160 results found
HART STEPHEN GB, ALI SIMAK GB, PUFONG BORIS T GB, et al., 2023, Control of gene expression using a complex of an oligonucleotide and a regulatory peptide, US2005136040
Uriz-Huarte A, Date A, Ang H, et al., 2020, The transcriptional repressor REV-ERB as a novel target for disease, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol: 30, Pages: 127395-127395, ISSN: 0960-894X
REV-ERB is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, from circadian rhythm, to immune function and metabolism. Accordingly, REV-ERB has been considered as a promising, but difficult drug target for the treatment of numerous diseases. Here, we concisely review current understanding of the function of REV-ERB, modulation by endogenous factors and synthetic ligands, and the involvement of REV-ERB in select human diseases. Particular focus is placed on the medicinal chemistry of synthetic REV-ERB ligands, which demonstrates the need for higher quality ligands to aid in robust validation of this exciting target.
Ali S, Balachandran K, O'Malley B, 2020, 90 Years of progesterone: Ninety years of progesterone: the 'other' ovarian hormone., J Mol Endocrinol, Vol: 65, Pages: E1-E4
Flach KD, Periyasamy M, Jadhav A, et al., 2020, Endonuclease FEN1 coregulates ER alpha activity and provides a novel drug interface in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, Cancer Research, Vol: 80, Pages: 1914-1926, ISSN: 0008-5472
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a key transcriptional regulator in the majority of breast cancers. ERα-positive patients are frequently treated with tamoxifen, but resistance is common. In this study, we refined a previously identified 111-gene outcome prediction-classifier, revealing FEN1 as the strongest determining factor in ERα-positive patient prognostication. FEN1 levels were predictive of outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients, and FEN1 played a causal role in ERα-driven cell growth. FEN1 impacted the transcriptional activity of ERα by facilitating coactivator recruitment to the ERα transcriptional complex. FEN1 blockade induced proteasome-mediated degradation of activated ERα, resulting in loss of ERα-driven gene expression and eradicated tumor cell proliferation. Finally, a high-throughput 465,195 compound screen identified a novel FEN1 inhibitor, which effectively blocked ERα function and inhibited proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant cell lines as well as ex vivo–cultured ERα-positive breast tumors. Collectively, these results provide therapeutic proof of principle for FEN1 blockade in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), along with cyclin H and MAT1, forms the CDK-activating complex (CAK), which directs progression through the cell cycle via T-loop phosphorylation of cell cycle CDKs. CAK is also a component of the general transcription factor, TFIIH. CDK7-mediated phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at active gene promoters permits transcription. Cell cycle dysregulation is an established hallmark of cancer, and aberrant control of transcriptional processes, through diverse mechanisms, is also common in many cancers. Furthermore, CDK7 levels are elevated in a number of cancer types and are associated with clinical outcomes, suggestive of greater dependence on CDK7 activity, compared with normal tissues. These findings identify CDK7 as a cancer therapeutic target, and several recent publications report selective CDK7 inhibitors (CDK7i) with activity against diverse cancer types. Preclinical studies have shown that CDK7i cause cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and repression of transcription, particularly of super-enhancer-associated genes in cancer, and have demonstrated their potential for overcoming resistance to cancer treatments. Moreover, combinations of CDK7i with other targeted cancer therapies, including BET inhibitors, BCL2 inhibitors and hormone therapies, have shown efficacy in model systems. Four CDK7i, ICEC0942 (CT7001), SY-1365, SY-5609 and LY3405105, have now progressed to Phase I/II clinical trials. Here we describe the work that has led to the development of selective CDK7i, the current status of the most advanced clinical candidates, and discuss their potential importance as cancer therapeutics, both as monotherapies and in combination settings. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT03363893; NCT03134638; NCT04247126; NCT03770494.
