307 results found
Miras A, Kamocka A, Pérez-Pevida B, et al., 2020, The effect of standard versus longer intestinal bypass on GLP-1 regulation and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The long-limb study, Diabetes Care, ISSN: 0149-5992
ObjectiveRoux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) characteristically enhances post-prandial levels of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a mechanism that contributes to its profound glucose-lowering effects. This enhancement is thought to be triggered by bypass of food to the distal small intestine with higher densities of neuroendocrine L-cells. We hypothesised that if this is the predominant mechanism behind the enhanced secretion of GLP-1, a longer intestinal bypass would potentiate the post-prandial peak in GLP-1, translating into higher insulin secretion and thus additional improvements in glucose tolerance. To investigate this, we conducted a mechanistic study comparing two variants of RYGB that differ in the length of intestinal bypass.Research Design and MethodsFifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity were randomised to either ‘standard limb’ RYGB (50cm biliopancreatic limb) or ‘long limb’ RYGB (150cm biliopancreatic limb). They underwent measurements of GLP-1 and insulin secretion following a mixed meal and insulin sensitivity using euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps at baseline, 2 weeks and at 20% weight loss after surgery.ResultsBoth groups exhibited enhancement in post-prandial GLP-1 secretion and improvements in glycaemia compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in post-prandial peak concentrations of GLP-1, time to peak, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. ConclusionThe findings of this study demonstrate that lengthening of the intestinal bypass in RYGB does not affect GLP-1 secretion. Thus, the characteristic enhancement of GLP-1 response after RYGB might not depend on delivery of nutrients to more distal intestinal segments.
Hameed S, Salem V, Alessimii H, et al., 2020, Imperial Satiety Protocol: A new non-surgical weight-loss programme, delivered in a health care setting, produces improved clinical outcomes for people with obesity, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, ISSN: 1462-8902
Moussa O, Zakeri R, Arhi C, et al., 2020, Impact of COVID-19 on Obesity Management Services in the United Kingdom (The COMS-UK study)., Obes Surg
Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has had a severe impact on all aspects of global healthcare delivery. This study aimed to investigate the nationwide impact of the pandemic on obesity management services in the UK in a questionnaire-based survey conducted of professionals involved in the delivery. A total of 168 clinicians took the survey; the majority of which maintained their usual clinical roles and were not redeployed except physicians and nurse specialists. Nearly all (97.8%) elective bariatric surgery was cancelled, 67.3% of units cancelled all multidisciplinary meeting activity, and the majority reduced clinics (69.6%). Most respondents anticipated that the services would recommence within 1-3 months. This study found that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on the services involved in the management of patients suffering from severe, complex obesity in the UK.
Lam K, Clarke J, Purkayastha S, et al., 2020, Uptake and accessibility of surgical robotics in England, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ROBOTICS AND COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY, ISSN: 1478-5951
Evans-Harvey K, Erridge S, Karamchandani U, et al., 2020, Comparison of surgeon gaze behaviour against objective skill assessment in laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a prospective cohort study., Int J Surg, Vol: 82, Pages: 149-155
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking technology may provide the basis of a novel, objective technical skill assessment in surgery. Past research has showed differences in the gaze patterns between expert and novice surgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gaze behaviors and technical skill during laparoscopic cholecystectomy as determined by objective assessment scores. METHODS: Gaze behaviors of surgeons performing laparoscopic cholecystectomies were mapped using wearable eye tracking apparatus. Two impartial surgeons retrospectively analyzed video footage of the procedure to perform Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) assessments. Primary endpoints were correlation between gaze behaviours (dwell time (%) and fixation frequency (count/s)) and OSATS scores. Dwell time was defined as the percentage of time spent fixating on particular visual areas of interest (AOI). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationship between primary endpoints and AOIs. