Imperial College London

ProfessorSudhinThayyil

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Professor of Perinatal Neuroscience
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 8515s.thayyil

 
 
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Location

 

529Hammersmith HouseHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

130 results found

Thayyil S, Shankaran S, 2021, Rise and Fall of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Low-Resource Settings: Lessons from the HELIX Trial: Authors’ Reply, Indian Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN: 0019-5456

Journal article

Jenkins DD, Moss HG, Brown TR, Yazdani M, Thayyil S, Montaldo P, Vento M, Kuligowski J, Wagner C, Hollis BW, Wiest DBet al., 2021, Nac and vitamin d improve cns and plasma oxidative stress in neonatal hie and are associated with favorable long-term outcomes, Antioxidants, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2076-3921

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin D provide effective neuroprotection in animal mod-els of severe or inflammation-sensitized hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). To translate these FDA-approved drugs to HIE neonates, we conducted an early phase, open-label trial of 10 days of NAC (25, 40 mg/kg q12h) + 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol 0.05 mg/kg q12h, 0.03 mg/kg q24h), (NVD), for pharmacokinetic (PK) estimates during therapeutic hypothermia and normothermia. We paired PK samples with pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of plasma isoprostanoids, CNS glutathione (GSH) and total creatine (tCr) by serial MRS in basal ganglia (BG) before and after NVD infusion at five days. Infants had moderate (n = 14) or severe HIE (n = 16), funisitis (32%), and vitamin D deficiency (75%). NVD resulted in rapid, dose-responsive increases in CNS GSH and tCr that correlated positively with plasma [NAC], inversely with plasma isofurans, and was greater in infants with lower baseline [GSH] and [tCr], suggesting increases in these PD markers were titrated by neural demand. Hypothermia and normothermia altered NAC PK estimates. NVD was well tolerated. Excluding genetic syndromes (2), prolonged ECMO (2), lost-to-follow-up (1) and SIDS death (1), 24 NVD treated HIE infants have no evidence of cerebral palsy, autism or cognitive delay at 24–48 months. These data confirm that low, safe doses of NVD in HIE neonates decreased oxidative stress in plasma and CNS, improved CNS energetics, and are associated with favorable developmental outcomes at two to four years.

Journal article

Thayyil S, Pant S, Montaldo P, Shukla D, Oliveira V, Ivain P, Bassett P, Swami R, Mendoza J, Moreno-Morales M, Lally PJ, Benakappa N, Bandiya P, Shivarudhrappa I, Somanna J, Kantharajanna UB, Rajvanshi A, Krishnappa S, Joby PK, Jayaraman K, Chandramohan R, Kamalarathnam CN, Sebastian M, Tamilselvam I, Rajendran U, Soundrarajan R, Kumar V, Sudarsanan Het al., 2021, Hypothermia for moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy in low and middle-income countries (HELIX): a randomised control trial in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 9, Pages: e1273-e1285, ISSN: 2214-109X

Background: Although therapeutic hypothermia reduces death or disability after neonatal encephalopathy in high-income countries, its safety and efficacy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unclear. We examined if therapeutic hypothermia alongside optimal supportive intensive care reduces death or disability after neonatal encephalopathy in South Asia. Methods: We conducted a multi-country open label randomised controlled trial involving seven tertiary neonatal intensive care units in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, between August 2015 and September 2020. We allocated infants born at or after 36 weeks of gestation with moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy into whole body hypothermia (33·5 0 C) for 72 hours using a servo-controlled cooling device, or usual care (control group), within six hours of birth. All recruiting sites had facilities for invasive ventilation, cardiovascular support and access to 3 Telsa magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The primary outcome was a combined end point of death or moderate or severe disability at 18 to 22 months of age, assessed by Bayley scales of infant development (Version III).Findings: Of 576 eligible infants, we assigned 202 to hypothermia and 206 to control group. Primary outcome data were available for 394 (96·5%) infants, and occurred in 98(50·3%) of the hypothermia and 94 (47·2%) of the control group (Risk Ratio (RR) 1·06;95% confidence intervals (CI) 0·87 to 1·30 (p = 0·55). Eighty-four infants (42·4%) in the hypothermia group and 63 (31·3%) (p = 0·02) infants in the control group died, of whom 72 (35·6%) and 49 (23·8%) (p = 0·009) died during neonatal hospitalisation. Interpretation: Therapeutic hypothermia did not reduce the combined outcome of death or disability at18 months after neonatal encephalopathy in LMICs, but significantly increased mortality. Therapeutic hypothermia should not

Journal article

Krishnan V, Kumar V, Variane GFT, Carlo WA, Bhutta ZA, Sizonenko S, Hansen A, Shankaran S, Thayyil S, Newborn Brain Society Guidelines and Publications Committeeet al., 2021, Need for more evidence in the prevention and management of perinatal asphyxia and neonatal encephalopathy in low and middle-income countries: A call for action., Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Pages: 101271-101271, ISSN: 1084-2756

