Imperial College London

Dr Tony Goldstone

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Senior Clinical Research Fellow



+44 (0)20 7594 5989tony.goldstone Website




E313Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus





Publication Type

103 results found

Ruban A, Glaysher MA, Miras AD, Goldstone AP, Prechtl CG, Johnson N, Li J, Aldhwayan M, Aldubaikhi G, Glover B, Lord J, Onyimadu O, Falaschetti E, Klimowska-Nassar N, Ashrafian H, Byrne J, Teare JPet al., 2020, A duodenal sleeve bypass device added to intensive medical therapy for obesity with type 2 diabetes: a RCT, Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-130, ISSN: 2050-4365

<jats:sec id="abs1-1"> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>The EndoBarrier<jats:sup>®</jats:sup> (GI Dynamics Inc., Boston, MA, USA) is an endoluminal duodenal–jejunal bypass liner developed for the treatment of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Meta-analyses of its effects on glycaemia and weight have called for larger randomised controlled trials with longer follow-up.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-2"> <jats:title>Objectives</jats:title> <jats:p>The primary objective was to compare intensive medical therapy with a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner with intensive medical therapy without a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner, comparing effectiveness on the metabolic state as defined by the International Diabetes Federation as a glycated haemoglobin level reduction of ≥ 20%. The secondary objectives were to compare intensive medical therapy with a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner with intensive medical therapy without a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner, comparing effectiveness on the metabolic state as defined by the International Diabetes Federation as a glycated haemoglobin level of &lt; 42 mmol/mol, blood pressure of &lt; 135/85 mmHg, and the effectiveness on total body weight loss. Additional secondary outcomes were to investigate the cost-effectiveness and mechanism of action of the effect of a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner on brain reward system responses, insulin sensitivity, eating behaviour and metabonomics.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="abs1-3"> <jats:title>Design</jats:title> <jats:p>A multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.</jats:p>

Journal article

Murphy CF, Stratford N, Docherty NG, Moran B, Elliott JA, Healy M-L, McMorrow JP, Ravi N, Goldstone AP, Reynolds JV, le Roux CWet al., 2020, A Pilot Study of Gut-Brain Signaling After Octreotide Therapy for Unintentional Weight Loss After Esophagectomy., J Clin Endocrinol Metab

BACKGROUND: Recurrence-free patients after esophageal cancer surgery face long-term nutritional consequences, occurring in the context of an exaggerated post-prandial gut hormone response. Acute gut hormone suppression influences brain reward signaling and eating behavior. This study aimed to suppress gut hormone secretion and characterize reward responses and eating behavior among post-esophagectomy patients with unintentional weight loss. METHODS: This pilot study prospectively studied post-operative patients with ≥10% body weight loss (BWL) beyond one year who were candidates for clinical treatment with long-acting Octreotide (LAR). Before and after four weeks of treatment, gut hormone secretion, food cue reactivity (functional MRI), eating motivation (progressive ratio task), ad libitum food intake, body composition, and symptom burden were assessed. RESULTS: 8 patients (7 male, age: mean±SD 62.8±9.4 years, post-operative BWL: 15.5±5.8%) participated. Octreotide LAR did not significantly suppress total post-prandial plasma GLP-1 response at four weeks (P=0.08). Post-prandial symptom burden improved after treatment (Sigstad score median(range): 12(2-28) vs. 8(3-18), P=0.04), but weight remained stable (Pre:68.6±12.8kg vs. Post:69.2±13.4kg, P=0.13). There was no significant change in brain reward system responses, during evaluation of high-energy or low-energy food pictures, nor their appeal rating. Moreover, treatment did not alter motivation to eat (P=0.41) nor ad libitum food intake(P=0.46). CONCLUSION: The protocol used made it feasible to characterize the gut-brain axis and eating behavior in this cohort. Inadequate suppression of gut hormone responses four weeks after Octreotide LAR administration may explain the lack of gut-brain pathway alterations. A higher dose or shorter inter-dose interval may be required to optimize the intervention.

Journal article

Alenaini W, Parkinson JRC, McCarthy JP, Goldstone AP, Wilman HR, Banerjee R, Yaghootkar H, Bell JD, Thomas ELet al., 2020, Ethnic differences in body fat deposition and liver fat content in two UK-based cohorts, Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), ISSN: 1071-7323

OBJECTIVE: Differences in the content and distribution of body fat and ectopic lipids may be responsible for ethnic variations in metabolic disease susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine the ethnic distribution of body fat in two separate UK-based populations. METHODS: Anthropometry and body composition were assessed in two separate UK cohorts: the Hammersmith cohort and the UK Biobank, both comprising individuals of South Asian descent (SA), individuals of Afro-Caribbean descent (AC), and individuals of European descent (EUR). Regional adipose tissue stores and liver fat were measured by magnetic resonance techniques. RESULTS: The Hammersmith cohort (n = 747) had a mean (SD) age of 41.1 (14.5) years (EUR: 374 men, 240 women; SA: 68 men, 22 women; AC: 14 men, 29 women), and the UK Biobank (n = 9,533) had a mean (SD) age of 55.5 (7.5) years (EUR: 4,483 men, 4,873 women; SA: 80 men, 43 women, AC: 31 men, 25 women). Following adjustment for age and BMI, no significant differences in visceral adipose tissue or liver fat were observed between SA and EUR individuals in the either cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, consistent across two independent UK-based cohorts, present a limited number of ethnic differences in the distribution of body fat depots associated with metabolic disease. These results suggest that the ethnic variation in susceptibility to features of the metabolic syndrome may not arise from differences in body fat.

