11 results found
Icariin, the main active ingredient of Epimedium, has played an important role in bone anabolism. However, the molecular mechanism for this effect was not convincingly reported yet. In this paper, the role of icariin on cell morphology, viability, cell cycling and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were studied, and the molecular mechanism of icariin induced osteogenic effect was also investigated. Icariin with different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 ng/ml) was used to modify the pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells for 48, 72 and 96 h, and the proliferation, morphology, and the cell cycle of the cells were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), bone morphogenic protein receptor-2 (BMPR-2), Smad4, Smadl/5/8 proteins expression levels were obtained by Western blotting and the expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In this study, we found that icariin could promote the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Icariin could stimulate the expression of the BMP-2, BMPR-2, Smad4 and Smadl/5/8 proteins. Furthermore, icariin could upregulate the expression of Runx2 mRNA. These results showed that icariin played an important role in upregulating BMP-2 expression to activate the BMP-2/Smads/Runx2 signal pathway for increasing both the proliferation and differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells. However, the osteogenic effects of icariin can be suppressed by the BMP-2 antagonist (Noggin). In conclusion, we demonstrate that icariin is an osteoinductive factor that exerts its osteogenic effect by regulating the BMP-2/Smads/Runx2 signal pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells.
Boughton OR, Ma S, Zhao S, et al., 2018, Measuring bone stiffness using spherical indentation, PLOS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
Goh EL, Chidambaram S, Ma S, 2018, Laparoscopic vs open hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: A meta-analysis of the long-term survival outcomes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 50, Pages: 35-42, ISSN: 1743-9191
Arnold M, Zhao S, Ma S, et al., 2017, Microindentation - a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness? A systematic review., Bone Joint Res, Vol: 6, Pages: 542-549, ISSN: 2046-3758
OBJECTIVES: Microindentation has the potential to measure the stiffness of an individual patient's bone. Bone stiffness plays a crucial role in the press-fit stability of orthopaedic implants. Arming surgeons with accurate bone stiffness information may reduce surgical complications including periprosthetic fractures. The question addressed with this systematic review is whether microindentation can accurately measure cortical bone stiffness. METHODS: A systematic review of all English language articles using a keyword search was undertaken using Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Studies that only used nanoindentation, cancellous bone or animal tissue were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 1094 abstracts were retrieved and 32 papers were included in the analysis, 20 of which used reference point indentation, and 12 of which used traditional depth-sensing indentation. There are several factors that must be considered when using microindentation, such as tip size, depth and method of analysis. Only two studies validated microindentation against traditional mechanical testing techniques. Both studies used reference point indentation (RPI), with one showing that RPI parameters correlate well with mechanical testing, but the other suggested that they do not. CONCLUSION: Microindentation has been used in various studies to assess bone stiffness, but only two studies with conflicting results compared microindentation with traditional mechanical testing techniques. Further research, including more studies comparing microindentation with other mechanical testing methods, is needed before microindentation can be used reliably to calculate cortical bone stiffness.Cite this article: M. Arnold, S. Zhao, S. Ma, F. Giuliani, U. Hansen, J. P. Cobb, R. L. Abel, O. Boughton. Microindentation - a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness? A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:542-549. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.69.BJR-2016-0317.R2.
Boughton OR, Zhao S, Arnold M, et al., 2017, Measuring bone stiffness using microindentation, British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) 2016 Conference, Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, Pages: 31-31, ISSN: 2049-4416
Ma S, Goh EL, Jin A, et al., 2017, Long-term effects of bisphosphonate therapy: perforations, microcracks and mechanical properties, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
Bone is a complex hierarchical structure and its principal function is to resist mechanical forces and fracture. Bone strength depends not only on the quantity of bone tissue but also on the shape and hierarchical structure. The hierarchical levels are interrelated, especially the micro-architecture, collagen and mineral components; hence analysis of their speciﬁc roles in bone strength and stiffness is difficult. Synchrotron imaging technologies including micro-CT and small/wide angle X-Ray scattering/diffraction are becoming increasingly popular for studying bone because the images can resolve deformations in the micro-architecture and collagen-mineral matrix under in situ mechanical loading. Synchrotron cannot be directly applied in-vivo due to the high radiation dose but will allow researchers to carry out systematic multifaceted studies of bone ex-vivo. Identifying characteristics of aging and disease will underpin future efforts to generate novel devices and interventional therapies for assessing and promoting healthy aging. With our own research work as examples, this paper introduces how synchrotron imaging technology can be used with in-situ testing in bone research.
Ma S, Goh EL, Patel B, et al., 2016, Are the cracks starting to appear in bisphosphonate therapy?, British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) 2016 Conference, Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, Pages: 53-53, ISSN: 2049-4416
Goh EL, Lou WCN, Chidambaram S, et al., Joint distraction for knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis, Systematic Reviews, ISSN: 2046-4053
Yong W, Goh EL, Wang D, et al., Novel treatments for osteoarthritis: a recent update, Open Access Rheumatology : Research and Reviews, ISSN: 1179-156X
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent chronic joint condition worldwide. The principles of osteoarthritis treatment are to alleviate pain and stiffness as well as maintain function, with current consensus guidelines recommending the use of a combination of conservative measures including physical therapy, analgesia and surgical interventions such as arthroplasty. In recent years, several pharmacological therapies have emerged as potential alternatives. Although a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug has yet to be identified, promising results have been reported in recent trials especially with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, interleukin-1 antagonists and antibodies to nerve growth factor. The present review aims to summarize and discuss the latest results of novel treatments for osteoarthritis and potential targets for future research.
Zhao S, Arnold M, Ma S, et al., Standardising compression testing for measuring the stiffness of human bone: a systematic review, Bone and Joint Research, ISSN: 2046-3758
Objectives: The ability to determine human bone stiffness is of clinical relevance in many fields, including bone quality assessment and orthopaedic prosthesis design. Stiffness can be measured using compression testing; an experimental technique commonly used to test bone specimens in vitro. This systematic review aims to determine how best to perform compression testing of human bone. Methods: A keyword search of all English language articles up until December 2017 of compression testing of bone was undertaken in Medline, Embase, PubMed and Scopus databases. Studies using bulk tissue, animal tissue, whole bone or testing techniques other than compression testing were excluded. Results: 4712 abstracts were retrieved with a total of 177 papers included in the analysis. 20 studies directly analysed the compression testing technique to improve the accuracy of the testing technique. Several influencing factors should be considered when testing bone samples in compression. These include the method of data analysis, specimen storage, specimen preparation, testing configuration and loading protocol. Conclusions: Compression testing is a widely used technique for measuring the stiffness of bone but there is a great deal of inter-study variation in experimental techniques across the literature. Based on best evidence from the literature, suggestions for bone compression testing are made in this review, though further studies are needed to help establish standardised bone testing techniques to increase the comparability and reliability of bone stiffness studies.
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