Although low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder 90 % of the neonatal encephalopathy (NE) burden, there is very little evidence base for prevention or management of this condition in these settings. A variety of antenatal factors including socio-economic deprivation, undernutrition and sub optimal antenatal and intrapartum care increase the risk of NE, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Implementing interventions based on the evidence from high-income countries to LMICs, may cause more harm than benefit as shown by the increased mortality and lack of neuroprotection with cooling therapy in the hypothermia for moderate or severe NE in low and middle-income countries (HELIX) trial. Pooled data from pilot trials suggest that erythropoietin monotherapy reduces death and disability in LMICs, but this needs further evaluation in clinical trials. Careful attention to supportive care, including avoiding hyperoxia, hypocarbia, hypoglycemia, and hyperthermia, are likely to improve outcomes until specific neuroprotective or neurorestorative therapies available.

Journal article

Krishnan V, Kumar V, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2021, Rise and fall of therapeutic hypothermia in low resource settings: Lessons from the HELIX trial, Indian Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN: 0019-5456

In the past decade, therapeutic hypothermia using a variety of low-cost devices has been widely implemented in India and other low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) without adequate evidence of either safety or efficacy. The recently reported data from the world’s largest cooling trial (HELIX - hypothermia for encephalopathy in low- and middle-income countries) in LMIC provides definitive evidence of harm of cooling therapy with increase in mortality (number to harm 9) and lack of neuroprotection. Although the HELIX participating centers were highly selected tertiary neonatal intensive care units in South Asia with facilities for invasive ventilation, cardiovascular support, and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the trial used state-of-the-art automated servo-controlled cooling devices, a therapy that is harmful under such optimal conditions cannot be safe in low-resource settings that cannot even afford servo-controlled cooling devices.The HELIX trial has set a new benchmark for conducting high quality randomized controlled trials in terms of research governance, consent, ethics, follow-up rates, and involvement of parents. The standard care for neonatal encephalopathy in LMIC should remain normothermia, with close attention to prevention of hyperthermia. There is no role for therapeutic hypothermia in LMIC as the efficacy of hypothermia is dependent on the population, and not merely on the level of neonatal intensive care facilities. Future research should explore timings and origins of brain injury and prevention of brain injury in LMIC, with a strong emphasis on academic research capacity building and patient and public engagement.

Journal article

Thayyil S, Shankaran S, 2021, No ifs, no buts – cooling therapy is harmful in low and middle-income countries, Indian Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN: 0019-5456

A series of papers published in this symposium on neonatal neurology highlights an urgent need for high-quality randomised control trials from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recently reported data from the HELIX trial – the largest cooling trial in the world, and the only phase III randomised control trial from LMIC, convincingly demonstrates that therapeutic hypothermia using a servo-controlled cooling device alongside optimal tertiary intensive care support is not neuroprotective, but increases mortality. Therapeutic hypothermia should no longer be used in India for neonatal encephalopathy. Additional chapters describe the recent updates on neonatal resuscitation, sepsis, neonatal seizures, and early neurodevelopmental interventions and use of nitric oxide in premature infants. The final chapter discusses the issues around neonatal death and calls for better bereavement support.

Journal article

Ivain P, Montaldo P, Khan A, Elagovan R, Burgod C, Moreno-Morales M, Pant S, Thayyil Set al., 2021, Erythropoietin monotherapy for neuroprotection after neonatal encephalopathy in low-to-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Neonatology: foetal and neonatal research, ISSN: 0006-3126

Background: Erythropoietin is a promising neuroprotective agent in both pre-clinical models and clinical trials involving infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE).We examined whether erythropoietin monotherapy improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in near-term and term infants with NE in low-middle income countries (LMICs).Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify studies published between January 1, 1999 and January 1, 2020that used erythropoietin (1,500 to 12,500 units/kg/dose)or one of its derivatives to treat NE in near-term and term infants. Our primary outcome was death or neuro-disability at 18 months of age or later. The following MeSH terms were used:[hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy], [erythropoietin], [newborn], [clinical trials]. A random effects model was used for the meta-analyses and statistical heterogeneity was assessed using a chi-square test and I2 index. Results: Five studies, which enrolled a total of 348 infants in LMICs, were retrieved. All studies included outcome data related to the use of erythropoietin monotherapy. However, only three of the five studies met the primary outcome of death or neuro-disability at 18 months of age or later. Erythropoietin dosages varied from 300 to 2500units/kg/dose. Erythropoietin significantly reduced the risk of death (during neonatal period and at follow-up) or neuro-disability at 18 months or later (p<0.05). Death or neuro-disability occurred in 27.59% of the erythropoietin group and 49.67% of the comparison group (Risk Ratio 0.56 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.75).Conclusion: The pooled data from small clinical trials suggests that erythropoietin monotherapy may improve neurodevelopmental outcomes after NE in LMIC settings where therapeutic hypothermia is not available. Further evaluation of erythropoietin in adequately powered clinical trials is required before it can be offered in routine clinical practice in these settings.

