Imperial College London

ProfessorSimakAli

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Molecular Endocrine Oncology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 2811simak.ali

 
 
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Location

 

133ICTEM buildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

153 results found

HART STEPHEN GB, ALI SIMAK GB, PUFONG BORIS TUMI GB, PORTER ANDREW CHRISTOPHER GEOR GB, BULUWELA LAKI GB, VAINIKKA SATU GB, JENKINSON JOHN DAVID GB, KANDA PATRICK GBet al., 2024, CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION USING A COMPLEX OF AN OLIGONUCLEOTIDE AND A REGULATORY PEPTIDE, WO2002GB04633

Patent

HART STEPHEN GB, ALI SIMAK GB, PUFONG BORIS T GB, PORTER ANDREW C G GB, BULUWELA LAKI GB, VAINIKKA SATU GB, JENKINSON JOHN D GB, KANDA PATRICK GBet al., 2023, Control of gene expression using a complex of an oligonucleotide and a regulatory peptide, US2005136040

Patent

Sava G, Fan H, Fisher R, Coombes R, Buluwela L, Ali Set al., ABC transporter upregulation mediates resistance to the CDK7 inhibitors THZ1 and ICEC0942., Oncogene, ISSN: 0950-9232

The CDK7 inhibitors (CDK7i) ICEC0942 and THZ1, are promising new cancer therapeutics. Resistance to targeted drugs frequently compromises cancer treatment. We sought to identify mechanisms by which cancer cells may become resistant to CDK7i. Resistant lines were established through continuous drug selection. ABC-transporter copy number, expression and activity were examined using real-time PCR, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. Drug responses were measured using growth assays. ABCB1 was up-regulated in ICEC0942-resistant cells and there was cross-resistance to THZ1. THZ1-resistant cells upregulated ABCG2 but remained sensitive to ICEC0942. Drug resistance in both cell lines was reversible upon inhibition of ABC-transporters. CDK7i response was altered in adriamycin- and mitoxantrone-resistant cell lines demonstrating ABC-transporter upregulation. ABCB1 expression correlated with ICEC0942 and THZ1 response, and ABCG2 expression with THZ2 response, in a panel of cancer cell lines. We have identified ABCB1 upregulation as a common mechanism of resistance to ICEC0942 and THZ1, and confirmed that ABCG2 upregulation is a mechanism of resistance to THZ1. The identification of potential mechanisms of CDK7i resistance and differences in susceptibility of ICEC0942 and THZ1 to ABC-transporters, may help guide their future clinical use.

Journal article

Nguyen VTM, Barozzi I, Faronato M, Lombardo Y, Steel JH, Patel N, Darbre P, Castellano L, Gyorffy B, Woodley L, Rodriguez-Meira A, Patten DK, Vircillo V, Periyasamy M, Ali S, Frige G, Minucci S, Coombes RC, Magnani Let al., 2019, Author Correction: Differential epigenetic reprogramming in response to specific endocrine therapies promotes cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular invasion, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Coombes RC, Page K, Salari R, Hastings RK, Armstrong A, Ahmed S, Ali S, Cleator S, Kenny L, Stebbing J, Rutherford M, Sethi H, Boydell A, Swenerton R, Fernandez-Garcia D, Gleason KLT, Goddard K, Guttery DS, Assaf ZJ, Wu H-T, Natarajan P, Moore DA, Primrose L, Dashner S, Tin AS, Balcioglu M, Srinivasan R, Shchegrova SV, Olson A, Hafez D, Billings P, Aleshin A, Rehman F, Toghill BJ, Hills A, Louie MC, Lin C-HJ, Zimmermann BG, Shaw JAet al., 2019, Personalized Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA Antedates Breast Cancer Metastatic Recurrence, CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 25, Pages: 4255-4263, ISSN: 1078-0432

Journal article

Szijgyarto Z, Flach KD, Opdam M, Palmieri C, Linn SC, Wesseling J, Ali S, Bliss JM, Cheang MCU, Zwart W, Coombes RCet al., 2019, Dissecting the predictive value of MAPK/AKT/estrogen-receptor phosphorylation axis in primary breast cancer to treatment response for tamoxifen over exemestane: a Translational Report of the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES)-PathIES, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 175, Pages: 149-163, ISSN: 0167-6806