Kalofonou M, Malpartida-Cardenas K, Alexandrou G, et al., 2020, A novel hotspot specific isothermal amplification method for detection of thecommon PIK3CA p.H1047R breast cancer mutation, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
Breast cancer (BC) is a common cancer in women worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, up to 30% of women eventually relapse and die of metastatic breast cancer. Liquid biopsy analysis of circulating cell-free DNA fragments in the patients’ blood can monitor clonality and evolving mutations as a surrogate for tumour biopsy. Next generation sequencing platforms and digital droplet PCR can be used to profile circulating tumour DNA from liquid biopsies; however, they are expensive and time consuming for clinical use. Here, we report a novel strategy with proof-of-concept data that supports the usage of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect PIK3CA c.3140 A > G (H1047R), a prevalent BC missense mutation that is attributed to BC tumour growth. Allele-specific primers were designed and optimized to detect the p.H1047R variant following the USS-sbLAMP method. The assay was developed with synthetic DNA templates and validated with DNA from two breast cancer cell-lines and two patient tumour tissue samples through a qPCR instrument and finally piloted on an ISFET enabled microchip. This work sets a foundation for BC mutational profiling on a Lab-on-Chip device, to help the early detection of patient relapse and to monitor efficacy of systemic therapies for personalised cancer patient management.
Sava G, Fan H, Fisher R, et al., 2020, ABC transporter upregulation mediates resistance to the CDK7 inhibitors THZ1 and ICEC0942., Oncogene, Vol: 39, Pages: 651-663, ISSN: 0950-9232
The CDK7 inhibitors (CDK7i) ICEC0942 and THZ1, are promising new cancer therapeutics. Resistance to targeted drugs frequently compromises cancer treatment. We sought to identify mechanisms by which cancer cells may become resistant to CDK7i. Resistant lines were established through continuous drug selection. ABC-transporter copy number, expression and activity were examined using real-time PCR, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. Drug responses were measured using growth assays. ABCB1 was up-regulated in ICEC0942-resistant cells and there was cross-resistance to THZ1. THZ1-resistant cells upregulated ABCG2 but remained sensitive to ICEC0942. Drug resistance in both cell lines was reversible upon inhibition of ABC-transporters. CDK7i response was altered in adriamycin- and mitoxantrone-resistant cell lines demonstrating ABC-transporter upregulation. ABCB1 expression correlated with ICEC0942 and THZ1 response, and ABCG2 expression with THZ2 response, in a panel of cancer cell lines. We have identified ABCB1 upregulation as a common mechanism of resistance to ICEC0942 and THZ1, and confirmed that ABCG2 upregulation is a mechanism of resistance to THZ1. The identification of potential mechanisms of CDK7i resistance and differences in susceptibility of ICEC0942 and THZ1 to ABC-transporters, may help guide their future clinical use.
Joseph C, Al-Izzi S, Alsaleem M, et al., 2019, Retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRG) is an independent prognostic biomarker in ER-positive invasive breast cancer., British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 121, Pages: 776-785, ISSN: 0007-0920
BACKGROUND: Retinoid X Receptor Gamma (RXRG) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays a role in tumour suppression. This study aims to explore the prognostic significance of RXRG in breast cancer. METHODS: Primary breast cancer tissue microarrays (n = 923) were immuno-stained for RXRG protein and correlated with clinicopathological features, and patient outcome. RESULTS: Nuclear RXRG expression was significantly associated with smaller tumour size (p = 0.036), lower grade (p < 0.001), lobular histology (p = 0.016), lower Nottingham Prognostic Index (p = 0.04) and longer breast cancer-specific survival (p < 0.001), and longer time to distant metastasis (p = 0.002). RXRG expression showed positive association with oestrogen receptor (ER)-related biomarkers: GATA3, FOXA1, STAT3 and MED7 (all p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with the Ki67 proliferation marker. Multivariate analysis demonstrated RXRG protein as an independent predictor of longer breast cancer-specific survival and distant metastasis-free survival. In the external validation cohorts, RXRG expression was associated with improved patients' outcome (p = 0.025). In ER-positive tumours, high expression of RXRG was associated with better patient outcome regardless of adjuvant systemic therapy. ER signalling pathway was the top predicted master regulator of RXRG protein expression (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the prognostic value of RXRG in breast cancer particularly the ER-positive tumours.