Journal article

Kumar V, Singla M, Thayyil S, 2021, Cooling in mild encephalopathy: Costs and perils of therapeutic creep, Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Vol: 26, ISSN: 1084-2756

Increasing confidence in therapeutic hypothermia and ambiguity of cooling guidelines has led to many clinicians extending its use to untested populations like mild encephalopathy, or even no encephalopathy. Poor quality clinical neurological examination for encephalopathy staging coupled with a fear of litigation if a baby with mild encephalopathy progress to moderate or severe encephalopathy appears to be the primary driver for this therapeutic creep. Recent data suggesting increased apoptosis with cooling uninjured brains, and lack of hypothermic neuroprotection in partial prolonged hypoxia, implies that such therapeutic creeps may cause more harm than benefit. Currently available preclinical and clinical data do not support the clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia for mild encephalopathy, although phase II clinical trials are ongoing. We recommend that until further evidence from adequately powered randomised controlled trials are available, cooling in mild encephalopathy need to be considered experimental and parental consent should be obtained before providing this therapy.

Journal article

Pant S, 2021, Parental and professional perceptions of informed consent and participation in a time-critical neonatal trial in Low and Middle-income countries: A mixed methods study, BMJ Global Health, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2059-7908

Introduction Time-critical neonatal trials in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) raise several ethical issues. Using a qualitative-dominant mixed-methods design, we explored informed consent process in Hypothermia for encephalopathy in low and middle-income countries (HELIX) trial conducted in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.Methods Term infants with neonatal encephalopathy, aged less than 6 hours, were randomly allocated to cooling therapy or usual care, following informed parental consent. The consenting process was audio-video (A-V) recorded in all cases. We analysed A-V records of the consent process using a 5-point Likert scale on three parameters—empathy, information and autonomy. In addition, we used exploratory observation method to capture relevant aspects of consent process and discussions between parents and professionals. Finally, we conducted in-depth interviews with a subgroup of 20 parents and 15 healthcare professionals. A thematic analysis was performed on the observations of A-V records and on the interview transcripts.Results A total of 294 A-V records of the HELIX trial were analysed. Median (IQR) score for empathy, information and autonomy was 5 (0), 5 (1) and 5 (1), respectively. However, thematic analysis suggested that the consenting was a ceremonial process; and parental decision to participate was based on unreserved trust in the treating doctors, therapeutic misconception and access to an expensive treatment free of cost. Most parents did not understand the concept of a clinical trial nor the nature of the intervention. Professionals showed a strong bias towards cooling therapy and reported time constraints and explaining to multiple family members as key challenges.Conclusion Despite rigorous research governance and consent process, parental decisions were heavily influenced by situational incapacity and a trust in doctors to make the right decision on their behalf. Further research is required to identify culturally and

Journal article

Moreno Morales M, Montaldo P, Ivain P, Pant S, Kumar V, Krishnan V, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2021, Association of Total Sarnat Score with brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, ISSN: 1359-2998

We examined the association of Total Sarnat Score (TSS) with brain injury on neonatal magnetic resonance (MR) and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO) (death or moderate or severe disability) at 2 years of age in 145 infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. TSS was associated with basal ganglia/thalamic injury on conventional MR (p=0.03) and thalamic N-acetyl aspartate on MR spectroscopy (R2=0.16, p=0.004) at 2 weeks of age, and Bayley Composite Cognitive (R2=0.18, p=0.01), Motor (R2=0.15, p=0.02) and Language (R2=0.11, p=0.01) Scores at 2 years of age after adjustment for seizures at the time of neurological assessment. The accuracy of TSS (area under the curve (AUC)=0.71) for predicting adverse NDO was similar to the modified Sarnat staging (AUC=0.72). TSS of >12 within 6 hours of birth indicated high risk of adverse NDO, while TSS of <4 indicated intact survival and was reassuring of a good outcome among cooled infants.

Journal article

Ivain P, Montaldo P, Khan A, Elagovan R, Burgod C, Moreno Morales M, Pant S, Thayyil Set al., 2021, Erythropoietin monotherapy for neuroprotection after neonatal encephalopathy in low 2 to-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of Perinatology, ISSN: 0743-8346

Objective: We examined whether erythropoietin monotherapy improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in near-term and term infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify studies that used erythropoietin (1,500 to 12,500 units/kg/dose) or a derivative to treat NE. Results: Five studies, with a total of 348 infants in LMICs, were retrieved. However, only three of the five studies met the primary outcome of death or neuro-disability at 18 months of age or later. Erythropoietin reduced the risk of death (during neonatal period and at follow55 up) or neuro-disability at 18 months or later (p<0.05). Death or neuro-disability occurred in 27.6% of the erythropoietin group and 49.7% of the comparison group (Risk Ratio 0.56 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.75). Conclusion: The pooled data suggests that erythropoietin monotherapy may improve outcomes after NE in LMICs where therapeutic hypothermia is not available.