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: 13 procedures were analyzed. Throughout all operative segments, a negative correlation was present between operating theatre dwell time and OSATS scores (p < 0.05). During dissection of Calot's triangle, there was a strong positive correlation between laparoscopic screen dwell time and OSATS scoring [r = 0.655, p < 0.05]. Scrub nurse dwell time during dissection of Calot's triangle showed a strong negative correlation with OSATS scoring [r = -0.619, p < 0.05]. During dissection of gallbladder fossa, operating theatre fixation frequency negatively correlated against OSATS scores [r = -0.566, p < 0.05]. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a greater focus on significant visual stimuli alongside a lack of attention to non-essential stimuli during critical stages of the operative period is associated with greater te
Denning M, Goh ET, Scott A, et al., 2020, What has been the impact of Covid-19 on Safety Culture? A case study from a large metropolitan teaching hospital, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 17, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1660-4601
Covid-19 has placed an unprecedented demand on healthcare systems worldwide. A positive safety culture is associated with improved patient safety and in turn patient outcomes. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of Covid-19 on safety culture. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) was used to investigate safety culture at a large UK healthcare trust during Covid-19. Findings were compared with baseline data from 2017. Incident reporting from the year preceding the pandemic was also examined. SAQ scores of doctors and 'other clinical staff', were relatively higher than the nursing group. During Covid-19, on univariate regression analysis, female gender, age 40-49 years, non-white ethnicity, and nursing job role were all associated with lower SAQ scores. Training and support for redeployment were associated with higher SAQ scores. On multivariate analysis, non-disclosed gender (-0.13), non-disclosed ethnicity (-0.11), nursing role (-0.15), and support (0.29) persisted to significance. A significant decrease (p<0.003) was seen in error reporting after the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. This is the first study to investigate SAQ during Covid-19. Differences in SAQ scores were observed during Covid-19 between professional groups when compared to baseline. Reductions in incident reporting were also seen. These changes may reflect perception of risk, changes in volume or nature of work. High-quality support for redeployed staff may be associated with improved safety perception during future pandemics.
Zakka K, Erridge S, Chidambaram S, et al., 2020, Electrocautery, diathermy, and surgical energy devices: are surgical teams at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic?, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 272, Pages: e257-e262, ISSN: 0003-4932
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to provide a rapid synthesis of available data to identify the risk posed by utilizing surgical energy devices intraoperatively due to the generation of surgical smoke, an aerosol. Secondarily it aims to summarize methods to minimize potential risk to operating room staff. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Continuing operative practice during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic places the health of operating theatre staff at potential risk. SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through inhaled droplets and aerosol particles, thus posing an inhalation threat even at considerable distance. Surgical energy devices generate an aerosol of biological particular matter during use. The risk to healthcare staff through use of surgical energy devices is unknown. METHODS: This review was conducted utilizing a rapid review methodology to enable efficient generation and dissemination of information useful for concurrent clinical practice. RESULTS: There are conflicting stances on the use of energy devices and laparoscopy by different surgical governing bodies and societies. There is no definitive evidence that aerosol generated by energy devices may carry active SARS-CoV2 virus. However, investigations of other viruses have demonstrated aerosolization through energy devise use. Measures to reduce potential transmission include appropriate personal protective equipment, evacuation and filtration of surgical plume, limiting energy device use if appropriate, and adjusting endoscopic and laparoscopic practice (low CO2 pressures, evacuation through ultrafiltration systems). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of transmission of SARS-CoV2 through aerosolized surgical smoke associated with energy device use is not fully understood, however transmission is biologically plausible. Caution and appropriate measures to reduce risk to healthcare staff should be implemented when considering intraoperative use of energy devices.
