, Renz Het al., 2018, Development and characterization of DNAzyme candidates demonstrating significant efficiency against human rhinoviruses., J Allergy Clin Immunol

BACKGROUND: Infections with human rhinoviruses (RVs) are responsible for millions of common cold episodes and the majority of asthma exacerbations, especially in childhood. No drugs specifically targeting RVs are available. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify specific anti-RV molecules based on DNAzyme technology as candidates to a clinical study. METHODS: A total of 226 candidate DNAzymes were designed against 2 regions of RV RNA genome identified to be sufficiently highly conserved between virus strains (ie, the 5'-untranslated region and cis-acting replication element) by using 3 test strains: RVA1, RVA16, and RVA29. All DNAzymes were screened for their cleavage efficiency against in vitro-expressed viral RNA. Those showing any catalytic activity were subjected to bioinformatic analysis of their reverse complementarity to 322 published RV genomic sequences. Further molecular optimization was conducted for the most promising candidates. Cytotoxic and off-target effects were excluded in HEK293 cell-based systems. Antiviral efficiency was analyzed in infected human bronchial BEAS-2B cells and ex vivo-cultured human sinonasal tissue. RESULTS: Screening phase-generated DNAzymes characterized by either good catalytic activity or by high RV strain coverage but no single molecule represented a satisfactory combination of those 2 features. Modifications in length of the binding domains of 2 lead candidates, Dua-01(-L12R9) and Dua-02(-L10R11), improved their cleavage efficiency to an excellent level, with no loss in eminent strain coverage (about 98%). Both DNAzymes showed highly favorable cytotoxic/off-target profiles. Subsequent testing of Dua-01-L12R9 in BEAS-2B cells and sinonasal tissue demonstrated its significant antiviral efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Effective and specific management of RV infections with Dua-01-L12R9 might be useful in preventing asthma exacerbations, which should be verified by clinical trials.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Potaczek DP, Unger SD, Zhang N, Taka S, Michel S, Akdag N, Lan F, Helfer M, Hudemann C, Eickmann M, Skevaki C, Megremis S, Sadewasser A, Alhamwe AB, Alhamdan F, Akdis M, Edwards MR, Johnston SL, Akdis CA, Becker S, Bachert C, Papadopoulos NG, Garn H, Renz Het al., 2018, Development and characterization of effective DNAzymes against human rhinoviruses, Congress of the European-Academy-of-Allergy-and-Clinical-Immunology (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 370-370, ISSN: 0105-4538

CONFERENCE PAPER

Chairakaki A-D, Saridaki M-I, Pyrillou K, Mouratis M-A, Koltsida O, Walton RP, Bartlett NW, Stavropoulos A, Boon L, Rovina N, Papadopoulos NG, Johnston SL, Andreakos Eet al., 2018, Plasmacytoid dendritic cells drive acute asthma exacerbations, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 142, Pages: 542-+, ISSN: 0091-6749

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Singanayagam A, Glanville N, Girkin JL, Ching YM, Marcellini A, Porter JD, Toussaint M, Walton RP, Finney LJ, Aniscenko J, Zhu J, Trujillo-Torralbo M-B, Calderazzo MA, Grainge C, Loo S-L, Veerati PC, Pathinayake PS, Nichol KS, Reid AT, James PL, Solari R, Wark PAB, Knight DA, Moffatt MF, Cookson WO, Edwards MR, Mallia P, Bartlett NW, Johnston SLet al., 2018, Corticosteroid suppression of antiviral immunity increases bacterial loads and mucus production in COPD exacerbations, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, Cox M, Graham CM, James PL, Bloom CI, Chaussabel D, Banchereau J, Brett SJ, Moffatt MF, O'Garra A, Openshaw PJMet al., 2018, Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza, NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 625-+, ISSN: 1529-2908

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mousnier A, Bell AS, Swieboda DP, Morales-Sanfrutos J, Perez-Dorado I, Brannigan JA, Newman J, Ritzefeld M, Hutton JA, Guedan A, Asfor AS, Robinson SW, Hopkins-Navratilova I, Wilkinson AJ, Johnston SL, Leatherbarrow RJ, Tuthill TJ, Solari R, Tate EWet al., 2018, Fragment-derived inhibitors of human N-myristoyltransferase block capsid assembly and replication of the common cold virus, NATURE CHEMISTRY, Vol: 10, Pages: 599-606, ISSN: 1755-4330