Nguyen VTM, Barozzi I, Faronato M, et al., 2019, Author Correction: Differential epigenetic reprogramming in response to specific endocrine therapies promotes cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular invasion, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
Coombes RC, Page K, Salari R, et al., 2019, Personalized detection of circulating tumor DNA antedates breast cancer metastatic recurrence, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 25, Pages: 4255-4263, ISSN: 1078-0432
Purpose: Up to 30% of patients with breast cancer relapse after primary treatment. There are no sensitive and reliable tests to monitor these patients and detect distant metastases before overt recurrence. Here, we demonstrate the use of personalized circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling for detection of recurrence in breast cancer.Experimental Design: Forty-nine primary patients with breast cancer were recruited following surgery and adjuvant therapy. Plasma samples (n = 208) were collected every 6 months for up to 4 years. Personalized assays targeting 16 variants selected from primary tumor whole-exome data were tested in serial plasma for the presence of ctDNA by ultradeep sequencing (average >100,000X).Results: Plasma ctDNA was detected ahead of clinical or radiologic relapse in 16 of the 18 relapsed patients (sensitivity of 89%); metastatic relapse was predicted with a lead time of up to 2 years (median, 8.9 months; range, 0.5–24.0 months). None of the 31 nonrelapsing patients were ctDNA-positive at any time point across 156 plasma samples (specificity of 100%). Of the two relapsed patients who were not detected in the study, the first had only a local recurrence, whereas the second patient had bone recurrence and had completed chemotherapy just 13 days prior to blood sampling.Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patient-specific ctDNA analysis can be a sensitive and specific approach for disease surveillance for patients with breast cancer. More importantly, earlier detection of up to 2 years provides a possible window for therapeutic intervention.
Szijgyarto Z, Flach KD, Opdam M, et al., 2019, Dissecting the predictive value of MAPK/AKT/estrogen-receptor phosphorylation axis in primary breast cancer to treatment response for tamoxifen over exemestane: a Translational Report of the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES)-PathIES, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 175, Pages: 149-163, ISSN: 0167-6806
PurposeThe prognostic and predictive values of the MAPK/AKT/ERα phosphorylation axis (pT202/T204MAPK, pT308AKT, pS473AKT, pS118ERα and pS167ERα) in primary tumours were assessed to determine whether these markers can differentiate between patient responses for switching adjuvant endocrine therapy after 2–3 years from tamoxifen to exemestane and continued tamoxifen monotherapy in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES).MethodsOf the 4724 patients in IES, 1506 were managed in a subset of centres (N = 89) participating in PathIES. These centres recruited 1282 (85%, 1282/1506) women into PathIES of whom 1036 had phospho-marker data. All phospho-markers were analysed by immunohistochemistry staining. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models of the phospho-markers for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were adjusted for clinicopathological factors. Treatment effects on the biomarker expression were determined by interaction tests. Benjamini–Hochberg adjustment for multiple testing with a false discovery rate of 10% was applied (pBH).ResultsPhospho-T202/T204MAPK, pS118ERα and pS167ERα were all found to be correlated (pBH = 0.0002). These markers were not associated with either DFS or OS when controlling for the established clinicopathological factors. Interaction terms between the phospho-markers and treatment strategies for either DFS or OS were not statistically significant (pBH > 0.05 for all).ConclusionsThis PathIES study confirmed previously described associations between the phosphorylation site markers of AKT, MAPK and ERα activity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. No prognostic correlations between the phosphorylation markers and clinical outcome were found, nor were they predictive for clinical outcomes among patients who switched therapy over those treated with tamoxifen alone.
Shaw JA, Page K, Fernandez-Garcia D, et al., 2018, Circulating tumor DNA for early detection and intervention in breast cancer: ctDNA profiles discriminate between healthy women in a true cancer screening setting and disease-free women on follow up, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Hindley JW, Elani Y, McGilvery CM, et al., 2018, Light-triggered enzymatic reactions in nested vesicle reactors, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723
Cell-sized vesicles have tremendous potential both as miniaturised pL reaction vessels and in bottom-up synthetic biology as chassis for artificial cells. In both these areas the introduction of light-responsive modules affords increased functionality, for example, to initiate enzymatic reactions in the vesicle interior with spatiotemporal control. Here we report a system composed of nested vesicles where the inner compartments act as phototransducers, responding to ultraviolet irradiation through diacetylene polymerisation-induced pore formation to initiate enzymatic reactions. The controlled release and hydrolysis of a fluorogenic β-galactosidase substrate in the external compartment is demonstrated, where the rate of reaction can be modulated by varying ultraviolet exposure time. Such cell-like nested microreactor structures could be utilised in fields from biocatalysis through to drug delivery.