Journal article

Rosenberg AGW, Pellikaan K, Poitou C, Goldstone AP, Hoybye C, Markovic T, Grugni G, Crino A, Caixas A, Coupaye M, Van den Berg SAA, Van der Lely AJ, De Graaff LCGet al., 2020, Central adrenal insufficiency is rare in adults with prader-willi syndrome (vol 105, pg 1, 2020), Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 105, Pages: E3052-E3052, ISSN: 0021-972X

Journal article

Foss L, Belli A, Brody D, Brookes M, Bull A, Craner M, Dunkley B, Evangelou N, Furlong P, Gibb I, Goldstone A, Green G, Hettiaratchy S, Hodgetts T, Lee R, Mistlin A, Nader K, Perl D, Reid A, Scadding J, Seri S, Sharp D, Sherwood D, Simms A, Sinclair A, Wessely S, Wilde E, Woods Det al., 2020, Setting a national consensus for managing mild and blast traumatic brain injury: post-meeting consensus report

A meeting was held on Wednesday 15 January 2020 to examine the current evidence for non-routine imaging and for neuroendocrine screening in the management of military personnel with brain injury and overlapping symptom domains. The Summit aimed to specifically address the relative utility of magnetoencephalography (MEG), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the UK context. This Consensus Report discusses points of consensus, points for further discussion/points of equipoise and recommendations that arose during, and following, the meeting.


Rosenberg AGW, Pellikaan K, Poitou C, Goldstone AP, Høybye C, Markovic T, Grugni G, Crinò A, Caixàs A, Coupaye M, Van Den Berg SAA, Van Der Lely AJ, De Graaff LCGet al., 2020, Central adrenal insufficiency is rare in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 105, Pages: e2563-e2571, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is associated with several hypothalamic-pituitary hormone deficiencies. There is no agreement on the prevalence of central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) in adults with PWS. In some countries, it is general practice to prescribe stress-dose hydrocortisone during physical or psychological stress in patients with PWS. Side effects of frequent hydrocortisone use are weight gain, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension-already major problems in adults with PWS. However, undertreatment of CAI can cause significant morbidity-or even mortality. OBJECTIVE: To prevent both over- and undertreatment with hydrocortisone, we assessed the prevalence of CAI in a large international cohort of adults with PWS. As the synacthen test shows variable results in PWS, we only use the metyrapone test (MTP) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). DESIGN: Metyrapone test or ITT in adults with PWS (N = 82) and review of medical files for symptoms of hypocortisolism related to surgery (N = 645). SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two adults with genetically confirmed PWS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: For MTP, 11-deoxycortisol > 230 nmol/L was considered sufficient. For ITT, cortisol > 500 nmol/L (Dutch, French, and Swedish patients) or > 450 nmol/L (British patients) was considered sufficient. RESULTS: Central adrenal insufficiency was excluded in 81 of 82 patients. Among the 645 patients whose medical files were reviewed, 200 had undergone surgery without perioperative hydrocortisone treatment. None of them had displayed any features of hypocortisolism. CONCLUSIONS: Central adrenal insufficiency is rare (1.2%) in adults with PWS. Based on these results, we recommend against routinely prescribing hydrocortisone stress-doses in adults with PWS.

Journal article

Glaysher M, Ward J, Aldhwayan M, Ruban A, Prechtl C, Fisk H, Gelauf C, Chhina N, Al-Najim W, Smith C, Klimowska-Nassar N, Johnson N, Goldstone A, Miras A, Patel M, Byrne J, Calder P, Teare Jet al., 2020, The effect of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner device (Endobarrier (R)) on lipid profile and blood concentrations of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S16-S17, ISSN: 0960-8923

Conference paper

Ruban A, Prechtl C, Glaysher M, Chhina N, Al-Najim W, Miras A, smith C, Goldstone A, Patel M, Moore M, Ashrafian H, Byrne J, Teare Jet al., 2019, Effectiveness of different recruitment strategies in an RCT of a surgical device:;Experience from the Endobarrier trial, BMJ Open, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2044-6055

Recruiting participants into clinical trials is notoriously difficult and poses the greatest challenge when planning any investigative study. Poor recruitment may not only have financial ramifications owing to increased time and resources being spent but could adversely influence the clinical impact of a study if it becomes underpowered. Herein we present our own experience of recruiting into a nationally funded, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Endobarrier vs. standard medical therapy in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite these both being highly prevalent conditions, there were considerable barriers to the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies across each study site. Although recruitment from primary care proved extremely successful at one study site, this largely failed at another site prompting the implementation of multimodal recruitment strategies including a successful media campaign to ensure sufficient participants were enrolled and the study was adequately powered. From this experience we propose where appropriate the early engagement and investment in media campaigns to enhance recruitment into clinical trials.