Journal article

Patterson JK, Pant S, Jones DF, Taha S, Jones MS, Bauserman MS, Montaldo P, Bose CL, Thayyil Set al., 2021, Informed consent rates for neonatal randomized controlled trials in low- and lower middle-income versus high-income countries: a systematic review, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1932-6203

Objective: Legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements of medical research uniformly call for informed consent. We aimed to characterize and compare consent rates for neonatal randomized controlled trials in low- and lower middle-income countries versus high-income countries, and to evaluate the influence of study characteristics on consent rates.Methods: In this systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane for randomized controlled trials of neonatal interventions in low- and lower middle-income countries or high-income countries published 01/01/2013 to 01/04/2018. Our primary outcome was consent rate, the proportion of eligible participants who consented amongst those approached, extracted from the article or email with the author. Using a generalised linear model for fractional dependent variables, we analysed the odds of consenting in low- and lower middle-income countries versus high-income countries across control types and interventions.Findings: We screened 3523 articles, yielding 300 eligible randomized controlled trials with consent rates available for 135 low- and lower middle-income country trials and 65 high-income country trials. Median consent rates were higher for low- and lower middle-income countries (95.6%; interquartile range (IQR) 88.2–98.9) than high-income countries (82.7%; IQR 68.6–93.0; p<0.001). In adjusted regression analysis comparing low- and lower middle-income countries to high-income countries, the odds of consent for no placebo-drug/nutrition trials was 3.67 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.87–7.19; p = 0.0002) and 6.40 (95%CI 3.32–12.34; p<0.0001) for placebo-drug/nutrition trials.Conclusion: Neonatal randomized controlled trials in low- and lower middle-income countries report consistently higher consent rates compared to high-income country trials. Our study is limited by the overrepresentation of India among randomized controlled trials in low- and lower middle-income countries. This st

Journal article

Montaldo P, Cunnington A, Oliveira V, Swamy R, Bandya P, Pant S, Lally P, Ivain P, Mendoza J, Atreja G, Padmesh V, Baburaj M, Sebastian M, Yasashwi I, Kamalarathnam C, Chandramohan R, Mangalabharathi S, Kumaraswami K, Kumar S, Benakappa N, Manerkar S, Mondhkar J, Prakash V, Sajjid M, Seeralar A, Jahan I, Choudhury Moni S, Shahidullah M, Sujatha R, Chandrasekaran M, Ramji S, Shankaran S, Kaforou M, Herberg J, Thayyil Set al., 2020, Transcriptomic profile of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2045-2322

A rapid and early diagnostic test to identify the encephalopathic babies at risk of adverse outcome may accelerate the development of neuroprotectants. We examined if a whole blood transcriptomic signature measured soon after birth,predicts adverse neurodevelopmental outcomeeighteenmonths after neonatal encephalopathy.We performed next generation sequencing on whole blood ribonucleic acid obtained within sixhours of birth from the first 47encephalopathic babies recruited to the Hypothermia for Encephalopathy in Low and middle-income countries (HELIX)trial. Two infants with blood culture positive sepsis were excluded, and the data from remaining 45 were analysed. A total of 855genes were significantly differentially expressed between the good and adverse outcome groups, of which RGS1and SMC4 werethe most significant. Biological pathway analysis adjusted for gender, trial randomisation allocation (cooling therapy versus usual care) and estimated blood leukocyte proportions revealed over-representation of genes from pathways related to melatoninand polo-like kinase in babieswith adverse outcome. These preliminary data suggest that transcriptomic profiling may be a promising tool for rapid risk stratification in neonatal encephalopathy. It may provide insights into biological mechanismsand identify novel therapeutic targetsfor neuroprotection.

Journal article

Burgod C, Thayyil S, Montaldo P, 2020, The use of gene expression as a disease stratification tool of neonatal encephalopathy, Pediatric Research, Vol: 89, Pages: 12-13, ISSN: 0031-3998

Journal article

Cartwright JH, Aziz Q, Harmer SC, Thayyil S, Tinker A, Munroe PBet al., 2020, Genetic variants in TRPM7 associated with unexplained stillbirth modify ion channel function, Human Molecular Genetics, Vol: 29, Pages: 1797-1807, ISSN: 0964-6906

INTRODUCTION: Stillbirth is the loss of a foetus after 22 weeks of gestation, of which almost half go completely unexplained despite post-mortem. We recently sequenced 35 arrhythmia-associated genes from 70 unexplained stillbirth cases. Our hypothesis was that deleterious mutations in channelopathy genes may have a functional effect in utero that may be pro-arrhythmic in the developing foetus. We observed four heterozygous, nonsynonymous variants in TRPM7, a ubiquitously expressed ion channel known to regulate cardiac development and repolarisation in mice. METHODS: We used site-directed mutagenesis and single-cell patch-clamp to analyse the functional effect of the four stillbirth mutants on TRPM7 ion channel function in heterologous cells. We also used cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells to model the contribution of TRPM7 to action potential morphology. RESULTS: Our results show that two TRPM7 variants, p.G179V and p.T860M lead to a marked reduction in ion channel conductance. This observation was underpinned by a lack of measurable TRPM7 protein expression, which in the case of p.T860M was due to rapid proteasomal degradation. We also report that human hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes possess measurable TRPM7 currents, however siRNA knockdown did not directly affect action potential morphology. CONCLUSION: TRPM7 variants found in the unexplained stillbirth population adversely affect ion channel function and this may precipitate fatal arrhythmia in utero.