PurposeThe prognostic and predictive values of the MAPK/AKT/ERα phosphorylation axis (pT202/T204MAPK, pT308AKT, pS473AKT, pS118ERα and pS167ERα) in primary tumours were assessed to determine whether these markers can differentiate between patient responses for switching adjuvant endocrine therapy after 2–3 years from tamoxifen to exemestane and continued tamoxifen monotherapy in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES).MethodsOf the 4724 patients in IES, 1506 were managed in a subset of centres (N = 89) participating in PathIES. These centres recruited 1282 (85%, 1282/1506) women into PathIES of whom 1036 had phospho-marker data. All phospho-markers were analysed by immunohistochemistry staining. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models of the phospho-markers for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were adjusted for clinicopathological factors. Treatment effects on the biomarker expression were determined by interaction tests. Benjamini–Hochberg adjustment for multiple testing with a false discovery rate of 10% was applied (pBH).ResultsPhospho-T202/T204MAPK, pS118ERα and pS167ERα were all found to be correlated (pBH = 0.0002). These markers were not associated with either DFS or OS when controlling for the established clinicopathological factors. Interaction terms between the phospho-markers and treatment strategies for either DFS or OS were not statistically significant (pBH > 0.05 for all).ConclusionsThis PathIES study confirmed previously described associations between the phosphorylation site markers of AKT, MAPK and ERα activity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. No prognostic correlations between the phosphorylation markers and clinical outcome were found, nor were they predictive for clinical outcomes among patients who switched therapy over those treated with tamoxifen alone.

Journal article

Shaw JA, Page K, Fernandez-Garcia D, Hills A, Boydell AR, Primrose L, Toghill B, Hastings RK, Gleeson K, Rosales BM, Goddard K, Guttery DS, Ali S, Coombes RCet al., 2018, Circulating tumor DNA for early detection and intervention in breast cancer: ctDNA profiles discriminate between healthy women in a true cancer screening setting and disease-free women on follow up, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472

Conference paper

Ali S, Patel H, Periyasamy M, Sava G, Bondke A, Slafer BW, Kroll SHB, Barbazanges MV, Starkey RG, Ottaviani S, Harrod AE, Aboagye EO, Buluwela L, Fuchter MJ, Barrett AGM, Coombes Cet al., 2018, ICEC0942, an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of CDK7 for cancer treatment, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, ISSN: 1535-7163

Recent reports indicate that some cancer types are especially sensitive to transcription inhibition, suggesting that targeting the transcriptional machinery provides new approaches to cancer treatment. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)7 is necessary for transcription, and acts by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (PolII) to enable transcription initiation. CDK7 additionally regulates the activities of a number of transcription factors, including Estrogen receptor-α (ER). Here we describe a new, orally bioavailable CDK7 inhibitor, ICEC0942. It selectively inhibits CDK7, with an IC50 of 40nM; IC50 values for CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9 were 45-, 15-, 230- and 30-fold higher. In vitro studies show that a wide range of cancer types are sensitive to CDK7 inhibition with GI50 values ranging between 0.2-0.3 µM. In xenografts of both breast and colorectal cancers, the drug has substantial anti-tumor effects. Additionally, combination therapy with tamoxifen showed complete growth arrest of ER-positive tumor xenografts. Our findings reveal that CDK7 inhibition provides a new approach, especially for ER-positive breast cancer and identify ICEC0942 as a prototype drug with potential utility as a single agent or in combination with hormone therapies for breast cancer. ICEC0942 may also be effective in other cancers that display characteristics of transcription factor addiction, such as acute leukaemia, and small-cell lung cancer.

Journal article

Hindley JW, Elani Y, McGilvery CM, Ali S, Bevan CL, Law R, Ces Oet al., 2018, Light-triggered enzymatic reactions in nested vesicle reactors, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723

Cell-sized vesicles have tremendous potential both as miniaturised pL reaction vessels and in bottom-up synthetic biology as chassis for artificial cells. In both these areas the introduction of light-responsive modules affords increased functionality, for example, to initiate enzymatic reactions in the vesicle interior with spatiotemporal control. Here we report a system composed of nested vesicles where the inner compartments act as phototransducers, responding to ultraviolet irradiation through diacetylene polymerisation-induced pore formation to initiate enzymatic reactions. The controlled release and hydrolysis of a fluorogenic β-galactosidase substrate in the external compartment is demonstrated, where the rate of reaction can be modulated by varying ultraviolet exposure time. Such cell-like nested microreactor structures could be utilised in fields from biocatalysis through to drug delivery.

