Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

Research Postgraduate



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362City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

6 results found

Goh EL, Chidambaram S, Ma S, 2018, Laparoscopic vs open hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: A meta-analysis of the long-term survival outcomes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 50, Pages: 35-42, ISSN: 1743-9191


Arnold M, Zhao S, Ma S, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Cobb JP, Abel RL, Boughton Oet al., 2017, Microindentation - a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness? A systematic review., Bone Joint Res, Vol: 6, Pages: 542-549, ISSN: 2046-3758

OBJECTIVES: Microindentation has the potential to measure the stiffness of an individual patient's bone. Bone stiffness plays a crucial role in the press-fit stability of orthopaedic implants. Arming surgeons with accurate bone stiffness information may reduce surgical complications including periprosthetic fractures. The question addressed with this systematic review is whether microindentation can accurately measure cortical bone stiffness. METHODS: A systematic review of all English language articles using a keyword search was undertaken using Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Studies that only used nanoindentation, cancellous bone or animal tissue were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 1094 abstracts were retrieved and 32 papers were included in the analysis, 20 of which used reference point indentation, and 12 of which used traditional depth-sensing indentation. There are several factors that must be considered when using microindentation, such as tip size, depth and method of analysis. Only two studies validated microindentation against traditional mechanical testing techniques. Both studies used reference point indentation (RPI), with one showing that RPI parameters correlate well with mechanical testing, but the other suggested that they do not. CONCLUSION: Microindentation has been used in various studies to assess bone stiffness, but only two studies with conflicting results compared microindentation with traditional mechanical testing techniques. Further research, including more studies comparing microindentation with other mechanical testing methods, is needed before microindentation can be used reliably to calculate cortical bone stiffness.Cite this article: M. Arnold, S. Zhao, S. Ma, F. Giuliani, U. Hansen, J. P. Cobb, R. L. Abel, O. Boughton. Microindentation - a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness? A systematic review.Bone Joint Res2017;6:542-549. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.69.BJR-2016-0317.R2.


Boughton OR, Zhao S, Arnold M, Ma S, Cobb JP, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2017, Measuring bone stiffness using microindentation, British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) 2016 Conference, Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, Pages: 31-31, ISSN: 2049-4416


Ma S, Goh EL, Jin A, Bhattacharya R, Boughton OR, Patel B, Karunaratne A, Vo NT, Atwood R, Cobb JP, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2017, Long-term effects of bisphosphonate therapy: perforations, microcracks and mechanical properties, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322


Ma S, Boughton O, Karunaratne A, Jin A, Cobb JP, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2016, Synchrotron imaging assessment of bone quality, Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Vol: 14, Pages: 150-160, ISSN: 1559-0119

Bone is a complex hierarchical structure and its principal function is to resist mechanical forces and fracture. Bone strength depends not only on the quantity of bone tissue but also on the shape and hierarchical structure. The hierarchical levels are interrelated, especially the micro-architecture, collagen and mineral components; hence analysis of their speciļ¬c roles in bone strength and stiffness is difficult. Synchrotron imaging technologies including micro-CT and small/wide angle X-Ray scattering/diffraction are becoming increasingly popular for studying bone because the images can resolve deformations in the micro-architecture and collagen-mineral matrix under in situ mechanical loading. Synchrotron cannot be directly applied in-vivo due to the high radiation dose but will allow researchers to carry out systematic multifaceted studies of bone ex-vivo. Identifying characteristics of aging and disease will underpin future efforts to generate novel devices and interventional therapies for assessing and promoting healthy aging. With our own research work as examples, this paper introduces how synchrotron imaging technology can be used with in-situ testing in bone research.


Ma S, Goh EL, Patel B, Jin A, Boughton O, Cobb J, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2016, Are the cracks starting to appear in bisphosphonate therapy?, British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) 2016 Conference, Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, Pages: 53-53, ISSN: 2049-4416


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