Imperial College London

ProfessorStuartCook

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Professor of Clinical & Molecular Cardiology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 1346stuart.cook

 
 
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Location

 

RF 16Sydney StreetRoyal Brompton Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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164 results found

Ng B, Dong J, D'Agostino G, Viswanathan S, Widjaja AA, Lim W-W, Ko NSJ, Tan J, Chothani SP, Huang B, Xie C, Pua CJ, Chacko A-M, Guimaraes-Camboa N, Evans SM, Byrne AJ, Maher TM, Liang J, Jiang D, Noble PW, Schafer S, Cook SAet al., 2019, Interleukin-11 is a therapeutic target in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1946-6234

Journal article

Lahrouchi N, Raju H, Lodder EM, Papatheodorou S, Miles C, Ware JS, Papadakis M, Tadros R, Cole D, Skinner JR, Crawford J, Love DR, Pua CJ, Soh BY, Bhalshankar JD, Govind R, Tfelt-Hansen J, Winkel BG, van der Werf C, Wijeyeratne YD, Mellor G, Till J, Cohen M, Tome-Esteban M, Sharma S, Wilde AAM, Cook SA, Sheppard MN, Bezzina CR, Behr ERet al., 2019, The yield of postmortem genetic testing in sudden death cases with structural findings at autopsy, European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN: 1018-4813

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is often associated with structural abnormalities of the heart during autopsy. This study sought to compare the diagnostic yield of postmortem genetic testing in (1) cases with structural findings of uncertain significance at autopsy to (2) cases with autopsy findings diagnostic of cardiomyopathy. We evaluated 57 SCD cases with structural findings at cardiac autopsy. Next-generation sequencing using a panel of 77 primary electrical disorder and cardiomyopathy genes was performed. Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants were classified using American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) consensus guidelines. In 29 cases (51%) autopsy findings of uncertain significance were identified whereas in 28 cases (49%) a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy was established. We identified a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in 10 cases (18%); in 1 (3%) case with non-specific autopsy findings compared with 9 (32%) cases with autopsy findings diagnostic of cardiomyopathy (p = 0.0054). The yield of genetic testing in SCD cases with autopsy findings consistent with cardiomyopathy is comparable with the yield in cardiomyopathy patients that are alive. Genetic testing in cases with findings of uncertain significance offers lower clinical utility than in cardiomyopathy, with lower yields than detected previously. This highlights the need for stringent evaluation of variant pathogenicity.

Journal article

Orini M, Graham AJ, MartinezNaharro A, Andrews CM, de Marvao A, Statton B, Cook SA, O'Regan DP, Hawkins PN, Rudy Y, Fontana M, Lambiase PDet al., 2019, Noninvasive mapping of the electrophysiological substrate in cardiac amyloidosis and its relationship to structural abnormalities, Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2047-9980

BackgroundThe relationship between structural pathology and electrophysiological substrate in cardiac amyloidosis is unclear. Differences between light‐chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) cardiac amyloidosis may have prognostic implications.Methods and ResultsECG imaging and cardiac magnetic resonance studies were conducted in 21 cardiac amyloidosis patients (11 AL and 10 ATTR). Healthy volunteers were included as controls. With respect to ATTR, AL patients had lower amyloid volume (51.0/37.7 versus 73.7/16.4 mL, P=0.04), lower myocardial cell volume (42.6/19.1 versus 58.5/17.2 mL, P=0.021), and higher T1 (1172/64 versus 1109/80 ms, P=0.022) and T2 (53.4/2.9 versus 50.0/3.1 ms, P=0.003). ECG imaging revealed differences between cardiac amyloidosis and control patients in virtually all conduction‐repolarization parameters. With respect to ATTR, AL patients had lower epicardial signal amplitude (1.07/0.46 versus 1.83/1.26 mV, P=0.026), greater epicardial signal fractionation (P=0.019), and slightly higher dispersion of repolarization (187.6/65 versus 158.3/40 ms, P=0.062). No significant difference between AL and ATTR patients was found using the standard 12‐lead ECG. T1 correlated with epicardial signal amplitude (cc=−0.78), and extracellular volume with epicardial signal fractionation (cc=0.48) and repolarization time (cc=0.43). Univariate models based on single features from both cardiac magnetic resonance and ECG imaging classified AL and ATTR patients with an accuracy of 70% to 80%.ConclusionsIn this exploratory study cardiac amyloidosis was associated with ventricular conduction and repolarization abnormalities, which were more pronounced in AL than in ATTR. Combined ECG imaging–cardiac magnetic resonance analysis supports the hypothesis that additional mechanisms beyond infiltration may contribute to myocardial damage in AL amyloidosis. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of this approach.

Journal article

Chothani S, Schäfer S, Adami E, Viswanathan S, Widjaja AA, Langley SR, Tan J, Wang M, Quaife NM, Pua CJ, D'Agostino G, Shekeran SG, George BL, Lim S, Cao EY, van Heesch S, Witte F, Felkin LE, Christodoulou EG, Dong J, Blachut S, Patone G, Barton PJR, Hubner N, Cook SA, Rackham OJLet al., 2019, Widespread translational control of fibrosis in the human heart by RNA-binding proteins, Circulation, Vol: 140, Pages: 937-951, ISSN: 0009-7322

BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a common pathology in many cardiac disorders and is driven by the activation of resident fibroblasts. The global post-transcriptional mechanisms underlying fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion in the heart have not been explored. METHODS: Genome-wide changes of RNA transcription and translation during human cardiac fibroblast activation were monitored with RNA sequencing and ribosome profiling. We then used an RNA-binding protein-based analyses to identify translational regulators of fibrogenic genes. The integration with cardiac ribosome occupancy levels of 30 dilated cardiomyopathy patients demonstrates that these post-transcriptional mechanisms are also active in the diseased fibrotic human heart. RESULTS: We generated nucleotide-resolution translatome data during the TGFβ1-driven cellular transition of human cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. This identified dynamic changes of RNA transcription and translation at several time points during the fibrotic response, revealing transient and early-responder genes. Remarkably, about one-third of all changes in gene expression in activated fibroblasts are subject to translational regulation and dynamic variation in ribosome occupancy affects protein abundance independent of RNA levels. Targets of RNA-binding proteins were strongly enriched in post-transcriptionally regulated genes, suggesting genes such as MBNL2 can act as translational activators or repressors. Ribosome occupancy in the hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy suggested the same post-transcriptional regulatory network was underlying cardiac fibrosis. Key network hubs include RNA-binding proteins such as PUM2 and QKI that work in concert to regulate the translation of target transcripts in human diseased hearts. Furthermore, silencing of both PUM2 and QKI inhibits the transition of fibroblasts toward pro-fibrotic myofibroblasts in response to TGFβ1. CONCLUSIONS: We reveal widespread translational effects of

Journal article

Chen H, Moreno-Moral A, Pesce F, Devapragash N, Mancini M, Heng EL, Rotival M, Srivastava PK, Harmston N, Shkura K, Rackham OJL, Yu W-P, Sun X-M, Tee NGZ, Tan ELS, Barton PJR, Felkin LE, Lara-Pezzi E, Angelini G, Beltrami C, Pravenec M, Schafer S, Bottolo L, Hubner N, Emanueli C, Cook SA, Petretto Eet al., 2019, WWP2 regulates pathological cardiac fibrosis by modulating SMAD2 signaling (vol 10, 3616, 2019), NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Chen H, Moreno-Moral A, Pesce F, Devapragash N, Mancini M, Heng E, Rotival M, Srivastava P, Harmston N, Shkura K, Rackham O, Yu W-P, Sun X-M, Gui Zhen Tee N, Tan E, Barton P, Felkin L, Lara-Pezzi E, Angelini G, Beltrami C, Pravenec M, Schafer S, Bottolo L, Hubner N, Emanueli C, Cook S, Petretto Eet al., 2019, WWP2 regulates pathological cardiac fibrosis by modulating SMAD2 signaling, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Cardiac fibrosis is a final common pathology in inherited and acquired heart diseases that causes cardiac electrical and pump failure. Here, we use systems genetics to identify a pro-fibrotic gene network in the diseased heart and show that this network is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2, specifically by the WWP2-N terminal isoform. Importantly, the WWP2-regulated pro-fibrotic gene network is conserved across different cardiac diseases characterized by fibrosis: human and murine dilated cardiomyopathy and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Transgenic mice lacking the N-terminal region of the WWP2 protein show improved cardiac function and reduced myocardial fibrosis in response to pressure overload or myocardial infarction. In primary cardiac fibroblasts, WWP2 positively regulates the expression of pro-fibrotic markers and extracellular matrix genes. TGFβ1 stimulation promotes nuclear translocation of the WWP2 isoforms containing the N-terminal region and their interaction with SMAD2. WWP2 mediates the TGFβ1-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activity of SMAD2.

Journal article

Halliday BP, Baksi AJ, Gulati A, Ali A, Newsome S, Izgi C, Arzanauskaite M, Lota A, Tayal U, Vassiliou V, Gregson J, Alpendurada F, Frenneaux M, Cook S, Cleland J, Pennell D, Prasad Set al., 2019, Outcome in dilated cardiomyopathy related to the extent, location and pattern of late gadolinium enhancement, JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, Vol: 12, Pages: 1645-1655, ISSN: 1936-878X

ObjectivesThis study sought to investigate the association between the extent, location, and pattern of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and outcome in a large dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cohort.BackgroundThe relationship between LGE and prognosis in DCM is incompletely understood.MethodsWe examined the association between LGE and all-cause mortality and a sudden cardiac death (SCD) composite based on the extent, location, and pattern of LGE in DCM.ResultsOf 874 patients (588 men, median age 52 years) followed for a median of 4.9 years, 300 (34.3%) had nonischemic LGE. Estimated adjusted hazard ratios for patients with an LGE extent of 0 to 2.55%, 2.55% to 5.10%, and >5.10%, respectively, were 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 2.55), 1.56 (95% CI: 0.96 to 2.54), and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.50 to 3.55) for all-cause mortality, and 2.79 (95% CI: 1.42 to 5.49), 3.86 (95% CI: 2.09 to 7.13), and 4.87 (95% CI: 2.78 to 8.53) for the SCD end-point. There was a marked nonlinear relationship between LGE extent and outcome such that even small amounts of LGE predicted a substantial increase in risk. The presence of septal LGE was associated with increased mortality, but SCD was most associated with the combined presence of septal and free-wall LGE. Predictive models using LGE presence and location were superior to models based on LGE extent or pattern.ConclusionsIn DCM, the presence of septal LGE is associated with a large increase in the risk of death and SCD events, even when the extent is small. SCD risk is greatest with concomitant septal and free-wall LGE. The incremental value of LGE extent beyond small amounts and LGE pattern is limited.

Journal article

Garcia-Pavia P, Kim Y, Restrepo-Cordoba MA, Lunde IG, Wakimoto H, Smith AM, Toepfer CN, Getz K, Gorham J, Patel P, Ito K, Willcox JA, Arany Z, Li J, Owens AT, Govind R, Nuñez B, Mazaika E, Bayes-Genis A, Walsh R, Finkelman B, Lupon J, Whiffin N, Serrano I, Midwinter W, Wilk A, Bardaji A, Ingold N, Buchan R, Tayal U, Pascual-Figal DA, de Marvao A, Ahmad M, Garcia-Pinilla JM, Pantazis A, Dominguez F, John Baksi A, O'Regan DP, Rosen SD, Prasad SK, Lara-Pezzi E, Provencio M, Lyon AR, Alonso-Pulpon L, Cook SA, DePalma SR, Barton PJR, Aplenc R, Seidman JG, Ky B, Ware JS, Seidman CEet al., 2019, Genetic variants associated with cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy, Circulation, Vol: 140, Pages: 31-41, ISSN: 0009-7322

BackgroundCancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. These parametersincompletely account for substantial inter-individual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM.MethodsWe studied 213 CCM patients from three cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped breast cancer adults (n=73) and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including nine pre-specified genes were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) participants(n=2053), healthy volunteers(n=445), and ancestry-matchedreference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed, stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice.ResultsCCM was diagnosed 0.4-9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult CCM patients had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the U.S. population. Among nine prioritized genes CCM patients had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts (p≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) predominated, occurring in 7.5% CCM patients versus 1.1% TCGA participants (p=7.36e-08), 0.7% healthy volunteers (p=3.42e-06), and 0.6% reference population (p=5.87e-14). Adult CCM patients with TTNtv experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation (p=0.003)and impaired myocardial recovery (p=0.03) than those without.Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wildtype (p=0.0004 and p<0.002, respectively).ConclusionsUnrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtv, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events

Journal article

Thomson KL, Ormondroyd E, Harper AR, Dent T, McGuire K, Baksi J, Blair E, Brennan P, Buchan R, Bueser T, Campbell C, Carr-White G, Cook S, Daniels M, Deevi SVV, Goodship J, Hayesmoore JBG, Henderson A, Lamb T, Prasad S, Rayner-Matthews P, Robert L, Sneddon L, Stark H, Walsh R, Ware JS, Farrall M, Watkins HC, NIHR BioResource Rare Diseases Consortiumet al., 2019, Analysis of 51 proposed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genes from genome sequencing data in sarcomere negative cases has negligible diagnostic yield, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 1576-1584, ISSN: 1098-3600

PURPOSE: Increasing numbers of genes are being implicated in Mendelian disorders and incorporated into clinical test panels. However, lack of evidence supporting the gene-disease relationship can hinder interpretation. We explored the utility of testing 51 additional genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most commonly tested Mendelian disorders. METHODS: Using genome sequencing data from 240 sarcomere gene negative HCM cases and 6229 controls, we undertook case-control and individual variant analyses to assess 51 genes that have been proposed for HCM testing. RESULTS: We found no evidence to suggest that rare variants in these genes are prevalent causes of HCM. One variant, in a single case, was categorized as likely to be pathogenic. Over 99% of variants were classified as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and 54% of cases had one or more VUS. CONCLUSION: For almost all genes, the gene-disease relationship could not be validated and lack of evidence precluded variant interpretation. Thus, the incremental diagnostic yield of extending testing was negligible, and would, we propose, be outweighed by problems that arise with a high rate of uninterpretable findings. These findings highlight the need for rigorous, evidence-based selection of genes for clinical test panels.

Journal article

Corden B, Jarman J, Whiffin N, Tayal U, Buchan R, Sehmi J, Harper A, Midwinter W, Lascelles K, Mason M, Baksi J, Pantazis A, Pennell D, Barton P, Prasad S, Wong T, Cook S, Ware Jet al., Association between titin truncating variants and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and implantable defibrillator, JAMA Network Open, ISSN: 2574-3805

Journal article

Zhou J, Ng B, Ko NSJ, Fiedler LR, Khin E, Lim A, Sahib NE, Wu Y, Chothani SP, Schafer S, Bay B-H, Sinha RA, Cook SA, Yen PMet al., 2019, Titin truncations lead to impaired cardiomyocyte autophagy and mitochondrial function in vivo, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 28, Pages: 1971-1981, ISSN: 0964-6906

Journal article

Pillinger T, Osimo EF, de Marvao A, Berry MA, Whitehurst T, Statton B, Quinlan M, Brugger S, Vazir A, Cook SA, O'Regan DP, Howes ODet al., 2019, Cardiac structure and function in patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic drugs: an MRI study, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2158-3188

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of excess mortality in schizophrenia. Preclinical evidence shows antipsychotics can cause myocardial fibrosis and myocardial inflammation in murine models, but it is not known if this is the case in patients. We therefore set out to determine if there is evidence of cardiac fibrosis and/or inflammation using cardiac MRI in medicated patients with schizophrenia compared with matched healthy controls. Thirty-one participants (14 patients and 17 controls) underwent cardiac MRI assessing myocardial markers of fibrosis/inflammation, indexed by native myocardial T1 time, and cardiac structure (left ventricular (LV) mass) and function (left/right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volumes, and ejection fractions). Participants were physically fit, and matched for age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, ethnicity, and physical activity. Compared with controls, native myocardial T1 was significantly longer in patients with schizophrenia (effect size, d = 0.89; p = 0.02). Patients had significantly lower LV mass, and lower left/right ventricular end-diastolic and stroke volumes (effect sizes, d = 0.86-1.08; all p-values < 0.05). There were no significant differences in left/right end-systolic volumes and ejection fractions between groups (p > 0.05). These results suggest an early diffuse fibro-inflammatory myocardial process in patients that is independent of established CVD-risk factors and could contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality associated with schizophrenia. Future studies are required to determine if this is due to antipsychotic treatment or is intrinsic to schizophrenia.