Journal article

Hazel P, Kroll SHB, Bondke A, Barbazanges M, Patel H, Fuchter MJ, Coombes RC, Ali S, Barrett AGM, Freemont PSet al., 2018, Corrigendum: Inhibitor selectivity for cyclin-dependent kinase 7: a structural, thermodynamic, and modelling study, ChemMedChem, Vol: 13, Pages: 207-207, ISSN: 1860-7187

Journal article

Asaduzzaman M, Constantinou S, Min H, Gallon J, Lin M-L, Singh P, Raguz S, Ali S, Shousha S, Charles Coombes R, Lam EW-F, Hu Y, Yagüe Eet al., 2018, Correction to: Tumour suppressor EP300, a modulator of paclitaxel resistance and stemness, is downregulated in metaplastic breast cancer, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 167, Pages: 605-606, ISSN: 0167-6806

In the original publication, Fig. 1 depicting the blot for EP300 in CAL51 cells (Fig. 1c) was unintentionally duplicated with that from MDA-MB-231 cells (Fig. 1d). The new figure given in this erratum depicts the correct EP300 blot in Fig. 1c.

Journal article

Clark K, Ainscow E, Peall A, Thomson S, Leishman A, Elaine S, Ali S, Coombes R, Barrett A, Bahl AKet al., 2017, CT7001, a Novel Orally Bio-Available CDK7 Inhibitor, Is Highly Active in in-Vitro and in-Vivo Models of AML, 59th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH), Publisher: AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY, ISSN: 0006-4971

Conference paper

Martin L-A, Ribas R, Simigdala N, Schuster E, Pancholi S, Tenev T, Gellert P, Buluwela L, Harrod A, Thornhill A, Nikitorowicz-Buniak J, Bhamra A, Turgeon M-O, Poulogiannis G, Gao Q, Martins V, Hills M, Garcia-Murillas I, Fribbens C, Patani N, Li Z, Sikora MJ, Turner N, Zwart W, Oesterreich S, Carroll J, Ali S, Dowsett Met al., 2017, Discovery of naturally occurring ESR1 mutations in breast cancer cell lines modelling endocrine resistance., Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723

Resistance to endocrine therapy remains a major clinical problem in breast cancer. Genetic studies highlight the potential role of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) mutations, which show increased prevalence in the metastatic, endocrine-resistant setting. No naturally occurring ESR1 mutations have been reported in in vitro models of BC either before or after the acquisition of endocrine resistance making functional consequences difficult to study. We report the first discovery of naturally occurring ESR1 Y537C and ESR1 Y537S mutations in MCF7 and SUM44 ESR1-positive cell lines after acquisition of resistance to long-term-estrogen-deprivation (LTED) and subsequent resistance to fulvestrant (ICIR). Mutations were enriched with time, impacted on ESR1 binding to the genome and altered the ESR1 interactome. The results highlight the importance and functional consequence of these mutations and provide an important resource for studying endocrine resistance.

Journal article

Smith L, Farzan R, Ali S, Buluwela L, Saurin A, Meek DWet al., 2017, The responses of cancer cells to PLK1 inhibitors reveal a novel protective role for p53 in maintaining centrosome separation., Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) plays a major role in driving mitotic events, including centrosome disjunction and separation, and is frequently over-expressed in human cancers. PLK1 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy and works by arresting cells in mitosis due to monopolar spindles. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is a short-lived transcription factor that can inhibit the growth, or stimulate the death, of developing cancer cells. Curiously, although p53 normally acts in an anti-cancer capacity, it can offer significant protection against inhibitors of PLK1, but the events underpinning this effect are not known. Here, we show that functional p53 reduces the sensitivity to PLK1 inhibitors by permitting centrosome separation to occur, allowing cells to traverse mitosis and re-enter cycle with a normal complement of 2N chromosomes. Protection entails the activation of p53 through the DNA damage-response enzymes, ATM and ATR, and requires the phosphorylation of p53 at the key regulatory site, Ser15. These data highlight a previously unrecognised link between p53, PLK1 and centrosome separation that has therapeutic implications for the use of PLK1 inhibitors in the clinic.

