Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Global Health



+44 (0)20 7594 1150timothy.hallett




Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Mangal, T and Meireles, M and Pascom, ARP and Coelho, RDA and Benzaken, AS and Hallett, T},
doi = {10.1186/s12879-019-3844-3},
journal = {BMC Infectious Diseases},
title = {Determinants of survival of people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy in Brazil 2006-2015},
url = {},
volume = {19},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundWe compared AIDS-related mortality rates in people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brazil during 2006–2015 and examined associated risk factors .MethodsData on ART use in PLHIV and AIDS mortality in Brazil was analysed with piecewise constant exponential models. Mortality rates and hazard ratios were estimated for 0–6, 6–12, 13–24, 25–36 and > 36 months of ART use and adjusted for region, age, sex, baseline CD4 cell count and calendar year of ART initiation. An additional analysis restricted to those with data on risk group was also performed.Results269,076 individuals were included in the analysis, 165,643 (62%) males and 103,433 (38%) females, with 1,783,305 person-years of follow-up time. 21,749 AIDS deaths were reported and 8898 deaths occurred in the first year of ART. The risk of death in the first six months decreased with early ART initiation; those starting treatment early with CD4 > 500 cells per μL had a hazard ratio of 0.06 (95% CI 0.05–0.07) compared with CD4 < 200 cells per μL. Older age, male sex, intravenous drug use and starting treatment in earlier calendar years were associated with higher mortality rates. People living in the North, Northeast and South of Brazil experienced significantly higher AIDS mortality rates than those in the Southeast (HR 1.44, [95% CI 1.35–1.54], 1.10 [1.05–1.16] and 1.22 [1.17–1.28] respectively).ConclusionsEarly treatment is likely to have contributed to the improved survival in PLHIV on ART, with the greatest benefits observed in women, younger age-groups and those living in the North.
AU - Mangal,T
AU - Meireles,M
AU - Pascom,ARP
AU - Coelho,RDA
AU - Benzaken,AS
AU - Hallett,T
DO - 10.1186/s12879-019-3844-3
PY - 2019///
SN - 1471-2334
TI - Determinants of survival of people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy in Brazil 2006-2015
T2 - BMC Infectious Diseases
UR -
UR -
VL - 19
ER -