Ali S, Patel H, Periyasamy M, et al., 2018, ICEC0942, an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of CDK7 for cancer treatment, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, ISSN: 1535-7163
Recent reports indicate that some cancer types are especially sensitive to transcription inhibition, suggesting that targeting the transcriptional machinery provides new approaches to cancer treatment. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)7 is necessary for transcription, and acts by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (PolII) to enable transcription initiation. CDK7 additionally regulates the activities of a number of transcription factors, including Estrogen receptor-α (ER). Here we describe a new, orally bioavailable CDK7 inhibitor, ICEC0942. It selectively inhibits CDK7, with an IC50 of 40nM; IC50 values for CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9 were 45-, 15-, 230- and 30-fold higher. In vitro studies show that a wide range of cancer types are sensitive to CDK7 inhibition with GI50 values ranging between 0.2-0.3 µM. In xenografts of both breast and colorectal cancers, the drug has substantial anti-tumor effects. Additionally, combination therapy with tamoxifen showed complete growth arrest of ER-positive tumor xenografts. Our findings reveal that CDK7 inhibition provides a new approach, especially for ER-positive breast cancer and identify ICEC0942 as a prototype drug with potential utility as a single agent or in combination with hormone therapies for breast cancer. ICEC0942 may also be effective in other cancers that display characteristics of transcription factor addiction, such as acute leukaemia, and small-cell lung cancer.
Hazel P, Kroll SHB, Bondke A, et al., 2018, Corrigendum: Inhibitor selectivity for cyclin-dependent kinase 7: a structural, thermodynamic, and modelling study, ChemMedChem, Vol: 13, Pages: 207-207, ISSN: 1860-7187
Asaduzzaman M, Constantinou S, Min H, et al., 2018, Correction to: Tumour suppressor EP300, a modulator of paclitaxel resistance and stemness, is downregulated in metaplastic breast cancer, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 167, Pages: 605-606, ISSN: 0167-6806
In the original publication, Fig. 1 depicting the blot for EP300 in CAL51 cells (Fig. 1c) was unintentionally duplicated with that from MDA-MB-231 cells (Fig. 1d). The new figure given in this erratum depicts the correct EP300 blot in Fig. 1c.
Clark K, Ainscow E, Peall A, et al., 2017, CT7001, a Novel Orally Bio-Available CDK7 Inhibitor, Is Highly Active in in-Vitro and in-Vivo Models of AML, 59th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH), Publisher: AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY, ISSN: 0006-4971
Martin L-A, Ribas R, Simigdala N, et al., 2017, Discovery of naturally occurring ESR1 mutations in breast cancer cell lines modelling endocrine resistance., Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723
Resistance to endocrine therapy remains a major clinical problem in breast cancer. Genetic studies highlight the potential role of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) mutations, which show increased prevalence in the metastatic, endocrine-resistant setting. No naturally occurring ESR1 mutations have been reported in in vitro models of BC either before or after the acquisition of endocrine resistance making functional consequences difficult to study. We report the first discovery of naturally occurring ESR1 Y537C and ESR1 Y537S mutations in MCF7 and SUM44 ESR1-positive cell lines after acquisition of resistance to long-term-estrogen-deprivation (LTED) and subsequent resistance to fulvestrant (ICIR). Mutations were enriched with time, impacted on ESR1 binding to the genome and altered the ESR1 interactome. The results highlight the importance and functional consequence of these mutations and provide an important resource for studying endocrine resistance.
Smith L, Farzan R, Ali S, et al., 2017, Author Correction: The responses of cancer cells to PLK1 inhibitors reveal a novel protective role for p53 in maintaining centrosome separation, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the spelling of the author Adrian T. Saurin, which was incorrectly given as Adrian Saurin. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article, and in the accompanying Supplementary Material.
