Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Bioengineering

Professor of Neurotechnology



+44 (0)20 7594 1533s.schultz Website




4.11Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Quicke, P and Reynolds, S and Neil, M and Knopfel, T and Schultz, S and Foust, AJ},
doi = {10.1364/BOE.9.003678},
journal = {Biomedical Optics Express},
pages = {3678--3693},
title = {High speed functional imaging with source localized multifocal two-photon microscopy},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Multifocal two-photon microscopy (MTPM) increases imaging speed over single-focus scanning by parallelizing fluorescence excitation. The imaged fluorescence’s susceptibility to crosstalk, however, severely degrades contrast in scattering tissue. Here we present a source-localized MTPM scheme optimized for high speed functional fluorescence imaging in scattering mammalian brain tissue. A rastered line array of beamlets excites fluorescence imaged with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. We mitigate scattering-induced crosstalk by temporally oversampling the rastered image, generating grouped images with structured illumination, and applying Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to reassign scattered photons. Single images are then retrieved with a maximum intensity projection through the deconvolved image groups. This method increased image contrast at depths up to 112 μm in scattering brain tissue and reduced functional crosstalk between pixels during neuronal calcium imaging. Source-localization did not affect signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in densely labeled tissue under our experimental conditions. SNR decreased at low frame rates in sparsely labeled tissue, with no effect at frame rates above 50 Hz. Our non-descanned source-localized MTPM system enables high SNR, 100 Hz capture of fluorescence transients in scattering brain, increasing the scope of MTPM to faster and smaller functional signals.
AU - Quicke,P
AU - Reynolds,S
AU - Neil,M
AU - Knopfel,T
AU - Schultz,S
AU - Foust,AJ
DO - 10.1364/BOE.9.003678
EP - 3693
PY - 2018///
SN - 2156-7085
SP - 3678
TI - High speed functional imaging with source localized multifocal two-photon microscopy
T2 - Biomedical Optics Express
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -