Imperial College London

Professor Tony Cass

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Chemistry
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5195t.cass

 
 
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Location

 

301KMolecular Sciences Research HubWhite City Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

267 results found

Sharma S, Cass AEG, 2017, Microneedle Enzyme Sensor Arrays for Continuous In Vivo Monitoring, Methods in Enzymology, Pages: 414-426, ISSN: 0076-6879

Microneedle enzyme sensors by virtue of their minimally invasive and hence pain-free penetration of skin allow for the measurement of metabolites, biomarkers, and drugs in the interstitial fluid that bathes the dermal tissue. Such devices if they are to be adopted widely into clinical practice need to be capable of delivering reliable measurements over extended periods of time (days) and to be fabricated by low-cost, scalable methods. Using injection molding of the base structures in polycarbonate, metal film deposition by sputtering and enzyme immobilization by electrodeposition can meet these requirements. The workflow to produce devices for clinical evaluation is then completed by sterilization and packaging. In vitro evaluation of the sensors' response to varying analyte concentrations and their mechanical testing establish performance and safety characteristics. While most of the work is focused on glucose sensing, reflecting the significance of the global diabetes "epidemic," the microneedles can also be used to measure lactate (another metabolite) and theophylline (a therapeutic drug).

Journal article

Hughes JT, O'Dea K, Piera K, Barzi F, Cass A, Hoy WE, MacIsaac RJ, Maple-Brown LJet al., 2016, Associations of serum adiponectin with markers of cardio-metabolic disease risk in Indigenous Australian adults with good health, diabetes and chronic kidney disease., Obes Res Clin Pract, Vol: 10, Pages: 659-672, ISSN: 1871-403X

The higher serum adiponectin concentrations observed in females are often attributed to differences in adiposity or sex hormones. There is little data describing adiponectin in Indigenous Australians, and no studies examining its association with cardio-metabolic disease risk markers and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AIM: To describe the relationship of serum adiponectin with cardio-metabolic disease risk markers and kidney function in a community-based sample of Indigenous Australian adults, with particular reference to sex-specific differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of a community-based volunteer sample of 548 Indigenous Australian adults (62% female), stratified into five cardio-metabolic risk groups ranging from good health (strata-1) to high cardio-metabolic risk and low measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR, <60ml/min/1.73m2) (strata-5). We examined serum adiponectin concentrations with cardio-metabolic risk markers, albuminuria and mGFR. RESULTS: Indigenous Australian females had a lower than expected adiponectin concentration (3.5μg/ml), which was higher than males in strata 1-4 (as in other populations), but not in strata-5 (mGFR<60, p=0.19), and higher leptin: adiponectin ratio than other populations (7.8ng/μg - strata-1, healthy females; 12.2ng/μg - strata-3, females with diabetes and mGFR≥90). Female-gender, HDL-cholesterol (positive), mGFR and waist: hip ratio (WHR) (inverse) were independently associated with log-adiponectin when mGFR≥60; when mGFR<60, female-gender was associated with 0.27 units lower log-adiponectin. CONCLUSION: Female-gender was not associated with higher adiponectin concentrations in Indigenous Australians with mGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2. High WHR was frequent in both genders, and inversely associated with adiponectin. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relationships of serum adiponectin, obesity and cardiovascular disease events in Indigenous Australians.

Journal article

Sharma S, Huang Z, Rogers M, Boutelle M, Cass AEGet al., 2016, Evaluation of a minimally invasive glucose biosensor for continuous tissue monitoring, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol: 408, Pages: 8427-8435, ISSN: 1618-2650

We describe here a minimally invasive glucose biosensor based on a microneedle array electrode fabricated from an epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8 50) and designed for continuous measurement in the dermal compartment with minimal pain. These minimally invasive, continuous monitoring sensor devices (MICoMS) were produced by casting the structures in SU8 50, crosslinking and then metallising them with platinum or silver to obtain the working and reference electrodes, respectively. The metallised microneedle array electrodes were subsequently functionalised by entrapping glucose oxidase in electropolymerised polyphenol (PP) film. Sensor performance in vitro showed that glucose concentrations down to 0.5 mM could be measured with a response times (T90) of 15 s. The effect of sterilisation by Co60 irradiation was evaluated. In preparation for further clinical studies, these sensors were tested in vivo in a healthy volunteer for a period of 3–6 h. The sensor currents were compared against point measurements obtained with a commercial capillary blood glucometer. The epoxy MICoMS devices showed currents values that could be correlated with these.