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Custovic A, Belgrave D, Lin L, Bakhsoliani E, Telcian AG, Solari R, Murray CS, Walton RP, Curtin J, Edwards MR, Simpson A, Rattray M, Johnston SLet al., 2018, Cytokine Responses to Rhinovirus and Development of Asthma, Allergic Sensitization, and Respiratory Infections during Childhood, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 197, Pages: 1265-1274, ISSN: 1073-449X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ghebre MA, Pang PH, Diver S, Desai D, Bafadhel M, Haldar K, Kebadze T, Cohen S, Newbold P, Rapley L, Woods J, Rugman P, Pavord ID, Johnston SL, Barer M, May RD, Brightling CEet al., 2018, Biological exacerbation clusters demonstrate asthma and COPD overlap with distinct mediator and microbiome profiles., Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN: 0091-6749

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the sputum cellular, mediator, and microbiome profiles of both asthma and COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Patients with severe asthma or moderate-to-severe COPD were prospectively recruited to a single centre. Sputum mediators were available in 32 asthma and 73 COPD patients assessed at exacerbation. Biologic clusters were determined using factor and cluster analyses on a panel of sputum mediators. Patterns of clinical parameters, sputum mediators, and microbiome communities were assessed across the identified clusters. RESULTS: The asthma and COPD patients had different clinical characteristics and inflammatory profiles, but similar microbial ecology. Three exacerbation biologic clusters were identified. Cluster 1 was COPD predominant, with 27 COPD and 7 asthma patients exhibiting elevated blood and sputum neutrophil counts, proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6R, TNFα, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, and VEGF), and proportion of the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria. Cluster 2 had 10 asthma and 17 COPD patients with elevated blood and sputum eosinophil counts, Type 2 (T2) mediators (IL-5, IL-13, CCL13, CCL17, and CCL26), and proportion of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. Cluster 3 had 15 asthma and 29 COPD subjects with elevated Type 1 (T1) mediators (CXCL10, CXCL11, and IFN-ϒ) and proportions of phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS: A biologic clustering approach revealed three subgroups of asthma and COPD exacerbations each with different percentages of overlapping asthma and COPD patients. The sputum mediator and microbiome profiles were distinct between clusters. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Sputum mediator and microbiome profiling can determine the distinct and overlapping asthma and COPD biologic exacerbation clusters, highlighting the heterogeneity of these exacerbations.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Zhu J, Message SD, Mallia P, Kebadze T, Contoli M, Ward CK, Barnathan ES, Mascelli MA, Kon OM, Papi A, Stanciu LA, Edwards MR, Jeffery PK, Johnston SLet al., Bronchial mucosal Interferon-α/β and pattern recognition receptor expression in experimental rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN: 0091-6749

BACKGROUND: The innate immune system senses viral infection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to type I interferon (IFN) production: their roles in rhinovirus (RV)-induced asthma exacerbations in vivo are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To compare bronchial mucosal type I IFN and PRR expression at baseline and following RV infection in atopic asthmatic and control subjects. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of IFN-α, IFN-β and the PRRs, toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, melanoma-differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5) and retinoic-acid-inducible protein-I (RIG-I) in bronchial biopsies from 10 atopic asthmatics and 15 non-asthmatic non-atopic controls at baseline and on day four and six weeks following RV infection. RESULTS: We observed IFN-α/β deficiency in bronchial epithelium at three time points in asthma in vivo. Lower epithelial IFN-α/β expression was related to greater virus load, worse airway symptoms, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reductions in lung function during RV infection. We found lower frequencies of bronchial subepithelial monocytes/macrophages expressing IFN-α/β in asthma during infection. IFN deficiency at baseline was not accompanied by deficient PRR expression in asthma. Both epithelial and subepithelial PRR expression was induced during RV infection. RV infection increased numbers of subepithelial IFN/PRRs-expressing inflammatory cells were related to greater virus load, AHR and reductions in lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchial epithelial IFN-α/β expression and numbers of subepithelial IFN-α/β-expressing monocytes/macrophages during infection were both deficient in asthma. Lower epithelial IFN-α/β expression was associated with adverse clinical outcomes following RV infection in vivo. Increases in subepithelial cells expressing IFN/PRRs during infection were also related to greater virus load/illness severity.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Silkoff PE, Flavin S, Gordon R, Loza MJ, Sterk PJ, Lutter R, Diamant Z, Turner RB, Lipworth BJ, Proud D, Singh D, Eich A, Backer V, Gern JE, Herzmann C, Halperin SA, Mensinga TT, Del Vecchio AM, Branigan P, San Mateo L, Baribaud F, Barnathan ES, Johnston SLet al., 2018, Toll-like receptor 3 blockade in rhinovirus-induced experimental asthma exacerbations: A randomized controlled study, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 141, Pages: 1220-1230, ISSN: 0091-6749

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Moskwa S, Piotrowski W, Marczak J, Pawelczyk M, Lewandowska-Polak A, Jarzebska M, Brauncajs M, Globinska A, Gorski P, Papadopoulos NG, Edwards MR, Johnston SL, Kowalski MLet al., 2018, Innate Immune Response to Viral Infections in Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells is Modified by the Atopic Status of Asthmatic Patients, ALLERGY ASTHMA & IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH, Vol: 10, Pages: 144-154, ISSN: 2092-7355