Martin G, Koiza L, Kooner A, et al., 2020, Protecting healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic with new technologies: acceptability, feasibility and impact of the HoloLens2™ mixed reality headset across multiple clinical settings, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1438-8871
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to rapid acceleration in the deployment of new digital technologies to improve both accessibility and quality of care, and to protect staff. Mixed reality technology is the latest iteration of telemedicine innovation and is logical next step in the move towards the provision of digitally supported clinical care and medical education. The technology has the potential to revolutionise care both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.Objective:This pilot project sought to deploy the HoloLens2™ mixed reality (MR) device to support the delivery of remote care in COVID-19 hospital environments.Methods:A prospective observational nested cohort evaluation of the HoloLens2™ was undertaken across three distinct clinical clusters in a UK teaching hospital. Data pertaining to staff exposure to high-risk COVID-19 environments and PPE use were collected, and assessments of acceptability and feasibility conducted.Results:The deployment of HoloLens2™ led to a 51·5% reduction in time exposed to harm for staff looking after COVID-19 patients (3·32 vs. 1·63 hours/day/staff member, p=0·002), and a 83·1% reduction in the amount of PPE used (178 vs. 30 items/round/day, p=0·017). This represents 222.98hrs reduced staff exposure to COVID-19, and 3,100 fewer items of PPE used each week across the three clusters evaluated. The majority of staff using the device agreed it was easy to set up and comfortable to wear, improved the quality of care and decision making, and led to better teamwork and communication. 89·3% of users felt that their clinical team was safer when using the HoloLens2™.Conclusions:New technologies have a role in minimising exposure to nosocomial infection, optimising the use of PPE and enhancing aspects of care. Deploying such technologies at pace requires context specific information security, infection control, and user experience and workflow integration to
Pouwels S, Omar I, Aggarwal S, et al., 2020, The First Modified Delphi Consensus Statement for Resuming Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery in the COVID-19 Times, OBESITY SURGERY, ISSN: 0960-8923
Markar SR, Martin G, Penna M, et al., 2020, Changing the paradigm of surgical research during a pandemic, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 272, Pages: e170-e171, ISSN: 0003-4932
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a paradigm shift in how we manage surgical patients. Assuch, there is an immediate need to adapt the traditional model of surgical research in order tocreate pragmatic studies with adaptive designs in order to rapidly disseminate key knowledgeamongst the global surgical community.
Chidambaram S, Erridge S, Kinross J, et al., 2020, Observational study of UK mobile health apps for COVID-19, The Lancet Digital Health, Vol: 2, Pages: e388-e390, ISSN: 2589-7500
<jats:p>BackgroundThe Covid-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented pressure on healthcare systems and workers around the world. Such pressures may impact on working conditions, psychological wellbeing and perception of safety. In spite of this, no study has assessed the relationship between safety attitudes and psychological outcomes. Moreover, only limited studies have examined the relationship between personal characteristics and psychological outcomes during Covid-19.MethodsFrom 22nd March 2020 to 18th June 2020, healthcare workers from the United Kingdom, Poland, and Singapore were invited to participate using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate safety culture, burnout and anxiety/depression. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of burnout, anxiety and depression.ResultsOf 3,537 healthcare workers who participated in the study, 2,364 (67%) screened positive for burnout, 701 (20%) for anxiety, and 389 (11%) for depression. Significant predictors of burnout included patient-facing roles: doctor (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.49-2.95), nurse (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.04-1.84), and other clinical staff (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.45-2.82); being redeployed (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.02-1.58), bottom quartile SAQ score (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.98-2.99), anxiety (OR 4.87; 95% CI 3.92-6.06) and depression (OR 4.06; 95% CI 3.04-5.42). Factors significantly protective for burnout included being tested for SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.51-0.82) and top quartile SAQ score (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.22-0.40). Significant factors associated with anxiety and depression, included burnout, gender, safety attitudes and job role.ConclusionOur findings demonstrate a significant burden of burnout, anxiety, and depression amongst healthcare workers. A strong association was seen between SARS-CoV-2 testing, safety attitudes, gender, job role, redeploymen
Williams SP, Nicolay CR, Purkayastha S, et al., 2020, Organizational health in healthcare organizations - psychometric validation of the Healthcare-OH survey across fifteen acute NHS trusts in England, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT, ISSN: 2047-9700