Journal article

Sharma S, Saeed A, Johnson C, Gadegaard N, Cass AEGet al., 2016, Rapid, low cost prototyping of transdermal devices for personal healthcare monitoring, Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research, Vol: 13, Pages: 104-108, ISSN: 2214-1804

The next generation of devices for personal healthcare monitoring will comprise molecular sensors to monitor analytes of interest in the skin compartment. Transdermal devices based on microneedles offer an excellent opportunity to explore the dynamics of molecular markers in the interstitial fluid, however good acceptability of these next generation devices will require several technical problems associated with current commercially available wearable sensors to be overcome. These particularly include reliability, comfort and cost. An essential pre-requisite for transdermal molecular sensing devices is that they can be fabricated using scalable technologies which are cost effective.We present here a minimally invasive microneedle array as a continuous monitoring platform technology. Method for scalable fabrication of these structures is presented. The microneedle arrays were characterised mechanically and were shown to penetrate human skin under moderate thumb pressure. They were then functionalised and evaluated as glucose, lactate and theophylline biosensors. The results suggest that this technology can be employed in the measurement of metabolites, therapeutic drugs and biomarkers and could have an important role to play in the management of chronic diseases.

Journal article

Badve SV, Palmer SC, Strippoli GFM, Roberts MA, Teixeira-Pinto A, Boudville N, Cass A, Hawley CM, Hiremath SS, Pascoe EM, Perkovic V, Whalley GA, Craig JC, Johnson DWet al., 2016, The Validity of Left Ventricular Mass as a Surrogate End Point for All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Outcomes in People With CKD: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis., Am J Kidney Dis, Vol: 68, Pages: 554-563

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is a widely used surrogate end point in randomized trials involving people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) because treatment-induced LVM reductions are assumed to lower cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of LVM as a surrogate end point for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: Participants with any stages of CKD. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Randomized controlled trials with 3 or more months' follow-up that reported LVM data. INTERVENTION: Any pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic intervention. OUTCOMES: The surrogate outcome of interest was LVM change from baseline to last measurement, and clinical outcomes of interest were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) of LVM change and relative risk for mortality were estimated using pairwise random-effects meta-analysis. Correlations between surrogate and clinical outcomes were summarized across all interventions combined using bivariate random-effects Bayesian models, and 95% credible intervals were computed. RESULTS: 73 trials (6,732 participants) covering 25 intervention classes were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, risk of bias was uncertain or high. Only 3 interventions reduced LVM: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (9 trials; SMD, -0.13; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.03), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (13 trials; SMD, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.12), and isosorbide mononitrate (2 trials; SMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.14). All interventions had uncertain effects on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There were weak and imprecise associations between the effects of interventions on LVM change and all-cause (32 trials; 5,044 participants; correlation coefficient, 0.28; 95% credible interval, -0.13 to 0.59) and cardiovascular mortality (13 trials; 2,32

Journal article

Maple-Brown LJ, Hughes JT, Ritte R, Barzi F, Hoy WE, Lawton PD, Jones GRD, Death E, Simmonds A, Sinha AK, Cherian S, Thomas MAB, McDermott R, Brown ADH, O'Dea K, Jerums G, Cass A, MacIsaac RJet al., 2016, Progression of Kidney Disease in Indigenous Australians: The eGFR Follow-up Study., Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, Vol: 11, Pages: 993-1004