Journal article

Smith L, Farzan R, Ali S, Buluwela L, Saurin AT, Meek DWet al., 2017, Author Correction: The responses of cancer cells to PLK1 inhibitors reveal a novel protective role for p53 in maintaining centrosome separation, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322

The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the spelling of the author Adrian T. Saurin, which was incorrectly given as Adrian Saurin. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article, and in the accompanying Supplementary Material.

Journal article

Periyasamy M, Singh A, Gemma C, Kranjec C, Farzan R, Leach D, Navaratnam N, Palinkas HL, Vertessy BG, Fenton TR, Doorbar J, Fuller-Pace F, Meek DW, Coombes RC, Buluwela L, Ali Set al., 2017, p53 controls expression of the DNA deaminase APOBEC3B to limit its potential mutagenic activity in cancer cells, Nucleic Acids Research, Vol: 45, Pages: 11056-11069, ISSN: 1362-4962

Cancer genome sequencing has implicated the cytosine deaminase activity of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) genes as an important source of mutations in diverse cancers, with APOBEC3B (A3B) expression especially correlated with such cancer mutations. To better understand the processes directing A3B over-expression in cancer, and possible therapeutic avenues for targeting A3B, we have investigated the regulation of A3B gene expression. Here, we show that A3B expression is inversely related to p53 status in different cancer types and demonstrate that this is due to a direct and pivotal role for p53 in repressing A3B expression. This occurs through the induction of p21 (CDKN1A) and the recruitment of the repressive DREAM complex to the A3B gene promoter, such that loss of p53 through mutation, or human papilloma virus-mediated inhibition, prevents recruitment of the complex, thereby causing elevated A3B expression and cytosine deaminase activity in cancer cells. As p53 is frequently mutated in cancer, our findings provide a mechanism by which p53 loss can promote cancer mutagenesis.

Journal article

Yague E, Asaduzzaman M, Constantinou S, Haoxiang M, Gallon J, Lin ML, Singh P, Raguz S, Ali S, Shousha S, Coombes RC, Lam EWF, Hu Y, Yague Eet al., 2017, Tumour suppressor EP300, a modulator of paclitaxel resistance and stemness, is down-regulated in metaplastic breast cancer, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 163, Pages: 461-474, ISSN: 1573-7217

PurposeWe have previously described a novel pathway controlling drug resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in breast cancer cells. Upstream in the pathway, three miRs (miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25) target EP300, a transcriptional activator of E-cadherin. Upregulation of these miRs leads to the downregulation of EP300 and E-cadherin with initiation of an EMT. However, miRs regulate the expression of many genes, and the contribution to EMT by miR targets other than EP300 cannot be ruled out.MethodsWe used lentiviruses expressing EP300-targeting shRNA to downregulate its expression in MCF-7 cells as well as an EP300-knocked-out colon carcinoma cell line. An EP300-expression plasmid was used to upregulate its expression in basal-like CAL51 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug resistance was determined by short-term proliferation and long-term colony formation assays. Stemness was determined by tumour sphere formation in both soft agar and liquid cultures as well as by the expression of CD44/CD24/ALDH markers. Gene expression microarray analysis was performed in MCF-7 cells lacking EP300. EP300 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 17 samples of metaplastic breast cancer.ResultsCells lacking EP300 became more resistant to paclitaxel whereas EP300 overexpression increased their sensitivity to the drug. Expression of cancer stem cell markers, as well as tumour sphere formation, was also increased in EP300-depleted cells, and was diminished in EP300-overexpressing cells. The EP300-regulated gene signature highlighted genes associated with adhesion (CEACAM5), cytoskeletal remodelling (CAPN9), stemness (ABCG2), apoptosis (BCL2) and metastasis (TGFB2). Some genes in this signature were also validated in a previously generated EP300-depleted model of breast cancer using minimally transformed mammary epithelial cells. Importantly, two key genes in apoptosis and stemness, BCL2 and ABCG2, were also upregulated in EP300-knockout colon c