Smith L, Farzan R, Ali S, et al., 2017, The responses of cancer cells to PLK1 inhibitors reveal a novel protective role for p53 in maintaining centrosome separation., Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) plays a major role in driving mitotic events, including centrosome disjunction and separation, and is frequently over-expressed in human cancers. PLK1 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy and works by arresting cells in mitosis due to monopolar spindles. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is a short-lived transcription factor that can inhibit the growth, or stimulate the death, of developing cancer cells. Curiously, although p53 normally acts in an anti-cancer capacity, it can offer significant protection against inhibitors of PLK1, but the events underpinning this effect are not known. Here, we show that functional p53 reduces the sensitivity to PLK1 inhibitors by permitting centrosome separation to occur, allowing cells to traverse mitosis and re-enter cycle with a normal complement of 2N chromosomes. Protection entails the activation of p53 through the DNA damage-response enzymes, ATM and ATR, and requires the phosphorylation of p53 at the key regulatory site, Ser15. These data highlight a previously unrecognised link between p53, PLK1 and centrosome separation that has therapeutic implications for the use of PLK1 inhibitors in the clinic.
Periyasamy M, Singh A, Gemma C, et al., 2017, p53 controls expression of the DNA deaminase APOBEC3B to limit its potential mutagenic activity in cancer cells, Nucleic Acids Research, Vol: 45, Pages: 11056-11069, ISSN: 1362-4962
Cancer genome sequencing has implicated the cytosine deaminase activity of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) genes as an important source of mutations in diverse cancers, with APOBEC3B (A3B) expression especially correlated with such cancer mutations. To better understand the processes directing A3B over-expression in cancer, and possible therapeutic avenues for targeting A3B, we have investigated the regulation of A3B gene expression. Here, we show that A3B expression is inversely related to p53 status in different cancer types and demonstrate that this is due to a direct and pivotal role for p53 in repressing A3B expression. This occurs through the induction of p21 (CDKN1A) and the recruitment of the repressive DREAM complex to the A3B gene promoter, such that loss of p53 through mutation, or human papilloma virus-mediated inhibition, prevents recruitment of the complex, thereby causing elevated A3B expression and cytosine deaminase activity in cancer cells. As p53 is frequently mutated in cancer, our findings provide a mechanism by which p53 loss can promote cancer mutagenesis.
Yague E, Asaduzzaman M, Constantinou S, et al., 2017, Tumour suppressor EP300, a modulator of paclitaxel resistance and stemness, is down-regulated in metaplastic breast cancer, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 163, Pages: 461-474, ISSN: 1573-7217
PurposeWe have previously described a novel pathway controlling drug resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in breast cancer cells. Upstream in the pathway, three miRs (miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25) target EP300, a transcriptional activator of E-cadherin. Upregulation of these miRs leads to the downregulation of EP300 and E-cadherin with initiation of an EMT. However, miRs regulate the expression of many genes, and the contribution to EMT by miR targets other than EP300 cannot be ruled out.MethodsWe used lentiviruses expressing EP300-targeting shRNA to downregulate its expression in MCF-7 cells as well as an EP300-knocked-out colon carcinoma cell line. An EP300-expression plasmid was used to upregulate its expression in basal-like CAL51 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug resistance was determined by short-term proliferation and long-term colony formation assays. Stemness was determined by tumour sphere formation in both soft agar and liquid cultures as well as by the expression of CD44/CD24/ALDH markers. Gene expression microarray analysis was performed in MCF-7 cells lacking EP300. EP300 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 17 samples of metaplastic breast cancer.ResultsCells lacking EP300 became more resistant to paclitaxel whereas EP300 overexpression increased their sensitivity to the drug. Expression of cancer stem cell markers, as well as tumour sphere formation, was also increased in EP300-depleted cells, and was diminished in EP300-overexpressing cells. The EP300-regulated gene signature highlighted genes associated with adhesion (CEACAM5), cytoskeletal remodelling (CAPN9), stemness (ABCG2), apoptosis (BCL2) and metastasis (TGFB2). Some genes in this signature were also validated in a previously generated EP300-depleted model of breast cancer using minimally transformed mammary epithelial cells. Importantly, two key genes in apoptosis and stemness, BCL2 and ABCG2, were also upregulated in EP300-knockout colon c