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Indigenous Australians experience a heavy burden of CKD. To address this burden, the eGFR Follow-Up Study recruited and followed an Indigenous Australian cohort from regions of Australia with the greatest ESRD burden. We sought to better understand factors contributing to the progression of kidney disease. Specific objectives were to assess rates of progression of eGFR in Indigenous Australians with and without CKD and identify factors associated with a decline in eGFR. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This observational longitudinal study of Indigenous Australian adults was conducted in >20 sites. The baseline cohort was recruited from community and primary care clinic sites across five strata of health, diabetes status, and kidney function. Participants were then invited to follow up at 2-4 years; if unavailable, vital status, progression to RRT, and serum creatinine were obtained from medical records. Primary outcomes were annual eGFR change and combined renal outcome (first of ≥30% eGFR decline with follow-up eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), progression to RRT, or renal death). RESULTS: Participants (n=550) were followed for a median of 3.0 years. Baseline and follow-up eGFR (geometric mean [95% confidence interval], 83.9 (80.7 to 87.3) and 70.1 (65.9 to 74.5) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively. Overall mean annual eGFR change was -3.1 (-3.6 to -2.5) ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Stratified by baseline eGFR (≥90, 60-89, <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), annual eGFR changes were -3.0 (-3.6 to -2.4), -1.9 (-3.3 to -0.5), and -5.0 (-6.5 to -3.6) ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Across baseline eGFR categories, annual eGFR decline was greatest among adults with baseline albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) >265 mg/g (30 mg/mmol). Baseline determinants of the combined renal outcome (experienced by 66 participants) were higher urine ACR, diabetes, lower measured GFR, and higher C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: The observed eGFR decline w

Journal article

Roberts MA, Pilmore HL, Ierino FL, Badve SV, Cass A, Garg AX, Isbel NM, Krum H, Pascoe EM, Perkovic V, Scaria A, Tonkin AM, Vergara LA, Hawley CM, BLOCADE Study Collaborative Groupet al., 2016, The β-Blocker to Lower Cardiovascular Dialysis Events (BLOCADE) Feasibility Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial., Am J Kidney Dis, Vol: 67, Pages: 902-911

BACKGROUND: β-Blocking agents reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart disease, but their potential benefit in dialysis patients is unclear. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). STUDY DESIGN: Pilot RCT. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients who received dialysis for 3 or more months and were 50 years or older (or ≥18 years with diabetes or cardiovascular disease) were recruited from 11 sites in Australia and New Zealand. We aimed to recruit 150 participants. INTERVENTION: After a 6-week run-in with the β-blocker carvedilol, we randomly assigned participants to treatment with carvedilol or placebo for 12 months. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: The prespecified primary outcome was the proportion of participants who tolerated carvedilol, 6.25mg, twice daily during the run-in period. After randomization, we report participant withdrawal and the incidence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH). RESULTS: Of 1,443 patients screened, 354 were eligible, 91 consented, and 72 entered the run-in stage. 49 of 72 run-in participants (68%; 95% CI, 57%-79%) achieved the primary outcome. 5 of the 23 withdrawals from run-in were attributable to bradycardia or hypotension. After randomization, 10 of 26 allocated to carvedilol and 4 of 23 allocated to placebo withdrew. 4 participants randomly assigned to carvedilol withdrew because of bradycardia or hypotension. Overall, there were 4 IDH events per 100 hemodialysis sessions; in participants allocated to carvedilol versus placebo, respectively, there were 7 versus 2 IDH events per 100 hemodialysis sessions (P=0.1) in the 2 weeks immediately following a dose increase and 4 versus 3 IDH events per 100 hemodialysis sessions after no dose increase (P=0.7). LIMITATIONS: Unable to recruit planned sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Recruiting patients receiving dialysis to an RCT of β-blocker versus placebo will prove challenging. Possible solutions include international collaboratio

Journal article

Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna G, Elson DSet al., Application of Gold Nanorods in Cancer Theranostics (plenary presentation winner), Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract Annual Meeting, 31st Annual SSAT Residents and Fellows Research Conference

Conference paper

Elson DS, Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna Get al., Application of Gold Nanorods in Cancer Theranostics, Association of Surgeons in Training

Conference paper

Nabavi E, Singh M, Zhou Y, Gallina ME, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna G, Elson DSet al., 2016, Preliminary studies of fluorescence image-guided photothermal therapy of human oesophageal adenocarcinoma in vivo using multifunctional gold nanorods, Conference on Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection - Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXV, Publisher: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0277-786X

We present a preliminary in vivo study of fluorescence imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of human oesophageal adenocarcinoma using multi-functionalised gold nanorods (GNRs). After establishing tumour xenograft in mouse functionalised GNRs were administrated intravenously (IV). Fluorescence imaging was performed to detect the tumour area. The intensity of the fluorescence signal varied significantly across the tumour site and surrounding tissues. PTT was then performed using a 808 nm continuous wave diode laser to irradiate the tumour for 3 minutes, inducing a temperature rise of ~44°C, which photothermally ablated the tumour.

