Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Professor of Quantum Physics



+44 (0)20 7594 7863t.rudolph Website CV




Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Harrigan, N and Rudolph, T and Aaronson, S},
title = {Representing probabilistic data via ontological models},
url = {},
year = {2007}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Ontological models are attempts to quantitatively describe the results of aprobabilistic theory, such as Quantum Mechanics, in a framework exhibiting anexplicit realism-based underpinning. Unlike either the well knownquasi-probability representations, or the "r-p" vector formalism, these modelsare contextual and by definition only involve positive probabilitydistributions (and indicator functions). In this article we study how theontological model formalism can be used to describe arbitrary statistics of asystem subjected to a finite set of preparations and measurements. We presentthree models which can describe any such empirical data and then discuss how toturn an indeterministic model into a deterministic one. This raises the issueof how such models manifest contextuality, and we provide an explicit exampleto demonstrate this. In the second half of the paper we consider the issue offinding ontological models with as few ontic states as possible.
AU - Harrigan,N
AU - Rudolph,T
AU - Aaronson,S
PY - 2007///
TI - Representing probabilistic data via ontological models
UR -
ER -