Journal article

Kariholu U, Montaldo P, Markati T, Lally PJ, Teiserskas J, Liow N, Oliveira V, Soe A, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2020, Therapeutic hypothermia for mild neonatal encephalopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 105, Pages: 225-228, ISSN: 1359-2998

Objectives To examine if therapeutic hypothermia reduces the composite outcome of death, moderate or severe disability at 18 months or more after mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE).Data source MEDLINE, Cochrane database, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, using ‘hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy’, ‘newborn’ and ‘hypothermia’, and ‘clinical trials’ as medical subject headings and terms. Manual search of the reference lists of all eligible articles and major review articles and additional data from the corresponding authors of selected articles.Study selection Randomised and quasirandomised controlled trials comparing therapeutic hypothermia with usual care.Data extraction Safety and efficacy data extracted independently by two reviewers and analysed.Results We included the data on 117 babies with mild NE inadvertently recruited to five cooling trials (two whole-body cooling and three selective head cooling) of moderate and severe NE, in the meta-analysis. Adverse outcomes occurred in 11/56 (19.6%) of the cooled babies and 12/61 (19.7%) of the usual care babies (risk ratio 1.11 (95% CIs 0.55 to 2.25)).Conclusions Current evidence is insufficient to recommend routine therapeutic hypothermia for babies with mild encephalopathy and significant benefits or harm cannot be excluded.

Journal article

Montaldo P, Ivain P, Lally P, Bassett P, Pant S, Oliveira V, Mendoza J, Morales M, Swamy R, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2020, White matter injury after neonatal encephalopathy is associated with thalamic metabolite perturbations, EBioMedicine, Vol: 52, ISSN: 2352-3964

BackgroundAlthough thalamic magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (MRS) accurately predicts adverse outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy, its utility in infants without MR visible deep brain nuclei injury is not known. We examined thalamic MRS metabolite perturbations in encephalopathic infants with white matter (WM) injury with or without cortical injury and its associations with adverse outcomes.MethodsWe performed a subgroup analysis of all infants recruited to the MARBLE study with isolated WM or mixed WM/cortical injury, but no visible injury to the basal ganglia/thalamus (BGT) or posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). We used binary logistic regression to examine the association of MRS biomarkers with three outcomes (i) WM injury score (1 vs. 2/3); (ii) cortical injury scores (0/1 vs. 2/3); and (iii) adverse outcomes (defined as death, moderate/severe disability) at two years (yes/no). We also assessed the accuracy of MRS for predicting adverse outcome.FindingsOf the 107 infants included in the analysis, five had adverse outcome. Reduced thalamic N-acetylaspartate concentration [NAA] (odds ratio 0.4 (95% CI 0.18–0.93)) and elevated thalamic Lactate/NAA peak area ratio (odds ratio 3.37 (95% CI 1.45–7.82)) were significantly associated with higher WM injury scores, but not with cortical injury. Thalamic [NAA] (≤5.6 mmol/kg/wet weight) had the best accuracy for predicting adverse outcomes (sensitivity 1.00 (95% CI 0.16–1.00); specificity 0.95 (95% CI 0.84–0.99)).InterpretationThalamic NAA is reduced in encephalopathic infants without MR visible deep brain nuclei injury and may be a useful predictor of adverse outcomes.FundingThe National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).

Journal article

Montaldo P, Vakharia A, Ivain P, Mendoza J, Oliveira V, Markati T, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2020, Pre-emptive opioid sedation during therapeutic hypothermia, Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 105, Pages: 108-109, ISSN: 1359-2998

Journal article

Thayyil S, 2019, Cooling therapy for the management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in middle-income countries: we can, but should we?, Paediatrics and International Child Health, Vol: 39, Pages: 231-233, ISSN: 2046-9047

In the past decade a large number of studies of cooling for the treatment of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy have been reported from middleincome countries (MIC), yet credible evidence of its safety and efficacy is still lacking. Although cooling therapy should not be considered in settings which lack basic neonatal care, many neonatal units in India and other MIC have excellent tertiary neonatal intensive care facilities. Most of these centres now routinely offer cooling therapy in clinical practice using a wide range of devices including ice and phase-change material (PCM). A large trial (HELIX: Hypothermia for Encephalopathy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries) involving 408 infants with moderate and severe encephalopathy in seven tertiary academic neonatal units in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh recently completed recruitment, and assessment of the neurodevelopmental outcome is ongoing. Considering the differences in population co-morbidities and the strong association between increased neonatal mortality and hypothermia, it would be prudent for clinicians in tertiary neonatal units in MIC to await the results of the HELIX trial before offering cooling therapy as standard care.