Fulton J, Mazumder B, Whitchurch JB, et al., 2017, Heterodimers of photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) are disrupted by retinal disease-associated mutations, Cell Death and Disease, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-4889
Photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3) and Tailless homolog (TLX/NR2E1) are human orthologs of the NR2E group,a subgroup of phylogenetically related members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. We assessed theability of these NRs to form heterodimers with other members of the human NRs representing all major subgroups. The TLXligand-binding domain (LBD) did not appear to form homodimers or interact directly with any other NR tested. The PNR LBD wasable to form homodimers, but also exhibited robust interactions with the LBDs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/NR1C3 and thyroid hormone receptor b (TRb) TRβ/NR1A2. The binding of PNR to PPARγ was specific for this paralog, asno interaction was observed with the LBDs of PPARα/NR1C1 or PPARδ/NR1C2. In support of these findings, PPARγ and PNR werefound to be co-expressed in human retinal tissue extracts and could be co-immunoprecipitated as a native complex. Selectedsequence variants in the PNR LBD associated with human retinopathies, or a mutation in the dimerization region of PPARγ LBDassociated with familial partial lipodystrophy type 3, were found to disrupt PNR/PPARγ complex formation. Wild-type PNR, but nota PNR309G mutant, was able to repress PPARγ-mediated transcription in reporter assays. In summary, our results reveal novelheterodimer interactions in the NR superfamily, suggesting previously unknown functional interactions of PNR with PPARγ andTRβ that have potential importance in retinal development and disease.
Hazel P, Kroll SH, Bondke A, et al., 2017, Inhibitor selectivity for cyclin-dependent kinase 7: a structural, thermodynamic, and modelling study, Chemmedchem, Vol: 12, Pages: 372-380, ISSN: 1860-7187
Deregulation of the cell cycle by mechanisms that lead to elevated activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) is a feature of many human diseases, cancer in particular. We identified small-molecule inhibitors that selectively inhibit CDK7, the kinase that phosphorylates cell-cycle CDKs to promote their activities. To investigate the selectivity of these inhibitors we used a combination of structural, biophysical, and modelling approaches. We determined the crystal structures of the CDK7-selective compounds ICEC0942 and ICEC0943 bound to CDK2, and used these to build models of inhibitor binding to CDK7. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of inhibitors bound to CDK2 and CDK7 generated possible models of inhibitor binding. To experimentally validate these models, we gathered isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) binding data for recombinant wild-type and binding site mutants of CDK7 and CDK2. We identified specific residues of CDK7, notably Asp155, that are involved in determining inhibitor selectivity. Our MD simulations also show that the flexibility of the G-rich and activation loops of CDK7 is likely an important determinant of inhibitor specificity similar to CDK2.
Magnani L, Frige G, Gadaleta RM, et al., 2017, Acquired CYP19A1 amplification is an early specific mechanism of aromatase inhibitor resistance in ERα metastatic breast cancer, Nature Genetics, Vol: 49, Pages: 444-450, ISSN: 1546-1718
Tumor evolution is shaped by many variables, potentially involving external selective pressures induced by therapies1. After surgery, estrogen receptor (ERα) positive breast cancer (BCa) patients are treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy2including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and/or aromatase inhibitors (AIs)3. However, over 20% of patients relapse within 10 years and eventually progress to incurable metastatic disease4. Here we demonstratethat the choice of therapy has a fundamental influence on the genetic landscape of relapsed diseases: in this study, 21.5% of AI-treated, relapsed patients had acquiredCYP19A1gene (aromatase) amplification (CYP19A1amp). Relapsed patients also developed numerous mutations targeting key breast cancer genes including ESR1 and CYP19A1. Strikingly, CYP19A1amp cells also emerge in vitrobut only in AI resistant models. CYP19A1 amplification causesincreased aromatase activity and estrogen-independent ERα binding to target genesresulting inCYP19A1amp cells displaying decreased sensitivity to AI treatment. Collectively these data suggest that AI treatment itself selects for acquiredCYP19A1 amplification and promotes local autocrine estrogen signalling in AI resistant metastatic patients.