Journal article

Bylstra Y, Davila S, Lim WK, Wu R, Teo JX, Kam S, Lysaght T, Rozen S, Teh BT, Yeo KK, Cook SA, Tan P, Jamuar SSet al., 2019, Implementation of genomics in medical practice to deliver precision medicine for an Asian population, npj Genomic Medicine, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2056-7944

Whilst the underlying principles of precision medicine are comparable across the globe, genomic references, health practices, costs and discrimination policies differ in Asian settings compared to the reported initiatives involving European-derived populations. We have addressed these variables by developing an evolving reference base of genomic and phenotypic data and a framework to return medically significant variants to consenting research participants applicable for the Asian context. Targeting 10,000 participants, over 2000 Singaporeans, with no known pre-existing health conditions, have consented to an extensive clinical health screen, family health history collection, genome sequencing and ongoing follow-up. Genomic variants in a subset of genes associated with Mendelian disorders and drug responses are analysed using an in-house bioinformatics pipeline. A multidisciplinary team reviews the classification of variants and a research report is generated. Medically significant variants are returned to consenting participants through a bespoke return-of-result genomics clinic. Variant validation and subsequent clinical referral are advised as appropriate. The design and implementation of this flexible learning framework enables a cohort of detailed phenotyping and genotyping of healthy Singaporeans to be established and the frequency of disease-causing variants in this population to be determined. Our findings will contribute to international precision medicine initiatives, bridging gaps with ethnic-specific data and insights from this understudied population.

Journal article

van Heesch S, Witte F, Schneider-Lunitz V, Schulz JF, Adami E, Faber AB, Kirchner M, Maatz H, Blachut S, Sandmann C-L, Kanda M, Worth CL, Schafer S, Calviello L, Merriott R, Patone G, Hummel O, Wyler E, Obermayer B, Mücke MB, Lindberg EL, Trnka F, Memczak S, Schilling M, Felkin LE, Barton PJR, Quaife NM, Vanezis K, Diecke S, Mukai M, Mah N, Oh S-J, Kurtz A, Schramm C, Schwinge D, Sebode M, Harakalova M, Asselbergs FW, Vink A, de Weger RA, Viswanathan S, Widjaja AA, Gärtner-Rommel A, Milting H, dos Remedios C, Knosalla C, Mertins P, Landthaler M, Vingron M, Linke WA, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Rajewsky N, Ohler U, Cook SA, Hubner Net al., 2019, The translational landscape of the human heart, Cell, ISSN: 0092-8674

Gene expression in human tissue has primarily been studied on the transcriptional level, largely neglecting translational regulation. Here, we analyze the translatomes of 80 human hearts to identify new translation events and quantify the effect of translational regulation. We show extensive translational control of cardiac gene expression, which is orchestrated in a process-specific manner. Translation downstream of predicted disease-causing protein-truncating variants appears to be frequent, suggesting inefficient translation termination. We identify hundreds of previously undetected microproteins, expressed from lncRNAs and circRNAs, for which we validate the protein products in vivo. The translation of microproteins is not restricted to the heart and prominent in the translatomes of human kidney and liver. We associate these microproteins with diverse cellular processes and compartments and find that many locate to the mitochondria. Importantly, dozens of microproteins are translated from lncRNAs with well-characterized noncoding functions, indicating previously unrecognized biology.

Journal article

Whiffin N, Karczewski K, Zhang X, Chothani S, Smith M, Evans G, Roberts A, Quaife N, Schafer S, Rackham O, Alfoldi J, O'Donnell-Luria A, Fracioli L, Cook S, Barton P, MacArthur D, Ware Jet al., Characterising the loss-of-function impact of 5' untranslated region variants in 15,708 individuals, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723

Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are tissue-specific cis-regulators of protein translation. Isolated reports have shown that variants that create or disrupt uORFs can cause disease. Here, in a systematic genome-wide study using 15,708 whole genome sequences, we show that variants that create new upstream start codons, and variants disrupting stop sites of existing uORFs, are under strong negative selection. This selection signal is significantly stronger for variants arising upstream of genes intolerant to loss-of-function variants. Furthermore, variants creating uORFs that overlap the coding sequence show signals of selection equivalent to coding loss-of-function variants. Finally, we identify specific genes where modification of uORFs likely represents an important disease mechanism, and report a novel uORF frameshift variant upstream of NF2 in neurofibromatosis. Our results highlight uORF-perturbing variants as an under-recognised functional class that contribute to penetrant human disease, and demonstrate the power of large-scale population sequencing data in studying non-coding variant classes.

Journal article

Tarroni G, Oktay O, Bai W, Schuh A, Suzuki H, Passerat-Palmbach J, de Marvao A, O'Regan D, Cook S, Glocker B, Matthews P, Rueckert Det al., 2019, Learning-based quality control for cardiac MR images, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol: 38, Pages: 1127-1138, ISSN: 0278-0062

The effectiveness of a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scan depends on the ability of the operator to correctly tune the acquisition parameters to the subject being scanned and on the potential occurrence of imaging artefacts such as cardiac and respiratory motion. In the clinical practice, a quality control step is performed by visual assessment of the acquired images: however, this procedure is strongly operatordependent, cumbersome and sometimes incompatible with the time constraints in clinical settings and large-scale studies. We propose a fast, fully-automated, learning-based quality control pipeline for CMR images, specifically for short-axis image stacks. Our pipeline performs three important quality checks: 1) heart coverage estimation, 2) inter-slice motion detection, 3) image contrast estimation in the cardiac region. The pipeline uses a hybrid decision forest method - integrating both regression and structured classification models - to extract landmarks as well as probabilistic segmentation maps from both long- and short-axis images as a basis to perform the quality checks. The technique was tested on up to 3000 cases from the UK Biobank as well as on 100 cases from the UK Digital Heart Project, and validated against manual annotations and visual inspections performed by expert interpreters. The results show the capability of the proposed pipeline to correctly detect incomplete or corrupted scans (e.g. on UK Biobank, sensitivity and specificity respectively 88% and 99% for heart coverage estimation, 85% and 95% for motion detection), allowing their exclusion from the analysed dataset or the triggering of a new acquisition.