Journal article

Montaldo P, Lally P, Oliveira V, Swamy R, Mendoza J, Atreja G, Kariholu U, Shivamurthappa V, Liow N, Teiserskas J, Pryce R, Soe A, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2019, Therapeutic hypothermia initiated within 6 hours of birth is associated with reduced brain injury on MR biomarkers in mild hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a non-randomised cohort study, Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 104, Pages: F515-F520, ISSN: 1359-2998

Objective To examine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on MR biomarkers and neurodevelopmental outcomes in babies with mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE).Design Non-randomised cohort study.Setting Eight tertiary neonatal units in the UK and the USA.Patients 47 babies with mild HIE on NICHD neurological examination performed within 6 hours after birth.Interventions Whole-body cooling for 72 hours (n=32) or usual care (n=15; of these 5 were cooled for <12 hours).Main outcome measures MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS) within 2 weeks after birth, and a neurodevelopmental outcome assessment at 2 years.Results The baseline characteristics in both groups were similar except for lower 10 min Apgar scores (p=0.02) in the cooled babies. Despite this, the mean (SD) thalamic NAA/Cr (1.4 (0.1) vs 1.6 (0.2); p<0.001) and NAA/Cho (0.67 (0.08) vs 0.89 (0.11); p<0.001) ratios from MRS were significantly higher in the cooled group. Cooled babies had lower white matter injury scores than non-cooled babies (p=0.02). Four (27%) non-cooled babies with mild HIE developed seizures after 6 hours of age, while none of the cooled babies developed seizures (p=0.008). Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years were available in 40 (85%) of the babies. Adverse outcomes were seen in 2 (14.3%) non-cooled babies, and none of the cooled babies (p=0.09).Conclusions Therapeutic hypothermia may have a neuroprotective effect in babies with mild HIE, as demonstrated by improved MRS biomarkers and reduced white matter injury on MRI. This may warrant further evaluation in adequately powered randomised controlled trials.

Journal article

Oliveira V, von Rosenberg W, Montaldo P, Adjei T, Mendoza J, Shivamurthappa V, Mandic D, Thayyil Set al., 2019, Early postnatal heart rate variability in healthy newborn infants, Frontiers in Physiology, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1664-042X

Background: Despite the increasing interest in fetal and neonatal heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and its potential use as a tool for early disease stratification, no studies have previously described the normal trends of HRV in healthy babies during the first hours of postnatal life.Methods: We prospectively recruited 150 healthy babies from the postnatal ward and continuously recorded their electrocardiogram during the first 24 h after birth. Babies were included if born in good condition and stayed with their mother. Babies requiring any medication or treatment were excluded. Five-minute segments of the electrocardiogram (non-overlapping time-windows) with more than 90% consecutive good quality beats were included in the calculation of hourly medians and interquartile ranges to describe HRV trends over the first 24 h. We used multilevel mixed effects regression with auto-regressive covariance structure for all repeated measures analysis and t-tests to compare group differences. Non-normally distributed variables were log-transformed.Results: Nine out of 16 HRV metrics (including heart rate) changed significantly over the 24 h [Heart rate p < 0.01; Standard deviation of the NN intervals p = 0.01; Standard deviation of the Poincaré plot lengthwise p < 0.01; Cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) p < 0.01; Normalized high frequency power p = 0.03; Normalized low frequency power p < 0.01; Total power p < 0.01; HRV index p = 0.01; Parseval index p = 0.03], adjusted for relevant clinical variables. We observed an increase in several HRV metrics during the first 6 h followed by a gradual normalization by approximately 12 h of age. Between 6 and 12 h of age, only heart rate and the normalized low frequency power changed significantly, while between 12 and 18 h no metric, other than heart rate, changed significantly. Analysis with multilevel mixed effects regression analysis (multivariable) revealed that gestational age, reduced fetal movements, cardi

Journal article

Montaldo P, Swamy R, Bassett P, Lally PJ, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2019, Pitfalls in using neonatal brain NAA to predict infant development - Authors' reply., The Lancet Neurology, Vol: 18, Pages: 423-424, ISSN: 1474-4422

Journal article

Thayyil S, Liow N, Montaldo P, Lally P, Teiserskas J, Bassett P, Oliveira V, Mendoza J, Slater R, Shankaran Set al., 2019, Pre-emptive morphine during therapeutic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: a secondary analysis, Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management, Vol: 10, Pages: 45-52, ISSN: 2153-7658