Conference paper

Singh M, Harris-Birtill DCC, Zhou Y, Gallina ME, Cass A, Hanna GB, Elson DSet al., 2016, Application of Gold Nanorods for Photothermal Therapy in Ex Vivo Human Oesophagogastric Adenocarcinoma, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Vol: 12, Pages: 481-490, ISSN: 1550-7041

Gold nanoparticles are chemically fabricated and tuned to strongly absorb near infrared (NIR) light, enabling deep optical penetration and therapy within human tissues, where sufficient heating induces tumour necrosis. In our studies we aim to establish the optimal gold nanorod (GNR) concentration and laser power for inducing hyperthermic effects in tissues and test this photothermal effect on ex vivo human oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. The ideal GNR concentration and NIR laser power that would elicit sufficient hyperthermia for tumour necrosis was pre-determined on porcine oesophageal tissues. Human ex vivo oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma tissues were incubated with GNR solutions and a GNR-free control solution with corresponding healthy tissues for comparison, then irradiated with NIR light for 10 minutes. Temperature rise was found to vary linearly with both the concentration of GNRs and the laser power. Human ex vivo oesophageal and gastric tissues consistently demonstrated a significant temperature rise when incubated in an optimally concentrated GNR solution (3 × 1010 GNRs/ml) prior to NIR irradiation delivered at an optimal power (2 W/cm2). A mean temperature rise of 27 °C was observed in tissues incubated with GNRs, whereas only a modest 2 °C rise in tissues not exposed to any GNRs. This study evaluates the photothermal effects of GNRs on oesophagogastric tissue examines their application in the minimally invasive therapeutics of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas. This could potentially be an effective method of clinically inducing irreversible oesophagogastric tumour photodestruction, with minimal collateral damage expected in (healthy) tissues free from GNRs.

Journal article

Sharma S, El-Laboudi A, Oliver N, Johnston DJ, Cass AEGet al., 2016, Chemical cross talk studies on a microprobe array based continuous glucose monitoring sensor, ATTD 2016, Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, ISSN: 1557-8593

Conference paper

Maniyam MN, Yaacob NS, Sjahrir F, Nagarajan J, Nagarajan J, Cass AEG, Nawawi NM, Ibrahim ALet al., 2016, Rhodococcus UKMP-5M: A versatile bioremediation microorganism, Biodegradation: Properties, Analysis and Performance, Pages: 1-77, ISBN: 9781634857512

© 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Wastes generated from the industrial sectors over the years raised significant environmental and health concerns. Soon, interest in bioremediation as biological methods to clean-up pollution escalated due to their environmentally-friendly approach and less capital and operative costs as compared to that of chemical and physical methods. The genus Rhodococcus emerges as one of the most promising groups of microorganisms besides pseudomonads capable of transforming or degrading complex synthetic substrates with remarkable stability and toxicity. Thus, Rhodococcus strains may be utilized as industrial organisms, primarily for biotransformation and biodegradation since they are equipped with a rich source of potential green chemistry enzymatic catalysts, unique cell wall structure and applicable biotechnological properties. However, research on actinomycetes microbiology particularly the genus Rhodococcus is in its infancy especially in Malaysia and the present research will be the first in-depth analysis of the rhodococcal clade present in Peninsular Malaysia, an area of tropical rather than temperate climate. This project has successfully isolated 23 Rhodococcus strains from various sources in Peninsular Malaysia and there is significant sequence evidence to support the emergence of 9 (or more) new species from these Malaysian samples. Sequencing of one of the Malaysian isolates namely Rhodococcus UKMP-5M had led to the identification of groups of genes that are associated with the production of enzymes which have potential for industrial application as biocatalysts. Rhodococcus UKMP-5M serves as a versatile bioremediation microorganism since this single locally isolated strain was capable of degradation of phenol, chlorinated compounds, nitrile and cyanide which are classified as toxic and harmful chemical substances through enzymatic reaction. In addition, this particular strain was also competent in transforming waste cooki

Book chapter

Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, Gallina M, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna G, Elson Det al., Application of Gold Nanorods in Cancer Theranostics, European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES)

Conference paper

Singh M, Navabi E, Zhou Y, zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna G, Elson Det al., Application of Gold Nanorods in Cancer Theranostics (winner SARS/ASiT Prize), Association of Surgeons in Training