Journal article

Yap L, Wang J-W, Moreno-Moral A, Chong LY, Sun Y, Harmston N, Wang X, Chong SY, Ohman MK, Wei H, Bunte R, Gosh S, Cook S, Hovatta O, de Kleijn DP, Petretto E, Tryggvason Ket al., 2019, In Vivo Generation of Post-infarct Human Cardiac Muscle by Laminin-Promoted Cardiovascular Progenitors, CELL REPORTS, Vol: 26, Pages: 3231-+, ISSN: 2211-1247

Journal article

Parikh VN, Caleshu C, Reuter C, Lazzeroni LC, Ingles J, Garcia J, McCaleb K, Adesiyun T, Sedaghat-Hamedani F, Kumar S, Graw S, Gigli M, Stolfo D, Dal Ferro M, Ing AY, Nussbaum R, Funke B, Wheeler MT, Hershberger RE, Cook S, Steinmetz LM, Lakdawala NK, Taylor MRG, Mestroni L, Merlo M, Sinagra G, Semsarian C, Meder B, Judge DP, Ashley Eet al., 2019, Regional Variation in RBM20 Causes a Highly Penetrant Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy., Circ Heart Fail, Vol: 12, Pages: e005371-e005371

Background Variants in the cardiomyocyte-specific RNA splicing factor RBM20 have been linked to familial cardiomyopathy, but the causative genetic architecture and clinical consequences of this disease are incompletely defined. Methods and Results To define the genetic architecture of RBM20 cardiomyopathy, we first established a database of RBM20 variants associated with cardiomyopathy and compared these to variants observed in the general population with respect to their location in the RBM20 coding transcript. We identified 2 regions significantly enriched for cardiomyopathy-associated variants in exons 9 and 11. We then assembled a registry of 74 patients with RBM20 variants from 8 institutions across the world (44 index cases and 30 from cascade testing). This RBM20 patient registry revealed highly prevalent family history of sudden cardiac death (51%) and cardiomyopathy (72%) among index cases and a high prevalence of composite arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, implantable cardiac defibrillator discharge, and sudden cardiac arrest, 43%). Patients harboring variants in cardiomyopathy-enriched regions identified by our variant database analysis were enriched for these findings. Further, these characteristics were more prevalent in the RBM20 registry than in large cohorts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and TTNtv cardiomyopathy and not significantly different from a cohort of patients with LMNA-associated cardiomyopathy. Conclusions Our data establish RBM20 cardiomyopathy as a highly penetrant and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. These findings underline the importance of arrhythmia surveillance and family screening in this disease and represent the first step in defining the genetic architecture of RBM20 disease causality on a population level.

Journal article

Bello G, Dawes T, Duan J, Biffi C, Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, Howard L, Gibbs S, Wilkins M, Cook S, Rueckert D, O'Regan Det al., 2019, Deep learning cardiac motion analysis for human survival prediction, Nature Machine Intelligence, Vol: 1, Pages: 95-104, ISSN: 2522-5839

Motion analysis is used in computer vision to understand the behaviour of moving objects in sequences of images. Optimizing the interpretation of dynamic biological systems requires accurate and precise motion tracking as well as efficient representations of high-dimensional motion trajectories so that these can be used for prediction tasks. Here we use image sequences of the heart, acquired using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, to create time-resolved three-dimensional segmentations using a fully convolutional network trained on anatomical shape priors. This dense motion model formed the input to a supervised denoising autoencoder (4Dsurvival), which is a hybrid network consisting of an autoencoder that learns a task-specific latent code representation trained on observed outcome data, yielding a latent representation optimized for survival prediction. To handle right-censored survival outcomes, our network used a Cox partial likelihood loss function. In a study of 302 patients, the predictive accuracy (quantified by Harrell’s C-index) was significantly higher (P = 0.0012) for our model C = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.70–0.79) than the human benchmark of C = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53–0.65). This work demonstrates how a complex computer vision task using high-dimensional medical image data can efficiently predict human survival.

Journal article

Mazzarotto F, Girolami F, Boschi B, Barlocco F, Tomberli A, Baldini K, Coppini R, Tanini I, Bardi S, Contini E, Cecchi F, Pelo E, Cook SA, Cerbai E, Poggesi C, Torricelli F, Walsh R, Olivotto Iet al., 2019, Defining the diagnostic effectiveness of genes for inclusion in panels: the experience of two decades of genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at a single center, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 284-292, ISSN: 1098-3600

PurposeGenetic testing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has long relied on Sanger sequencing of sarcomeric genes. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has catalyzed routine testing of additional genes of dubious HCM-causing potential. We used 19 years of genetic testing results to define a reliable set of genes implicated in Mendelian HCM and assess the value of expanded NGS panels.MethodsWe dissected genetic testing results from 1,198 single-center HCM probands and devised a widely applicable score to identify which genes yield effective results in the diagnostic setting.ResultsCompared with early panels targeting only fully validated sarcomeric HCM genes, expanded NGS panels allow the prompt recognition of probands with HCM-mimicking diseases. Scoring by “diagnostic effectiveness” highlighted that PLN should also be routinely screened besides historically validated genes for HCM and its mimics.ConclusionThe additive value of expanded panels in HCM genetic testing lies in the systematic screening of genes associated with HCM mimics, requiring different patient management. Only variants in a limited set of genes are highly actionable and interpretable in the clinic, suggesting that larger panels offer limited additional sensitivity. A score estimating the relative effectiveness of a given gene’s inclusion in diagnostic panels is proposed.