Although therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy (NE), the safety and efficacy of preemptive opioid sedation during cooling therapy is unclear. We performed a secondary analysis of the data from a large multicountry prospective observational study (Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers in Neonatal Encephalopathy [MARBLE]) to examine the association of preemptive morphine infusion during TH on brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes after NE. All recruited infants had 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy at 1 week, and neurodevelopmental outcome assessments at 22 months. Of 223 babies recruited to the MARBLE study, the data on sedation were available from 169 babies with moderate (n = 150) or severe NE (n = 19). Although the baseline characteristics and admission status were similar, the babies who received morphine infusion (n = 141) were more hypotensive (49% vs. 25%, p = 0.02) and had a significantly longer hospital stay (12 days vs. 9 days, p = 0.009) than those who did not (n = 28). Basal ganglia/thalamic injury (score ≥1) and cortical injury (score ≥1) was seen in 34/141 (24%) and 37/141 (26%), respectively, of the morphine group and 4/28 (14%) and 3/28 (11%) of the nonmorphine group (p > 0.05). On regression modeling adjusted for potential confounders, preemptive morphine was not associated with mean (standard deviation [SD]) thalamic N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentration (6.9 ± 0.9 vs. 6.5 ± 1.5; p = 0.97), and median (interquartile range) lactate/NAA peak area ratios (0.16 [0.12–0.21] vs. 0.13 [0.11–0.18]; p = 0.20) at 1 week, and mean (SD) Bayley-III composite motor (92 ± 23 vs. 94 ± 10; p = 0.98), language (89 ± 22 vs. 93 ± 

Journal article

Lally PJ, Montaldo P, Oliveira V, Soe A, Swamy R, Bassett P, Mendoza J, Atreja G, Kariholu U, Pattnayak S, Sashikumar P, Harizaj H, Mitchell M, Ganesh V, Harigopal S, Dixon J, English P, Clarke P, Muthukumar P, Satodia P, Wayte S, Abernethy LJ, Yajamanyam K, Bainbridge A, Price D, Huertas A, Sharp DJ, Kalra V, Chawla S, Shankaran S, Thayyil Set al., 2019, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of brain injury after moderate hypothermia in neonatal encephalopathy: a prospective multi-centre study, Lancet Neurology, Vol: 18, Pages: 35-45, ISSN: 1474-4422

BackgroundIn neonatal encephalopathy (NE), the clinical manifestations of injury can only be reliably assessed several years after an intervention, complicating early prognostication and rendering trials of promising neuroprotectants slow and expensive. We aimed to determine the accuracy of thalamic proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) biomarkers as early predictors of the neurodevelopmental abnormalities observed years after NE.MethodsWe conducted a prospective multi-centre cohort study across eight neonatal intensive care units, recruiting term neonates who received therapeutic hypothermia for NE. We obtained thalamic 1H MRS 4 to 14 days after birth, which were compared to clinical neurodevelopmental tests performed 18 to 24 months later. The primary endpoint was anabnormal outcome, defined as death, or moderate or severe disability. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the strength of the relationship between selected biomarkers and this outcome.FindingsWe recruited 223 infants who all underwent MR imaging and spectroscopy at a median (IQR) age of 7 (5 to 10) days, with 190 (85%) followed up for neurological examination at a median (IQR) age of 23 (20 to 25) months. Of those followed up, 31 (16%) had moderate or severe disability, including one death. The thalamic concentration of Nacetylasparate, [NAA], had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0·99 (95% CI 0·94 to 1·00, n=82), and lactate/NAA peak area ratio had an AUC of 0·94 (95% CI 0·89 to 0·97, n=160). From conventional MRI, abnormal signal in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) gave an AUC of 0·82 (95% CI 0·76 to 0·87, n=190). Thalamic [NAA] was independentlyassociated with neurodevelopmental outcome scores on multivariable analysis, and had higher prognostic accuracy than conventional MR imaging (98% versus 87%; p<0·001).InterpretationThalamic 1H MRS measures acquired soon after

Journal article

Montaldo P, Kaforou M, Pollara G, Hervás-Maríne D, Calabria I, Panadero J, Pedrola L, Lally PJ, Oliveira V, Kage A, Atreja G, Mendoza J, Soe A, Pattnayak S, Shankaranh S, Vento M, Herberg J, Thayyil Set al., 2019, Whole blood gene expression reveals specific transcriptome changes in neonatal encephalopathy, Neonatology, Vol: 115, Pages: 68-76, ISSN: 1661-7800

BackgroundVariable responses to hypothermic neuroprotection are related to the clinical heterogeneity of encephalopathic babies, hence better disease stratification may facilitate the development of individualized neuroprotective therapies.ObjectivesWe examined if whole blood gene expression analysis can identify specific transcriptome profiles in neonatal encephalopathy. Material and MethodsWe performed next generation sequencing on whole blood RNA from twelve babies with neonatal encephalopathy, and six time-matched healthy term babies. The significantly differentially expressed genes between encephalopathic and control babies were identified. This set of genes was then compared to the host RNA response in septic neonates and subjected to pathway analysis. ResultsWe identified 950 statistically significant genes discriminating perfectly between the healthy controls and neonatal encephalopathy. The major pathways in neonatal encephalopathy were axonal guidance signaling (p =0.0009), granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis (p = 0.003), IL-12 Signaling and Production in Macrophages (p= 0.003) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α signaling (p = 0.004). There were only 137 genes in common between neonatal encephalopathy and bacterial sepsis sets. ConclusionBabies with neonatal encephalopathy have striking differences in gene expression profiles compared with healthy control and septic babies. Gene expression profile may be useful for disease stratification based and for developing personalized neuroprotective therapies.