Conference paper

Hu Y, Sharma S, Weatherwax J, Cass A, Georgiou Pet al., 2016, A Portable Multi-Channel Potentiostat for Real-Time Amperometric Measurement of Multi-Electrode Sensor Arrays, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1306-1309, ISSN: 0271-4302

Conference paper

Hu Y, Sharma S, Weatherwax J, Cass A, Georgiou Pet al., 2016, Live Demonstration: A Portable Multi-Channel Potentiostat for Real-Time Amperometric Measurement of Multi-Electrode Sensor Arrays, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2373-2373, ISSN: 0271-4302

Conference paper

Hasmoni SH, Mau GK, Karsani SA, Cass A, Shahir Set al., 2016, Strep-tag ii mutant maltose-binding protein for reagentless fluorescence sensing, Tropical Life Sciences Research, Vol: 27, Pages: 63-75, ISSN: 1985-3718

© Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2016. Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a periplasmic binding protein found in Gram negative bacteria. MBP is involved in maltose transport and bacterial chemotaxis; it binds to maltose and maltodextrins comprising α(1-4)-glucosidically linked linear glucose polymers and α(1-4)-glucosidically linked cyclodextrins. Upon ligand binding, MBP changes its conformation from an open to a closed form. This molecular recognition—transducing a ligand-binding event into a physical one—renders MBP an ideal candidate for biosensor development. Here, we describe the construction of a Strep-tag II mutant MBP for reagentless fluorescence sensing. malE, which encodes MBP, was amplified. A cysteine residue was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis to ensure a single label attachment at a specific site with a thiol-specific fluorescent probe. An environmentally sensitive fluorophore (IANBD amide) was covalently attached to the introduced thiol group and analysed by fluorescence sensing. The tagged mutant MBP (D95C) was purified (molecular size, ~42 kDa). The fluorescence measurements of the IANBD-labelled Strep-tag II–D95C in the solution phase showed an appreciable change in fluorescence intensity (dissociation constant, 7.6±1.75 μM). Our mutant MBP retains maltose-binding activity and is suitable for reagentless fluorescence sensing.

Journal article

Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, Gallina M, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna G, Elson DSet al., Application of Gold Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma, Bio-Nano-Photonics Symposium

Conference paper

Gallina ME, Zhou Y, Johnson CJ, Harris-Birtill D, Singh M, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass T, Elson DSet al., 2015, Aptamer-conjugated, fluorescent gold nanorods as potential cancer theradiagnostic agents, Materials Science & Engineering C - Biomimetic and Supramolecular Systems, Vol: 59, Pages: 324-332, ISSN: 0928-4931

GNRs are emerging as a new class of probes for theradiagnostic applications thanks to their unique optical properties. However, the achievement of proper nanoconstructs requires the synthesis of highly pure GNRs with well-defined aspect ratio (AR), in addition to extensive surface chemistry modification to provide them with active targeting and, possibly, multifunctionality.In this work, we refined the method of the seed mediated growth and developed a robust procedure for the fabrication of GNRs with specific AR. We also revealed and characterized unexplored aging phenomena that follow the synthesis and consistently alter GNRs' final AR. Such advances appreciably improved the feasibility of GNRs fabrication and offered useful insights on the growth mechanism.We next produced fluorescent, biocompatible, aptamer-conjugated GNRs by performing ligand exchange followed by bioconjugation to anti-cancer oligonucleotide AS1411. In vitro studies showed that our nanoconstructs selectively target cancer cells while showing negligible cytotoxicity. As a result, our aptamer-conjugated GNRs constitute ideal cancer-selective multifunctional probes and promising candidates as photothermal therapy agents.

Journal article

Tong A, Crowe S, Chando S, Cass A, Chadban SJ, Chapman JR, Gallagher M, Hawley CM, Hill S, Howard K, Johnson DW, Kerr PG, McKenzie A, Parker D, Perkovic V, Polkinghorne KR, Pollock C, Strippoli GFM, Tugwell P, Walker RG, Webster AC, Wong G, Craig JCet al., 2015, Research Priorities in CKD: Report of a National Workshop Conducted in Australia., Am J Kidney Dis, Vol: 66, Pages: 212-222