Denning M, Goh ET, Scott A, et al., 2020, What has been the impact of Covid-19 on Safety Culture? A case study from a large metropolitan teaching hospital., Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:p>IntroductionCovid-19 has placed an unprecedented demand on healthcare systems worldwide. A positive safety culture is associated with improved patient safety and in turn patient outcomes. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of Covid-19 on safety culture. MethodsThe Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) was used to investigate safety culture at a large UK teaching hospital during Covid-19. Findings were compared with baseline data from 2017. Incident reporting from the year preceding the pandemic was also examined. ResultsSignificant increased were seen in SAQ scores of doctors and 'other clinical staff', there was no change in the nursing group. During Covid-19, on univariate regression analysis, female gender, age 40-49 years, non-white ethnicity, and nursing job role were all associated with lower SAQ scores. Training and support for redeployment were associated with higher SAQ scores. On multivariate analysis, non-disclosed gender (-0.13), non-disclosed ethnicity (-0.11), nursing role (-0.15), and support (0.29) persisted to significance. A significant decrease (p<0.003) was seen in error reporting after the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. DiscussionThis is the first study to report SAQ during Covid-19 and compare with baseline. Differences in SAQ scores were observed during Covid-19 between professional groups and compared to baseline. Reductions in incident reporting were also seen. These changes may reflect perception of risk, changes in volume or nature of work. High-quality support for redeployed staff may be associated with improved safety perception during future pandemics.</jats:p>
Kamocka A, McGlone ER, Pérez-Pevida B, et al., 2020, Candy cane revision after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Surgical Endoscopy, Vol: 34, Pages: 2076-2081, ISSN: 0930-2794
BACKGROUND: An excessively long-blind end of the alimentary limb following a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), known as a 'candy cane' (CC), may cause symptoms including abdominal pain, regurgitation and vomiting. Very few studies have examined the efficacy of surgical resection of the CC. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess sensitivity of preoperative diagnostic tools for CC, as well as perioperative outcomes and symptom resolution after CC revision surgery. SETTING: High volume bariatric centre of excellence, United Kingdom. METHODS: Observational study of CC revisions from 2010 to 2017. RESULTS: Twenty-eight CC revision cases were identified (mean age 45 ± 9 years, female preponderance 9:1). Presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (86%), regurgitation/vomiting (43%), suboptimal weight loss (36%) and acid reflux (21%). Preoperative tests provided correct diagnosis in 63% of barium contrast swallows, 50% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and 29% computed tomographies. Patients presenting with pain had significantly higher CC size as compared with pain-free group (4.2 vs. 2 cm, p = 0.001). Perioperative complications occurred in 25% of cases. Complete or partial symptom resolution was documented in 73% of patients undergoing CC revision. Highest success rates were recorded in the regurgitation/vomiting group (67%). CONCLUSION: Surgical revision of CC is associated with good symptom resolution in the majority of patients, especially those presenting with regurgitation/vomiting. However, it carries certain risk of complications. CC diagnosis may frequently be missed; hence more than one diagnostic tool should be considered when investigating symptomatic patients after RYGB.
Erridge S, Purkayastha S, 2020, eLogbook in surgical training: Time to embrace video? An invited commentary on “Use of the eLogbook in surgical training in the United Kingdom: A nationwide survey and consensus recommendations from the Association of Surgeons in Trainingˮ, International Journal of Surgery, Vol: 77, Pages: 114-115, ISSN: 1743-9191
Williams SP, Panigyraki A, Purkayastha S, et al., 2020, Defining a Healthy Organisation in Primary Care: A Qualitative Interview Study., Hosp Top, Vol: 98, Pages: 68-79
This study aimed to qualitatively develop a conceptual framework for organizational health, within the setting of GP practices in the UK, through a qualitative interview study utilizing aspects from grounded theory. Data saturation was reached after 33 interviews revealing six themes: Strategy, Resources, Leadership, Staff Wellbeing, Capacity for change and Ways of working. The structure of each theme is discussed in detail. By unpicking the elements of organizational health in GP practices in this way, we hope to shift focus from considering down-stream clinical outcomes in isolation to practices taking a more long-term view centered around fostering ongoing high performance.
Alexiadou K, Cuenco J, Howard J, et al., 2020, Proglucagon peptide secretion profiles in type 2 diabetes before and after bariatric surgery: 1-year prospective study, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4897
Introduction Hyperglucagonemia is a key pathophysiological driver of type 2 diabetes. Although Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a highly effective treatment for diabetes, it is presently unclear how surgery alters glucagon physiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior of proglucagon-derived peptide (glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, glicentin) secretion after RYGB surgery.Research design and methods Prospective study of 19 patients with obesity and pre-diabetes/diabetes undergoing RYGB. We assessed the glucose, insulin, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), oxyntomodulin, glicentin and glucagon responses to a mixed-meal test (MMT) before and 1, 3 and 12 months after surgery. Glucagon was measured using a Mercodia glucagon ELISA using the ‘Alternative’ improved specificity protocol, which was validated against a reference liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry method.Results After RYGB, there were early improvements in fasting glucose and glucose tolerance and the insulin response to MMT was accelerated and amplified, in parallel to significant increases in postprandial GLP-1, oxyntomodulin and glicentin secretion. There was a significant decrease in fasting glucagon levels at the later time points of 3 and 12 months after surgery. Glucagon was secreted in response to the MMT preoperatively and postoperatively in all patients and there was no significant change in this postprandial secretion. There was no significant change in GIP secretion.Conclusions There is a clear difference in the dynamics of secretion of proglucagon peptides after RYGB. The reduction in fasting glucagon secretion may be one of the mechanisms driving later improvements in glycemia after RYGB.