Journal article

Fulton J, Mazumder B, Whitchurch JB, Monteiro CJ, Collins HM, Chan CM, Clemente MP, Hernandez-Quiles M, Stewart EA, Amoaku WM, Moran PM, Mongan NP, Persson JL, Ali S, Heery DMet al., 2017, Heterodimers of photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) are disrupted by retinal disease-associated mutations, Cell Death and Disease, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-4889

Photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and Tailless homolog (TLX/NR2E1) are human orthologs of the NR2E group,a subgroup of phylogenetically related members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. We assessed theability of these NRs to form heterodimers with other members of the human NRs representing all major subgroups. The TLXligand-binding domain (LBD) did not appear to form homodimers or interact directly with any other NR tested. The PNR LBD wasable to form homodimers, but also exhibited robust interactions with the LBDs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/NR1C3 and thyroid hormone receptor b (TRb) TRβ/NR1A2. The binding of PNR to PPARγ was specific for this paralog, asno interaction was observed with the LBDs of PPARα/NR1C1 or PPARδ/NR1C2. In support of these findings, PPARγ and PNR werefound to be co-expressed in human retinal tissue extracts and could be co-immunoprecipitated as a native complex. Selectedsequence variants in the PNR LBD associated with human retinopathies, or a mutation in the dimerization region of PPARγ LBDassociated with familial partial lipodystrophy type 3, were found to disrupt PNR/PPARγ complex formation. Wild-type PNR, but nota PNR309G mutant, was able to repress PPARγ-mediated transcription in reporter assays. In summary, our results reveal novelheterodimer interactions in the NR superfamily, suggesting previously unknown functional interactions of PNR with PPARγ andTRβ that have potential importance in retinal development and disease.

Journal article

Hazel P, Kroll SH, Bondke A, Barbazanges M, Patel H, Fuchter MJ, Coombes RC, Ali S, Barrett AG, Freemont PSet al., 2017, Inhibitor selectivity for cyclin-dependent kinase 7: a structural, thermodynamic, and modelling study, Chemmedchem, Vol: 12, Pages: 372-380, ISSN: 1860-7187

Deregulation of the cell cycle by mechanisms that lead to elevated activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) is a feature of many human diseases, cancer in particular. We identified small-molecule inhibitors that selectively inhibit CDK7, the kinase that phosphorylates cell-cycle CDKs to promote their activities. To investigate the selectivity of these inhibitors we used a combination of structural, biophysical, and modelling approaches. We determined the crystal structures of the CDK7-selective compounds ICEC0942 and ICEC0943 bound to CDK2, and used these to build models of inhibitor binding to CDK7. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of inhibitors bound to CDK2 and CDK7 generated possible models of inhibitor binding. To experimentally validate these models, we gathered isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) binding data for recombinant wild-type and binding site mutants of CDK7 and CDK2. We identified specific residues of CDK7, notably Asp155, that are involved in determining inhibitor selectivity. Our MD simulations also show that the flexibility of the G-rich and activation loops of CDK7 is likely an important determinant of inhibitor specificity similar to CDK2.

Journal article

Magnani L, Frige G, Gadaleta RM, Corleone G, Fabris S, Kempe MH, Vershure PJ, Barozzi I, Vircillo V, Hong S, Perone Y, Saini M, Trumpp A, Viale G, Neri A, Simak A, Colleoni MA, Pruneri G, Minucci Set al., 2017, Acquired CYP19A1 amplification is an early specific mechanism of aromatase inhibitor resistance in ERα metastatic breast cancer, Nature Genetics, Vol: 49, Pages: 444-450, ISSN: 1546-1718

Tumor evolution is shaped by many variables, potentially involving external selective pressures induced by therapies1. After surgery, estrogen receptor (ERα) positive breast cancer (BCa) patients are treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy2including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and/or aromatase inhibitors (AIs)3. However, over 20% of patients relapse within 10 years and eventually progress to incurable metastatic disease4. Here we demonstratethat the choice of therapy has a fundamental influence on the genetic landscape of relapsed diseases: in this study, 21.5% of AI-treated, relapsed patients had acquiredCYP19A1gene (aromatase) amplification (CYP19A1amp). Relapsed patients also developed numerous mutations targeting key breast cancer genes including ESR1 and CYP19A1. Strikingly, CYP19A1amp cells also emerge in vitrobut only in AI resistant models. CYP19A1 amplification causesincreased aromatase activity and estrogen-independent ERα binding to target genesresulting inCYP19A1amp cells displaying decreased sensitivity to AI treatment. Collectively these data suggest that AI treatment itself selects for acquiredCYP19A1 amplification and promotes local autocrine estrogen signalling in AI resistant metastatic patients.