Journal article

Montaldo P, Lally PJ, Oliveira V, Thayyil Set al., 2018, Hypothermic neuroprotection for neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries: a new approach to an old problem, NeoReviews.org, Vol: 19, Pages: e735-e741, ISSN: 1526-9906

Little progress has been made over the past decade in improving the outcomes of infants with neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), and millions of infants still die or sustain permanent neurodisability every year. One of the key reasons for this lack of progress is a disconnect between encephalopathy research in high-income countries and LMICs. The majority of the neonatal encephalopathy research has been conducted in high-income countries with a low disease burden, without the involvement of LMICs. Here we discuss how a collaborative approach—particularly between middle-income countries and high-income countries—enables the use of state-of-the-art magnetic resonance biomarkers and host gene expression profiling for effective disease stratification. Using the example of the Hypothermia for Encephalopathy in Low-and middle-Income countries (HELIX) trial, we describe how this approach may result in a paradigm shift in global perinatal brain research over the next decade.

Journal article

Oliveira V, Martins R, Liow N, Teiserskas J, von Rosenberg W, Adjei T, Shivamurthappa V, Lally PJ, Mandic D, Thayyil Set al., 2018, Prognostic accuracy of heart rate variability analysis in neonatal encephalopathy: a systematic review, Neonatology, Vol: 115, Pages: 59-67, ISSN: 1661-7800

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability analysis offers real-time quantification of autonomic disturbance after perinatal asphyxia, and may therefore aid in disease stratification and prognostication after neonatal encephalopathy (NE). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the existing literature on the accuracy of early heart rate variability (HRV) to predict brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after NE. DESIGN/METHODS: We systematically searched the literature published between May 1947 and May 2018. We included all prospective and retrospective studies reporting HRV metrics, within the first 7 days of life in babies with NE, and its association with adverse outcomes (defined as evidence of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and/or abnormal neurodevelopment at ≥1 year of age). We extracted raw data wherever possible to calculate the prognostic indices with confidence intervals. RESULTS: We retrieved 379 citations, 5 of which met the criteria. One further study was excluded as it analysed an already-included cohort. The 4 studies provided data on 205 babies, 80 (39%) of whom had adverse outcomes. Prognostic accuracy was reported for 12 different HRV metrics and the area under the curve (AUC) varied between 0.79 and 0.94. The best performing metric reported in the included studies was the relative power of high-frequency band, with an AUC of 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: HRV metrics are a promising bedside tool for early prediction of brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome in babies with NE. Due to the small number of studies available, their heterogeneity and methodological limitations, further research is needed to refine this tool so that it can be used in clinical practice.

Journal article

Chalak LF, Nguyen K-A, Prempunpong C, Heyne R, Thayyil S, Shankaran S, Laptook AR, Rollins N, Pappas A, Koclas L, Shah B, Montaldo P, Techasaensiri B, Sánchez PJ, Sant'Anna Get al., 2018, Prospective research in infants with mild encephalopathy identified in the first six hours of life: neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months, Pediatric Research, Vol: 84, Pages: 861-868, ISSN: 0031-3998

BACKGROUND: Studies of early childhood outcomes of mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) identified in the first 6 h of life are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of PRIME study. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective study of mild HIE defined as ≥1 abnormality using the modified Sarnat within 6 h of birth and not meeting cooling criteria. Primary outcome was disability with mild: Bayley III cognitive 70-84 or ≥85 and either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) 1 or 2, seizures, or hearing deficit; moderate: cognitive 70-84 and either GMFCS 2, seizures, or hearing deficit; severe: cognitive <70, GMFCS 3-5. RESULTS: Of the 63 infants enrolled, 51 (81%) were evaluated at 19 ± 2 months and 43 (68%) completed Bayley III. Of the 43 infants, 7 (16%) were diagnosed with disability, including 1 cerebral palsy and 2 autism. Bayley scores < 85 in either cognition, motor, or language were detected in 17 (40%): 14 (32%) language, 7 (16%) cognitive, and 6 (14%) motor domain. Infants with disability had more abnormalities on discharge examination and brain MRI, with longer hospital stay (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary untreated cohort of mild HIE, disability occurred in 16% of infants at 18-22 months.

Journal article

Paul SP, Chopra J, Kumar J, Singh A, Thayyil S, Shankaran S, Barwal VK, Sharma GA, Sood V, Alam S, Mohan Net al., 2018, Current status of therapeutic hypothermia in India: few concerns : authors' reply, Indian Pediatrics, Vol: 55, Pages: 346-350, ISSN: 0019-6061

Journal article

Thayyil S, Shankaran S, 2018, Current status of therapeutic hypothermia in India: few concerns, Indian Pediatrics, Vol: 55, Pages: 347-348, ISSN: 0019-6061

Journal article

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