Journal article

Miles C, Finocchiaro G, Papadakis M, Gray B, Westaby J, Ensam B, Basu J, Parry-Williams G, Papatheodorou E, Paterson C, Malhotra A, Robertus JL, Ware JS, Cook SA, Asimaki A, Witney A, Chis Ster I, Tome M, Sharma S, Behr ER, Sheppard MNet al., 2019, Sudden death and left ventricular involvement in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, Circulation, Vol: 139, Pages: 1786-1797, ISSN: 0009-7322

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited heart muscle disorder characterized by myocardial fibro-fatty replacement and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Originally described as a right ventricular (RV) disease, ACM is increasingly recognized as a biventricular entity. We evaluated pathological, genetic, and clinical associations in a large SCD cohort. METHODS: We investigated 5205 consecutive cases of SCD referred to a national cardiac pathology center between 1994 and 2018. Hearts and tissue blocks were examined by expert cardiac pathologists. Following comprehensive histological evaluation, 202 cases (4%) were diagnosed with ACM. Of these, 15 (7%) were diagnosed ante-mortem with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)(n=8) or ACM (n=7). Prior symptoms, medical history, circumstances of death, and participation in competitive sport were recorded. Post-mortem genetic testing was undertaken in 24/202 (12%). Rare genetic variants were classified according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria. RESULTS: Of 202 ACM decedents (35.4±13.2 years; 82% male), 157 (78%) reported no prior cardiac symptoms. Forty-one decedents (41/202; 20%) were participants in competitive sport. The adjusted odds of dying during physical exertion were higher in males than females (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.54-13.68; p=0.006) and in competitive athletes compared with non-athletes (OR 16.62; 95% CI 5.39-51.24; p<0.001). None of the decedents with an ante-mortem diagnosis of DCM fulfilled definite 2010 Task Force criteria. Macroscopic appearance of the heart was normal in 40/202 (20%) cases. There was left ventricular (LV) histopathological involvement in 176/202 (87%). Isolated RV disease was seen in 13%, isolated LV disease in 17%, and biventricular involvement in 70%. Among whole hearts, the most common areas of fibro-fatty infiltration were the LV posterobasal (68%) and anterolateral walls (58%). Post-mortem genetic testing yielded pa

Journal article

Walsh R, Mazzarotto F, Whiffin N, Buchan R, Midwinter W, Wilk A, Li N, Felkin L, Ingold N, Govind R, Ahmad M, Mazaika E, Allouba M, Zhang X, de Marvao A, Day SM, Ashley E, Colan SD, Michels M, Pereira AC, Jacoby D, Ho CY, Thomson KL, Watkins H, Barton PJR, Olivotto I, Cook SA, Ware JSet al., 2019, Quantitative approaches to variant classification increase the yield and precision of genetic testing in Mendelian diseases: The case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Genome Medicine, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1756-994X

BackgroundInternational guidelines for variant interpretation in Mendelian disease set stringent criteria to report a variant as (likely) pathogenic, prioritising control of false-positive rate over test sensitivity and diagnostic yield. Genetic testing is also more likely informative in individuals with well-characterised variants from extensively studied European-ancestry populations. Inherited cardiomyopathies are relatively common Mendelian diseases that allow empirical calibration and assessment of this framework.MethodsWe compared rare variants in large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohorts (up to 6179 cases) to reference populations to identify variant classes with high prior likelihoods of pathogenicity, as defined by etiological fraction (EF). We analysed the distribution of variants using a bespoke unsupervised clustering algorithm to identify gene regions in which variants are significantly clustered in cases.ResultsAnalysis of variant distribution identified regions in which variants are significantly enriched in cases and variant location was a better discriminator of pathogenicity than generic computational functional prediction algorithms. Non-truncating variant classes with an EF ≥ 0.95 were identified in five established HCM genes. Applying this approach leads to an estimated 14–20% increase in cases with actionable HCM variants, i.e. variants classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic that might be used for predictive testing in probands’ relatives.ConclusionsWhen found in a patient confirmed to have disease, novel variants in some genes and regions are empirically shown to have a sufficiently high probability of pathogenicity to support a “likely pathogenic” classification, even without additional segregation or functional data. This could increase the yield of high confidence actionable variants, consistent with the framework and recommendations of current guidelines. The techniques outlined offer a consisten

Journal article

Halliday BP, Wassall R, Lota A, Khalique Z, Gregson J, Newsome S, Jackson R, Rahneva T, Wage R, Smith G, Venneri L, Tayal U, Auger D, Midwinter W, Whiffin N, Rajani R, Dungu J, Cook S, Ware J, Baksi J, Pennell D, Rosen S, Cowie M, Cleland J, Prasad Set al., 2019, Withdrawal of pharmacological treatment for heart failure in patients with recovered dilated cardiomyopathy (TRED-HF): an open-label, pilot, randomised trial, The Lancet, Vol: 393, Pages: 61-73, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundPatients with dilated cardiomyopathy whose symptoms and cardiac function have recovered often ask whether their medications can be stopped. The safety of withdrawing treatment in this situation is unknown.MethodsWe did an open-label, pilot, randomised trial to examine the effect of phased withdrawal of heart failure medications in patients with previous dilated cardiomyopathy who were now asymptomatic, whose left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) had improved from less than 40% to 50% or greater, whose left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) had normalised, and who had an N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) concentration less than 250 ng/L. Patients were recruited from a network of hospitals in the UK, assessed at one centre (Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK), and randomly assigned (1:1) to phased withdrawal or continuation of treatment. After 6 months, patients in the continued treatment group had treatment withdrawn by the same method. The primary endpoint was a relapse of dilated cardiomyopathy within 6 months, defined by a reduction in LVEF of more than 10% and to less than 50%, an increase in LVEDV by more than 10% and to higher than the normal range, a two-fold rise in NT-pro-BNP concentration and to more than 400 ng/L, or clinical evidence of heart failure, at which point treatments were re-established. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02859311.FindingsBetween April 21, 2016, and Aug 22, 2017, 51 patients were enrolled. 25 were randomly assigned to the treatment withdrawal group and 26 to continue treatment. Over the first 6 months, 11 (44%) patients randomly assigned to treatment withdrawal met the primary endpoint of relapse compared with none of those assigned to continue treatment (Kaplan-Meier estimate of event rate 45·7% [95% CI 28·5–67·2]; p=0·0001). After 6 months, 25 (96%) of 2