Ardissino M, Moussa O, Eichhorn C, et al., 2020, ATRIAL FIBRILLATION AND OBESITY: LONG-TERM INCIDENCE AND OUTCOMES AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY, Conference of American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC) / World Congress of Cardiology (WCC), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 1986-1986, ISSN: 0735-1097
Moussa O, Ardissino M, Heaton T, et al., 2020, Effect of bariatric surgery on long-term cardiovascular outcomes: a nationwide nested cohort study, European Heart Journal, Vol: 41, Pages: 2660-2667, ISSN: 0195-668X
AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular outcomes of patients with obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nested cohort study was carried out within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The study cohort included the 3701 patients on the database who had undergone bariatric surgery and 3701 age, gender, and body mass index-matched controls. The primary endpoint was the composite of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke. Secondary endpoints included fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction alone, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke alone, incident heart failure, and mortality. The median follow-up achieved was 11.2 years. Patients who had undergone bariatric surgery had a significantly lower occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 0.410, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.274-0.615; P < 0.001]. This was mainly driven by a reduction in myocardial infarction (HR 0.412, 95% CI 0.280-0.606; P < 0.001) and not in acute ischaemic stroke (HR 0.536, 95% CI 0.164-1.748; P = 0.301). A reduction was also observed in new diagnoses of heart failure (HR 0.403, 95% CI 0.181-0.897; P = 0.026) and mortality (HR 0.254, 95% CI 0.183-0.353; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this large, nationwide cohort study support the association of bariatric surgery with lower long-term risk of major cardiovascular events and incident heart failure in patients with obesity.
Moussa O, Arhi C, Adrissino M, et al., 2020, Vitamin B12 imbalance and Bariatric surgery; A CPRD study, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S76-S76, ISSN: 0960-8923
Mansour S, Shakweh E, Tsironis C, et al., 2020, Standard-steps approach improves safety and efficacy in training bariatric fellowships, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S29-S30, ISSN: 0960-8923
Kamocka A, Miras AD, Perez-Pevida B, et al., 2020, Long versus standard biliopancreatic limb in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The LONG LIMB Trial., 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S4-S4, ISSN: 0960-8923
Moussa O, Adrissino M, Arhi C, et al., 2020, Iron deficiency after Bariatric surgery in the community, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S77-S77, ISSN: 0960-8923
Moussa O, Arhi C, Adrissino M, et al., 2020, Ferritin imbalance and Bariatric surgery, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S77-S77, ISSN: 0960-8923
Mansour S, Erridge S, Purkayastha S, 2020, Bariatric Tourism- Complications from Abroad and their Burden on the NHS, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S53-S54, ISSN: 0960-8923
Moussa O, Arhi C, Adrissino M, et al., 2020, Folate deficiency after Bariatric surgery; A CPRD study, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S55-S56, ISSN: 0960-8923
Clark J, Tsironis C, Hakky S, et al., 2020, Chronic Pain post Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass Surgery; defining a clear management strategy., 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S31-S32, ISSN: 0960-8923
Mansour S, Shakweh E, Tsironis C, et al., 2020, The Perfect Sleeve- How to avoid and manage Sleeve Gastrectomy Leak based on Current Best Evidence, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S47-S47, ISSN: 0960-8923
Moussa O, Ardissino M, Eichhorn C, et al., 2020, Atrial fibrillation and obesity: Long-term incidence and outcomes after bariatric surgery, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 2047-4873
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