Journal article

Harrod A, Fulton J, Nguyen VTM, Periyasamy M, Ramos Garcia L, Lai C-F, Metodieva G, de Giorgio A, Williams RL, Santos DB, Jimenez Gomez P, Lin M-L, Metodiev MV, Stebbing J, Castellano L, Magnani L, Coombes RC, Buluwela L, Ali Set al., 2016, Genomic modelling of the ESR1 Y537S mutation for evaluating function and new therapeutic approaches for metastatic breast cancer, Oncogene, Vol: 36, Pages: 2286-2296, ISSN: 1476-5594

Drugs that inhibit estrogen receptor-α (ER) activity have been highlysuccessful in treating and reducing breast cancer progression in ER-positivedisease. However, resistance to these therapies presents a major clinicalproblem. Recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the ER geneare found in >20% of tumours that progress on endocrine therapies.Remarkably, the great majority of these mutations localise to just a few aminoacids within or near the critical helix 12 region of the ER hormone bindingdomain, where they are likely to be single allele mutations. Understandinghow these mutations impact on ER function is a prerequiste for identifyingmethods to treat breast cancer patients featuring such mutations. Towardsthis end, we used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to make a single alleleknockin of the most commonly mutated amino acid residue, tyrosine 537, inthe estrogen-responsive MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Genomic analysesusing RNA-seq and ER ChIP-seq demonstrated that the Y537S mutationpromotes constitutive ER activity globally, resulting in estrogen-independentgrowth. MCF7-Y537S cells were resistant to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen andfulvestrant. Further, we show that the basal transcription factor TFIIH isconstitutively recruited by ER-Y537S, resulting in ligand-independentphosphorylation of Serine 118 (Ser118) by the TFIIH kinase, CDK7. TheCDK7 inhibitor, THZ1 prevented Ser118 phosphorylation and inhibited growthof MCF7-Y537S cells. These studies confirm the functional importance of ERmutations in endocrine resistance, demonstrate the utility of knockinmutational models for investigating alternative therapeutic approaches andhighlight CDK7 inhibition as a potential therapy for endocrine resistant breastcancer mediated by ER mutations.

Journal article

Ali S, Patel H, Periyasamy M, Bondke A, Slafer BW, Ottaviani S, Harrod A, Buluwela L, Fuchter MJ, Barrett AGM, Coombes RCet al., 2016, ICEC0942, an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of CDK7 for breast cancer, UK Breast Cancer Research Symposium, Publisher: Springer Verlag, Pages: 195-195, ISSN: 0167-6806

Conference paper

Aleskandarany MA, Abduljabbar R, Ashankyty I, Elmouna A, Jerjees D, Ali S, Buluwela L, Diez-Rodriguez M, Caldas C, Green AR, Ellis IO, Rakha EAet al., 2016, Prognostic significance of androgen receptor expression in invasive breast cancer: transcriptomic and protein expression analysis, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 159, Pages: 215-227, ISSN: 1573-7217

Differential prognostic roles of Androgen Receptor (AR) have been proposed in breast cancer (BC) depending on tumour oestrogen receptor (ER) status. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic and/or predictive significance of AR expression in invasive BC. In this study AR expression was studied on a large (n = 1141) consecutive series of early-stage (I-III) BC using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry (IHC). AR mRNA expression was assessed in a subset of cases. The prognostic impact of AR mRNA expression was externally validated using the online BC gene expression data sets (n = 25 data sets, 4078 patients). Nuclear AR IHC expression was significantly associated with features of good prognosis including older age, smaller tumour size, lower grade and lobular histology particularly in the ER-positive tumours. AR was associated with ER-related markers GATA3, FOXa1, RERG and BEX1. Negative association was observed with HER2, p53, Ki67, TK1, CD71 and AGTR1. AR Overexpression was associated with longer survival (p < 0.001), independent of tumour size, grade, stage [p = 0.033, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.80 95 % CI = 0.64-0.98]. Similar associations were maintained in ER+ tumours in univariate and multivariate analysis (p < 0.01) both in patients with and without adjuvant endocrine or chemotherapy. AR mRNA expression showed significant association with tumour grade, molecular subtypes, and longer 10 and 15 years survival in luminal BC. In the external validation cohorts, AR gene expression data were associated with improved patients' outcome (p < 0.001, HR = 0.84, 95 % CI 0.79-0.90). AR is not only an independent prognostic factor in ER-positive luminal BC but is also expressed in ER-negative tumours. AR could act as a molecular target in patients with ER-positive disease predicting response to adjuvant therapy.