Journal article

Whiffin N, Roberts AM, Minikel E, Zappala Z, Walsh R, O'Donnell-Luria AH, Karczewski KJ, Harrison SM, Thomson KL, Sage H, Ing AY, Barton PJR, Funke B, Cook SA, MacArthur DG, Ware JSet al., 2019, Using high-resolution variant frequencies empowers clinical genome interpretation and enables investigation of genetic architecture, American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol: 104, Pages: 187-190, ISSN: 0002-9297

Journal article

Horvat C, Johnson R, Lam L, Munro J, Mazzarotto F, Roberts A, Herman D, Parfenov M, Haghighli A, Macdonough B, DePalma S, Keogh A, Macdonald P, Hayward C, Roberts A, Barton PJR, Felkin L, Giannoulatou E, Cook S, Seidman J, Siedman C, Fatkin Det al., 2019, A gene-centric strategy for identifying disease-causing rare variants in dilated cardiomyopathy, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 133-143, ISSN: 1098-3600

PurposeWe evaluated strategies for identifying disease-causing variants in genetic testing for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).MethodsCardiomyopathy gene panel testing was performed in 532 DCM patients and 527 healthy control subjects. Rare variants in 41 genes were stratified using variant-level and gene-level characteristics.ResultsA majority of DCM cases and controls carried rare protein-altering cardiomyopathy gene variants. Variant-level characteristics alone had limited discriminative value. Differentiation between groups was substantially improved by addition of gene-level information that incorporated ranking of genes based on literature evidence for disease association. The odds of DCM were increased to nearly 9-fold for truncating variants or high-impact missense variants in the subset of 14 genes that had the strongest biological links to DCM (P <0.0001). For some of these genes, DCM-associated variants appeared to be clustered in key protein functional domains. Multiple rare variants were present in many family probands, however, there was generally only one “driver” pathogenic variant that cosegregated with disease.ConclusionRare variants in cardiomyopathy genes can be effectively stratified by combining variant-level and gene-level information. Prioritization of genes based on their a priori likelihood of disease causation is a key factor in identifying clinically actionable variants in cardiac genetic testing.

Journal article

Bylstra Y, Kuan JL, Lim WK, Bhalshankar JD, Teo JX, Davila S, Teh BT, Rozen S, Tan E-C, Liew WKM, Yeo KK, Tan P, SinGapore Incidental Finding SGIF study group, Saw SM, Cheng C-Y, Cook S, Foo R, Jamuar SSet al., 2019, Population genomics in South East Asia captures unexpectedly high carrier frequency for treatable inherited disorders., Genet Med, Vol: 21, Pages: 207-212

PURPOSE: Genomic studies have demonstrated the necessity of ethnicity-specific population data to ascertain variant pathogenicity for disease diagnosis and treatment. This study examined the carrier prevalence of treatable inherited disorders (TIDs), where early diagnosis of at-risk offspring can significantly improve clinical outcomes. METHODS: Existing exome/ genome sequencing data of 831 Singaporeans were aggregated and examined for disease causing variants in 104 genes associated with 80 TIDs. RESULTS: Among the 831 Singaporean participants, genomic variant filtering and analysis identified 1 in 18 individuals (6%) to be carriers amongst one of 13 TIDs. Citrin deficiency and Wilson disease had the highest carrier frequency of 1 in 41, and 1 in 103 individuals, respectively. The pathogenic variants associated with citrin deficiency were 24 times more prevalent in our local cohorts when compared to Western cohorts. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the value of a population specific genomic database to determine true disease prevalence and has enabled the discovery of carrier frequencies of treatable genetic conditions specific to South East Asian populations, which are currently underestimated in existing data sources. This study framework can be adapted to other population groups and expanded to multiple genetic conditions to inform health policies directing precision medicine.

Journal article

Teo JX, Davila S, Yang C, Hii AA, Pua CJ, Yap J, Tan SY, Sahlén A, Chin CW-L, Teh BT, Rozen SG, Cook SA, Yeo KK, Tan P, Lim WKet al., 2019, Digital phenotyping by consumer wearables identifies sleep-associated markers of cardiovascular disease risk and biological aging., Commun Biol, Vol: 2

Sleep is associated with various health outcomes. Despite their growing adoption, the potential for consumer wearables to contribute sleep metrics to sleep-related biomedical research remains largely uncharacterized. Here we analyzed sleep tracking data, along with questionnaire responses and multi-modal phenotypic data generated from 482 normal volunteers. First, we compared wearable-derived and self-reported sleep metrics, particularly total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE). We then identified demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with wearable-derived TST; they included age, gender, occupation and alcohol consumption. Multi-modal phenotypic data analysis showed that wearable-derived TST and SE were associated with cardiovascular disease risk markers such as body mass index and waist circumference, whereas self-reported measures were not. Using wearable-derived TST, we showed that insufficient sleep was associated with premature telomere attrition. Our study highlights the potential for sleep metrics from consumer wearables to provide novel insights into data generated from population cohort studies.

Journal article

Dawes T, Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, Shi W, Rueckert D, Cook S, O'Regan Det al., 2018, Identifying the optimal regional predictor of right ventricular global function: a high resolution 3D cardiac magnetic resonance study, Anaesthesia, Vol: 74, Pages: 312-320, ISSN: 0003-2409