Harrod A, Fulton J, Nguyen VTM, et al., 2016, Genomic modelling of the ESR1 Y537S mutation for evaluating function and new therapeutic approaches for metastatic breast cancer, Oncogene, Vol: 36, Pages: 2286-2296, ISSN: 1476-5594
Drugs that inhibit estrogen receptor-α (ER) activity have been highlysuccessful in treating and reducing breast cancer progression in ER-positivedisease. However, resistance to these therapies presents a major clinicalproblem. Recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the ER geneare found in >20% of tumours that progress on endocrine therapies.Remarkably, the great majority of these mutations localise to just a few aminoacids within or near the critical helix 12 region of the ER hormone bindingdomain, where they are likely to be single allele mutations. Understandinghow these mutations impact on ER function is a prerequiste for identifyingmethods to treat breast cancer patients featuring such mutations. Towardsthis end, we used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to make a single alleleknockin of the most commonly mutated amino acid residue, tyrosine 537, inthe estrogen-responsive MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Genomic analysesusing RNA-seq and ER ChIP-seq demonstrated that the Y537S mutationpromotes constitutive ER activity globally, resulting in estrogen-independentgrowth. MCF7-Y537S cells were resistant to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen andfulvestrant. Further, we show that the basal transcription factor TFIIH isconstitutively recruited by ER-Y537S, resulting in ligand-independentphosphorylation of Serine 118 (Ser118) by the TFIIH kinase, CDK7. TheCDK7 inhibitor, THZ1 prevented Ser118 phosphorylation and inhibited growthof MCF7-Y537S cells. These studies confirm the functional importance of ERmutations in endocrine resistance, demonstrate the utility of knockinmutational models for investigating alternative therapeutic approaches andhighlight CDK7 inhibition as a potential therapy for endocrine resistant breastcancer mediated by ER mutations.
Ali S, Patel H, Periyasamy M, et al., 2016, ICEC0942, an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of CDK7 for breast cancer, UK Breast Cancer Research Symposium, Publisher: Springer Verlag, Pages: 195-195, ISSN: 0167-6806
Aleskandarany MA, Abduljabbar R, Ashankyty I, et al., 2016, Prognostic significance of androgen receptor expression in invasive breast cancer: transcriptomic and protein expression analysis, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol: 159, Pages: 215-227, ISSN: 1573-7217
Differential prognostic roles of Androgen Receptor (AR) have been proposed in breast cancer (BC) depending on tumour oestrogen receptor (ER) status. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic and/or predictive significance of AR expression in invasive BC. In this study AR expression was studied on a large (n = 1141) consecutive series of early-stage (I-III) BC using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry (IHC). AR mRNA expression was assessed in a subset of cases. The prognostic impact of AR mRNA expression was externally validated using the online BC gene expression data sets (n = 25 data sets, 4078 patients). Nuclear AR IHC expression was significantly associated with features of good prognosis including older age, smaller tumour size, lower grade and lobular histology particularly in the ER-positive tumours. AR was associated with ER-related markers GATA3, FOXa1, RERG and BEX1. Negative association was observed with HER2, p53, Ki67, TK1, CD71 and AGTR1. AR Overexpression was associated with longer survival (p < 0.001), independent of tumour size, grade, stage [p = 0.033, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.80 95 % CI = 0.64-0.98]. Similar associations were maintained in ER+ tumours in univariate and multivariate analysis (p < 0.01) both in patients with and without adjuvant endocrine or chemotherapy. AR mRNA expression showed significant association with tumour grade, molecular subtypes, and longer 10 and 15 years survival in luminal BC. In the external validation cohorts, AR gene expression data were associated with improved patients' outcome (p < 0.001, HR = 0.84, 95 % CI 0.79-0.90). AR is not only an independent prognostic factor in ER-positive luminal BC but is also expressed in ER-negative tumours. AR could act as a molecular target in patients with ER-positive disease predicting response to adjuvant therapy.
Periyasamy M, Nguyen VTM, Patel H, et al., 2016, Cytidine deamination activity of APOBEC3B regulates estrogen receptor function in breast cancer, UK Breast Cancer Research Symposium, Publisher: Springer Verlag (Germany), Pages: 197-197, ISSN: 1573-7217
Guttery DS, Shaw JA, Hills A, et al., 2016, Mutation analysis of cell-free DNA captures heterogeneity of individual circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer, AACR 107th Annual Meeting on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Publisher: American Association for Cancer Research, Pages: LB-339-LB-339, ISSN: 1538-7445
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