Journal article

Periyasamy M, Nguyen VTM, Patel H, Lai C-F, Nevedomskaya E, Harrod A, Buluwela L, Ali Set al., 2016, Cytidine deamination activity of APOBEC3B regulates estrogen receptor function in breast cancer, UK Breast Cancer Research Symposium, Publisher: Springer Verlag (Germany), Pages: 197-197, ISSN: 1573-7217

Conference paper

Guttery DS, Shaw JA, Hills A, Fernandez-Garcia D, Page K, Rosales B, Goddard K, Hastings R, Luo J, Ogle O, Woodley L, Ali S, Stebbing J, Coombes Cet al., 2016, Mutation analysis of cell-free DNA captures heterogeneity of individual circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer, AACR 107th Annual Meeting on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Publisher: American Association for Cancer Research, Pages: LB-339-LB-339, ISSN: 1538-7445

Conference paper

Shaw JA, Guttery DS, Hills A, Fernandez-Garcia D, Page K, Rosales BM, Goddard KS, Hastings RK, Luo J, Ogle O, Woodley L, Ali S, Stebbing J, Coombes RCet al., 2016, Mutation analysis of cell-free DNA and single circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer patients with high CTC counts, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1557-3265

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to directly compare mutation profiles in multiple single CTCs and cfDNA isolated from the same blood samples taken from patients with metastaic breast cancer (MBC). We aimed to determine whether cell-free DNA would reflect the heterogeneity observed in 40 single CTCs. Experimental design: CTCs were enumerated by Cellsearch. CTC count was compared with the quantity of matched cfDNA and serum CA15-3 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 112 patients with metastatic breast cancer. In 5 patients with {greater than or equal to}100 CTCs, multiple individual EpCAM-positive CTCs were isolated by DEPArray and compared with matched cfDNA and primary tumour tissue by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of ~2200 mutations in 50 cancer genes. Results: In the whole cohort, total cfDNA levels and cell counts ({greater than or equal to}5 CTCs) were both significantly associated with overall survival, unlike CA15-3 and ALP. NGS analysis of 40 individual EpCAM-positive CTCs from 5 patients with MBC revealed mutational heterogeneity in PIK3CA, TP53, ESR1 and KRAS genes between individual CTCs. In all 5 patients cfDNA profiles provided an accurate reflection of mutations seen in individual CTCs. ESR1 and KRAS gene mutations were absent from primary tumour tissue and therefore likely reflect either a minor sub-clonal mutation or were acquired with disease progression. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that cfDNA reflects persisting EpCAM-positive CTCs in patients with high CTC counts and therefore may enable monitoring of the metastatic burden for clinical decision-making.Experimental Design: DNA methylation was investigated in independent tumor cohorts using Illumina HumanMethylation arrays and gene expression by Affymetrix arrays and qRT-PCR. The role of Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) in drug sensitivity was investigated by gene reintroduction and siRNA knockdown of ovarian cancer cell lines.Results: CpG sites at contiguous genomic locations within th

Journal article

Patel H, Abduljabbar R, Lai CF, Periyasamy M, Harrod A, Gemma C, Steel J, Patel N, Busonero C, Jerjees D, Remenyi J, Smith S, Gomm JJ, Magnani L, Gyorffy B, Jones JL, Fuller-Pace FV, Shousha S, Buluwela L, Rakha EA, Ellis IO, Coombes RC, Ali Set al., 2016, CDK7, cyclin H and MAT1 is elevated in breast cancer and is prognostic in estrogen receptor- positive breast cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 22, Pages: 5929-5938, ISSN: 1557-3265