Right ventricular (RV) function has prognostic value in acute, chronic and peri‐operative disease, although the complex RV contractile pattern makes rapid assessment difficult. Several two‐dimensional (2D) regional measures estimate RV function, however the optimal measure is not known. High‐resolution three‐dimensional (3D) cardiac magnetic resonance cine imaging was acquired in 300 healthy volunteers and a computational model of RV motion created. Points where regional function was significantly associated with global function were identified and a 2D, optimised single‐point marker (SPM‐O) of global function developed. This marker was prospectively compared with tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), septum‐freewall displacement (SFD) and their fractional change (TAPSE‐F, SFD‐F) in a test cohort of 300 patients in the prediction of RV ejection fraction. RV ejection fraction was significantly associated with systolic function in a contiguous 7.3 cm2 patch of the basal RV freewall combining transverse (38%), longitudinal (35%) and circumferential (27%) contraction and coinciding with the four‐chamber view. In the test cohort, all single‐point surrogates correlated with RV ejection fraction (p < 0.010), but correlation (R) was higher for SPM‐O (R = 0.44, p < 0.001) than TAPSE (R = 0.24, p < 0.001) and SFD (R = 0.22, p < 0.001), and non‐significantly higher than TAPSE‐F (R = 0.40, p < 0.001) and SFD‐F (R = 0.43, p < 0.001). SPM‐O explained more of the observed variance in RV ejection fraction (19%) and predicted it more accurately than any other 2D marker (median error 2.8 ml vs 3.6 ml, p < 0.001). We conclude that systolic motion of the basal RV freewall predicts global function more accurately than other 2D estimators. However, no markers summarise 3D contractile patterns, limiting their predictive accuracy.

Journal article

Domínguez F, Cuenca S, Bilińska Z, Toro R, Villard E, Barriales-Villa R, Ochoa JP, Asselbergs F, Sammani A, Franaszczyk M, Akhtar M, Coronado-Albi MJ, Rangel-Sousa D, Rodriguez-Palomares JF, Jiménez-Jáimez J, Garcia-Pinilla JM, Ripoll-Vera T, Mogollon MV, Fontalba A, Garcia-Medina D, Doza JP, de Gonzalo-Calvo D, Cicerchia M, Salazar-Mendiguchia J, Pankuweit S, Morris Hey T, Mogensen J, Barton PJ, Charron P, Elliott P, Garcia-Pavia Pet al., 2018, Dilated cardiomyopathy due to BLC2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) mutations, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 72, Pages: 2471-2481, ISSN: 0735-1097

BackgroundThe BAG3 (BLC2-associated athanogene 3) gene codes for an antiapoptotic protein located on the sarcomere Z-disc. Mutations in BAG3 are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but only a small number of cases have been reported to date, and the natural history of BAG3 cardiomyopathy is poorly understood.ObjectivesThis study sought to describe the phenotype and prognosis of BAG3 mutations in a large multicenter DCM cohort.MethodsThe study cohort comprised 129 individuals with a BAG3 mutation (62% males, 35.1 ± 15.0 years of age) followed at 18 European centers. Localization of BAG3 in cardiac tissue was analyzed in patients with truncating BAG3 mutations using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAt first evaluation, 57.4% of patients had DCM. After a median follow-up of 38 months (interquartile range: 7 to 95 months), 68.4% of patients had DCM and 26.1% who were initially phenotype-negative developed DCM. Disease penetrance in individuals >40 years of age was 80% at last evaluation, and there was a trend towards an earlier onset of DCM in men (age 34.6 ± 13.2 years vs. 40.7 ± 12.2 years; p = 0.053). The incidence of adverse cardiac events (death, left ventricular assist device, heart transplantation, and sustained ventricular arrhythmia) was 5.1% per year among individuals with DCM. Male sex, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. and increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter were associated with adverse cardiac events. Myocardial tissue from patients with a BAG3 mutation showed myofibril disarray and a relocation of BAG3 protein in the sarcomeric Z-disc.ConclusionsDCM caused by mutations in BAG3 is characterized by high penetrance in carriers >40 years of age and a high risk of progressive heart failure. Male sex, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, and enlarged left ventricular end-diastolic diameter are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with BAG3 mutations.

Journal article

Halliday BP, Gulati A, Ali A, Newsome S, Lota A, Tayal U, Vassiliou V, Arzanauskaite M, Izgi C, Kirshnathasan K, Singhal A, Chiew K, Gregson J, Frenneaux M, Cook S, Pennell D, Collins P, Cleland J, Prasad Set al., 2018, Sex and age-based differences in the natural history and outcome of dilated cardiomyopathy, European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol: 20, Pages: 1392-1400, ISSN: 1388-9842

Aims: To evaluate the relationship between sex, age and outcome in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods & Results: We used proportional hazard modelling to examine the association between sex, age and all-cause mortality in consecutive patients with DCM. Overall, 881 patients (290 women, median age 52 years) were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Women were more likely to present with heart failure (64.0% vs 54.5%; p=0.007) and had more severe symptoms (p<0.001) compared to men. Women had smaller left ventricular end-diastolic volume (125ml/m2 vs 135ml/m2, p<0.001), higher left ventricular ejection fraction (40.2% vs 37.9%, p=0.019) and were less likely to have mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement (23.0% vs 38.9%, p<0.0001). During follow-up 149 (16.9%) patients died, including 41 (4.7%) who died suddenly. After adjustment, all-cause mortality (HR 0.61; 95%CI 0.41:0.92; p=0.018) was lower in women, with similar trends for cardiovascular (HR 0.60; 95%CI 0.35-1.05; p=0.07), non-sudden (HR 0.63; 95%CI 0.39-1.02; p=0.06) and sudden death (HR 0.70, 95%CI 0.30:1.63; p=0.41). All-cause mortality (per 10 yrs: HR 1.36, 95%CI 1.20-1.55; p<0.00001) and non-sudden death (per 10 yrs: HR 1.51, 95%CI 1.26 – 1.82; p<0.00001) increased with age. Cumulative incidence curves confirmed favourable outcomes, particularly in women and those <60 years. Increased all-cause mortality in patients >60 years of age was driven by non-sudden death. Conclusion: Women with DCM have better survival compared to men, which may partly be due to less severe left ventricular dysfunction and a smaller scar burden. There is increased mortality driven by non-sudden death in patients >60 years of age that is less marked in women. Outcomes with contemporary treatment were favourable, with a low incidence of sudden death.

Journal article

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