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Dhariwal J, Cameron A, Wong E, Trujillo-Torralbo B, Del Rosario A, Bakhsoliani E, Paulsen M, Jackson D, Hansel TT, Edwards M, Cousins D, Walton RP, Johnston SLet al., 2018, Pulmonary Innate Lymphoid Cell Responses During Rhinovirus-Induced Asthma Exacerbations, American-Academy-of-Allergy-Asthma-and-Immunology / World-Allergy-Organization Joint Congress, Publisher: MOSBY-ELSEVIER, Pages: AB195-AB195, ISSN: 0091-6749

CONFERENCE PAPER

Hanratty CE, Matthews JG, Arron JR, Choy DF, Pavord ID, Bradding P, Brightling CE, Chaudhuri R, Cowan DC, Djukanovic R, Gallagher N, Fowler SJ, Hardman TC, Harrison T, Holweg CT, Howarth PH, Lordan J, Mansur AH, Menzies-Gow A, Mosesova S, Niven RM, Robinson DS, Shaw DE, Walker S, Woodcock A, Heaney LGet al., 2018, A randomised pragmatic trial of corticosteroid optimization in severe asthma using a composite biomarker algorithm to adjust corticosteroid dose versus standard care: study protocol for a randomised trial, TRIALS, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1745-6215

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ritchie AI, Singanayagam A, Wiater E, Edwards MR, Montminy M, Johnston SLet al., 2018, beta(2)-agonists enhance asthma-relevant inflammatory mediators in human airway epithelial cells, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol: 58, Pages: 128-132, ISSN: 1044-1549

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Dhariwal J, Wong E, Trujillo-Torralbo B, Jackson DJ, Johnston SLet al., 2018, Poor Baseline Asthma Control Is Associated with Greater Virus Load Following Rhinovirus Infection, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X

CONFERENCE PAPER

Edwards MR, Walton RP, Jackson DJ, Feleszko W, Skevaki C, Jartti T, Makrinoti H, Nikonova A, Shilovskiy IP, Schwarze J, Johnston SL, Khaitov MRet al., 2018, The potential of anti-infectives and immunomodulators as therapies for asthma and asthma exacerbations, ALLERGY, Vol: 73, Pages: 50-63, ISSN: 0105-4538

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Finney LJ, Belchamber K, Kemp S, Donaldson G, Mallia P, Johnston SL, Wedzicha JAet al., 2017, HUMAN RHINOVIRUS IMPAIRS PHAGOCYTOSIS OF HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE, Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A112-A112, ISSN: 0040-6376

CONFERENCE PAPER

Vasileiou E, Sheikh A, Butler C, El Ferkh K, von Wissmann B, McMenamin J, Ritchie L, Schwarze J, Papadopoulos NG, Johnston SL, Tian L, Simpson CRet al., 2017, Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccines in Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis., Clin Infect Dis, Vol: 65, Pages: 1388-1395

There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in persons with asthma and its impact on asthma outcomes, which may contribute to the suboptimal vaccination rates in persons with asthma. This systematic review and meta-analysis involved searching 12 international databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and high-quality quasi-experimental and epidemiological studies (1970-2016). The risk of bias was low for 3 included RCTs. The quality of 3 included observational studies was moderate. The quality of evidence was very low for all study outcomes. Pooled vaccine effectiveness in 1825 persons with asthma from 2 test-negative design case-control studies was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-56%) for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Pooled efficacy of live vaccines in reducing influenza was 81% (95% CI, 33%- 94%). Live vaccine reduced febrile illness by 72% (95% CI, 20%-90%). Influenza vaccine prevented 59%-78% of asthma attacks leading to emergency visits and/or hospitalizations. For persons with asthma, influenza vaccination may be effective in both reducing influenza infection and asthma attacks.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Edwards MR, Strong K, Cameron A, Walton RP, Jackson DJ, Johnston SLet al., 2017, Viral infections in allergy and immunology: How allergic inflammation influences viral infections and illness, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 140, Pages: 909-920, ISSN: 0091-6749

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Farne HA, Johnston SL, 2017, Immune mechanisms of respiratory viral infections in asthma, CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 48, Pages: 31-37, ISSN: 0952-7915

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Upton N, Jackson DJ, Nikonova AA, Hingley-Wilson S, Khaitov M, del Rosario A, Traub S, Trujillo-Torralbo M-B, Habibi M, Elkin SL, Kon OM, Edwards MR, Mallia P, Footitt J, Macintyre J, Stanciu LA, Johnston SL, Sykes Aet al., 2017, Rhinovirus induction of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in airway and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma, PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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