Research aims to improve health outcomes for patients. However, the setting of research priorities is usually performed by clinicians, academics, and funders, with little involvement of patients or caregivers and using processes that lack transparency. A national workshop was convened in Australia to generate and prioritize research questions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diverse stakeholder groups. Patients with CKD (n=23), nephrologists/surgeons (n=16), nurses (n=8), caregivers (n=7), and allied health professionals and researchers (n=4) generated and voted on intervention questions across 4 treatment categories: CKD stages 1 to 5 (non-dialysis dependent), peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. The 5 highest ranking questions (in descending order) were as follows: How effective are lifestyle programs for preventing deteriorating kidney function in early CKD? What strategies will improve family consent for deceased donor kidney donation, taking different cultural groups into account? What interventions can improve long-term post-transplant outcomes? What are effective interventions for post hemodialysis fatigue? How can we improve and individualize drug therapy to control post-transplant side effects? Priority questions were focused on prevention, lifestyle, quality of life, and long-term impact. These prioritized research questions can inform funding agencies, patient/consumer organizations, policy makers, and researchers in developing a CKD research agenda that is relevant to key stakeholders.

Journal article

Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass AE, Hanna GB, Elson DSet al., 2015, APPLICATION OF GOLD NANORODS FOR IN VIVO THERANOSTICS OF HUMAN OESOPHAGEAL ADENOCARCINOMA, 2nd Digestive-Disorders-Federation Conference, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A471-A471, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Iyngkaran P, Majoni W, Cass A, Sanders P, Ronco C, Brady S, Kangaharan N, Ilton M, Hare DL, Thomas MCet al., 2015, Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base., Heart Lung Circ, Vol: 24, Pages: 536-543

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia.

Journal article

Laba T-L, Howard K, Rose J, Peiris D, Redfern J, Usherwood T, Cass A, Patel A, Jan Set al., 2015, Patient preferences for a polypill for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases., Ann Pharmacother, Vol: 49, Pages: 528-539

BACKGROUND: Polypill-based strategies have improved patient use of preventive cardiovascular disease (CVD) medications in clinical trials. Continued use in real-world settings relies on patients preferring a polypill over current treatment. OBJECTIVE: Within a clinical trial assessing a CVD polypill-based strategy on patient adherence (Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill study [Kanyini GAP]), we used discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess the influence of polypill-based treatment attributes and patient characteristics on preferences for CVD preventive treatment. METHODS: A DCE survey was administered to Kanyini GAP participants, involving choices between 2 hypothetical treatment options and no treatment for CVD prevention. Attributes delineating a polypill from current treatment were assessed: out-of-pocket costs, tablet number, administration, and prescriber visit frequency. The odds ratios (ORs) for preferring treatment, trade-off between treatment-related attributes, and willingness to pay against other attributes were estimated. RESULTS: In all, 332 of 487 (68%) participants completed the survey. Active treatment, compared with no treatment, was chosen by 93%. Treatment preference decreased with increasing out-of-pocket cost (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.03-0.05) and tablet number (OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.59-0.81). Out-of-pocket cost was the most important attribute. Respondents were willing to pay $3.45 per month for each tablet reduction. Education and household income significantly influenced treatment preference. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming equivalent efficacy and safety of treatment options, the treatment-specific attributes that were assessed and influenced patient preference strongly accord with the posited advantages of the cardiovascular polypill. The study provides promising evidence that improvements in treatment adherence observed in CVD polypill trials may translate to the real world and potentially close treatment gaps in CVD prevention.

Journal article

Liu H, Massi L, Laba T-L, Peiris D, Usherwood T, Patel A, Cass A, Eades A-M, Redfern J, Hayman N, Howard K, Brien J-A, Jan Set al., 2015, Patients' and providers' perspectives of a polypill strategy to improve cardiovascular prevention in Australian primary health care: a qualitative study set within a pragmatic randomized, controlled trial., Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, Vol: 8, Pages: 301-308