PURPOSE: CDK-activation kinase (CAK) is required for the regulation of the cell-cycle and is a trimeric complex consisting of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 7 (CDK7), Cyclin H and the accessory protein, MAT1. CDK7 also plays a critical role in regulating transcription, primarily by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II, as well as transcription factors such as estrogen receptor-alpha(ERalpha).). Deregulation of cell cycle and transcriptional control is aare general featurefeatures of cancertumor cells, highlighting the potential for the use of CDK7 inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics in cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: mRNA and protein expression of CDK7 and its essential co-factors cyclinH and MAT1, were evaluated in breast cancer samples to determine if their levels are altered in cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of >900 breast cancers was used to determine the association with clinicopathological features and patient outcome. RESULTS: We show that expression of CDK7, cyclinH and MAT1 are all closely linked at the mRNA and protein level and their expression is elevated in breast cancer compared with the normal breast tissue. Intriguingly, CDK7 expression was inversely proportional to tumour grade and size and outcome analysis showed an association between CAK levels and better outcome. Moreover, CDK7 expression was positively associated with ERalpha expression and in particular with phosphorylation of ERalpha at serine 118, a site important for ERalpha transcriptional activity. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of components of the CAK complex, CDK7, MAT1 and Cyclin H are elevated in breast cancer and correlates with ERalpha.. Like ERalpha, CDK7 expression is inversely proportional to poor prognostic factors and survival.

Journal article

Mollet IG, Patel D, Govani FS, Giess A, Paschalaki K, Periyasamy M, Lidington EC, Mason JC, Jones MD, Game L, Ali S, Shovlin CLet al., 2016, Low Dose Iron Treatments Induce a DNA Damage Response in Human Endothelial Cells within Minutes, PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203

BackgroundSpontaneous reports from patients able to report vascular sequelae in real time, and recognitionthat serum non transferrin bound iron may reach or exceed 10μmol/L in the bloodstream after iron tablets or infusions, led us to hypothesize that conventional iron treatmentsmay provoke acute vascular injury. This prompted us to examine whether a phenotypecould be observed in normal human endothelial cells treated with low dose iron.MethodologyConfluent primary human endothelial cells (EC) were treated with filter-sterilized iron (II) citrateor fresh media for RNA sequencing and validation studies. RNA transcript profiles wereevaluated using directional RNA sequencing with no pre-specification of target sequences.Alignments were counted for exons and junctions of the gene strand only, blinded to treatmenttypes.Principal FindingsRapid changes in RNA transcript profiles were observed in endothelial cells treated with10μmol/L iron (II) citrate, compared to media-treated cells. Clustering for Gene Ontology(GO) performed on all differentially expressed genes revealed significant differences in biologicalprocess terms between iron and media-treated EC, whereas 10 sets of an equivalentnumber of randomly selected genes from the respective EC gene datasets showed no significantdifferences in any GO terms. After 1 hour, differentially expressed genes clusteredto vesicle mediated transport, protein catabolism, and cell cycle (Benjamini p = 0.0016,0.0024 and 0.0032 respectively), and by 6 hours, to cellular response to DNA damage stimulusmost significantly through DNA repair genes FANCG, BLM, and H2AFX. Comet assays demonstrated that 10μM iron treatment elicited DNA damage within 1 hour. This wasaccompanied by a brisk DNA damage response pulse, as ascertained by the developmentof DNA damage response (DDR) foci, and p53 stabilization.SignificanceThese data suggest that low dose iron treatments are sufficient to modify the vascular endothelium,and induce a DNA damage

Journal article

Ogden A, Green A, Aleskandarany MA, Rakha E, Ellis IO, Ali S, Li X, Krishnamurti U, Reid MD, Rida PCG, Aneja Ret al., 2016, Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Is a Positive Prognostic Biomarker in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, 105th Annual Meeting of the United-States-and-Canadian-Academy-of-Pathology, Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: 62A-63A, ISSN: 0893-3952

Conference paper

Ogden A, Green A, Aleskandarany MA, Rakha E, Ellis IO, Ali S, Li X, Krishnamurti U, Reid MD, Rida PCG, Aneja Ret al., 2016, Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Is a Positive Prognostic Biomarker in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, 105th Annual Meeting of the United-States-and-Canadian-Academy-of-Pathology, Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: 62A-63A, ISSN: 0023-6837

Conference paper

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