BACKGROUND: This study explores health provider and patient attitudes toward the use of a cardiovascular polypill as a health service strategy to improve cardiovascular prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: In-depth, semistructured interviews (n=94) were conducted with health providers and patients from Australian general practice, Aboriginal community-controlled and government-run Indigenous Health Services participating in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial evaluating a polypill-based strategy for high-risk primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention. Interview topics included polypill strategy acceptability, factors affecting adherence, and trial implementation. Transcribed interview data were analyzed thematically and interpretively. Polypill patients commented frequently on cost-savings, ease, and convenience of a daily-dosing pill. Most providers considered a polypill strategy to facilitate improved patient medication use. Indigenous Health Services providers and indigenous patients thought the strategy acceptable and beneficial for indigenous patients given the high disease burden. Providers noted the inflexibility of the fixed dose regimen, with dosages sometimes inappropriate for patients with complex management considerations. Future polypill formulations with varied strengths and classes of medications may overcome this barrier. Many providers suggested the polypill strategy, in its current formulations, might be more suited to high-risk primary prevention patients. CONCLUSIONS: The polypill strategy was generally acceptable to patients and providers in cardiovascular prevention. Limitations to provider acceptability of this particular polypill were revealed, as was a perception it might be more suitable for high-risk primary prevention patients, though future combinations could facilitate its use in secondary prevention. Participants suggested a polypill-based strategy as particularly appropriate for lowering the high cardiovascular burden in

Journal article

Maniyam MN, Sjahrir F, Ibrahim AL, Cass AEGet al., 2015, Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 50, Pages: 357-364, ISSN: 1093-4529

Journal article

Roberts MA, Pilmore HL, Ierino FL, Badve SV, Cass A, Garg AX, Hawley CM, Isbel NM, Krum H, Pascoe EM, Tonkin AM, Vergara LA, Perkovic V, BLOCADE Study Collaborative Groupet al., 2015, The rationale and design of the Beta-blocker to LOwer CArdiovascular Dialysis Events (BLOCADE) Feasibility Study., Nephrology (Carlton), Vol: 20, Pages: 140-147

AIMS: The Beta-blocker to LOwer CArdiovascular Dialysis Events (BLOCADE) Feasibility Study aims to determine the feasibility of a large-scale randomized controlled trial with clinical endpoints comparing the beta-blocking agent carvedilol with placebo in patients receiving dialysis. METHODS: The BLOCADE Feasibility Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group feasibility study comparing the beta-blocking agent carvedilol with placebo. Patients receiving dialysis for ≥3 months and who are aged ≥50 years, or who are ≥18 years and have diabetes or cardiovascular disease, were eligible. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who complete a 6-week run-in phase in which all participants received carvedilol titrated from 3.125 mg twice daily to 6.25 mg twice daily. Other measures included how many patients are screened, the proportion recruited, the overall recruitment rate, the proportion of participants who remain on study drug for 12 months and the incidence of intra-dialytic hypotension while on randomized treatment. RESULTS: The BLOCADE Feasibility Study commenced recruiting in May 2011 and involves 11 sites in Australia and New Zealand. CONCLUSIONS: The BLOCADE Feasibility Study will inform the design of a larger clinical endpoint study to determine whether beta-blocking agents provide benefit to patients receiving dialysis, and define whether such a study is feasible.

Journal article

Sharma S, El-Laboudi A, Oliver N, Johnston D, Cass Tet al., 2015, EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF EPOXY POLYURETHANE MEMBRANE FOR A MICROPROBE ARRAY BASED CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE SENSOR, DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Vol: 17, Pages: A90-A91, ISSN: 1520-9156

Journal article

Perevedentsev A, Sonnefraud Y, Belton CR, Sharma S, Cass AEG, Maier SA, Kim J-S, Stavrinou PN, Bradley DDCet al., 2015, Dip-pen patterning of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) chain-conformation-based nano-photonic elements, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723

Metamaterials are a promising new class of materials, in which sub-wavelength physical structures, rather than variations in chemical composition, can be used to modify the nature of their interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Here we show that a metamaterials approach, using a discrete physical geometry (conformation) of the segments of a polymer chain as the vector for a substantial refractive index change, can be used to enable visible wavelength, conjugated polymer photonic elements. In particular, we demonstrate that a novel form of dip-pen nanolithography provides an effective means to pattern the so-called β-phase conformation in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) thin films. This can be done on length scales ≤500 nm, as required to fabricate a variety of such elements, two of which are theoretically modelled using complex photonic dispersion calculations.

Journal article

Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, Zhao H, Ma D, Cass A, Hanna G, Elson DSet al., Application of Gold Nanorods for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Theranostics (first prize), 9th London Surgical Symposium & the 68th Simpson Smith Lecture and Awards

Conference paper

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