Journal article

Mani B, Puzziferri N, He Z, Rodriguez J, Osborne-Lawrence S, Metzger N, Chhina N, Gaylinn B, Thorner M, Thomas L, Bell J, Williams K, Goldstone A, Zigman Jet al., 2019, LEAP2 changes with body mass and food intake in humans and mice, Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol: 129, Pages: 3909-3923, ISSN: 0021-9738

Acyl-ghrelin administration increases food intake, body weight, and blood glucose. In contrast, mice lacking ghrelin or ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit life-threatening hypoglycemia during starvation-like conditions, but do not consistently exhibit overt metabolic phenotypes when given ad libitum food access. These results, and findings of ghrelin resistance in obese states, imply nutritional state dependence of ghrelin’s metabolic actions. Here, we hypothesized that liver-enriched antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP2), a recently characterized endogenous GHSR antagonist, blunts ghrelin action during obese states and postprandially. To test this hypothesis, we determined changes in plasma LEAP2 and acyl-ghrelin due to fasting, eating, obesity, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), oral glucose administration, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using humans and/or mice. Our results suggest that plasma LEAP2 is regulated by metabolic status: its levels increased with body mass and blood glucose and decreased with fasting, RYGB, and in postprandial states following VSG. These changes were mostly opposite of those of acyl-ghrelin. Furthermore, using electrophysiology, we showed that LEAP2 both hyperpolarizes and prevents acyl-ghrelin from activating arcuate NPY neurons. We predict that the plasma LEAP2/acyl-ghrelin molar ratio may be a key determinant modulating acyl-ghrelin activity in response to body mass, feeding status, and blood glucose.

Journal article

Gorgoraptis N, Zaw-Linn J, Feeney C, Tenorio-Jimenez C, Niemi M, Malik A, Ham T, Goldstone AP, Sharp DJet al., 2019, Cognitive impairment and health- related quality of life following traumatic brain injury, Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol: 44, Pages: 321-331, ISSN: 1387-2877

BACKGROUNDCognitive impairment is a common and disabling consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) but its impact on health-related quality of life is not well understood.OBJECTIVETo investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after TBI.METHODSRetrospective, cross-sectional study of a specialist TBI outpatient clinic patient sample. Outcome measures: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Tool - Revised (ACE-R), and SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires.RESULTS240 adults were assessed: n = 172 (71.7% ) moderate-severe, 41 (23.8% ) mild, 27 (11.3% ) symptomatic TBI, 174 (72.5% ) male, median age (range): 44 (22-91) years. TBI patients reported poorer scores on all domains of SF-36 compared to age-matched UK normative data. Cognitively impaired patients reported poorer HRQoL on the physical, social role and emotional role functioning, and mental health domains. Cognitive impairment predicted poorer HRQoL on the social and emotional role functioning domains, independently of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, daytime sleepiness and TBI severity. Mediation analysis revealed that the effect of depressive symptoms on the emotional role functioning domain of HRQoL was partially mediated by cognitive dysfunction.CONCLUSIONCognitive impairment is associated with worse health-related quality of life after TBI and partially mediates the effect of depressive symptoms on emotional role functioning.

Journal article

Azor AM, Cole JH, Holland AJ, Dumba M, Patel MC, Sadlon A, Goldstone AP, Manning KEet al., 2019, Increased brain age in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome, NeuroImage: Clinical, Vol: 21, ISSN: 2213-1582

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic obesity syndrome, with associated learning difficulties, neuroendocrine deficits, and behavioural and psychiatric problems. As the life expectancy of individuals with PWS increases, there is concern that alterations in brain structure associated with the syndrome, as a direct result of absent expression of PWS genes, and its metabolic complications and hormonal deficits, might cause early onset of physiological and brain aging. In this study, a machine learning approach was used to predict brain age based on grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps derived from structural neuroimaging data using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) scores, calculated as the difference between chronological age and brain-predicted age, are designed to reflect deviations from healthy brain aging, with higher brain-PAD scores indicating premature aging. Two separate adult cohorts underwent brain-predicted age calculation. The main cohort consisted of adults with PWS (n = 20; age mean 23.1 years, range 19.8-27.7; 70.0% male; body mass index (BMI) mean 30.1 kg/m2, 21.5-47.7; n = 19 paternal chromosome 15q11-13 deletion) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 40; age 22.9 years, 19.6-29.0; 65.0% male; BMI 24.1 kg/m2, 19.2-34.2) adults (BMI PWS vs. control P = .002). Brain-PAD was significantly greater in PWS than controls (effect size mean ± SEM +7.24 ± 2.20 years [95% CI 2.83, 11.63], P = .002). Brain-PAD remained significantly greater in PWS than controls when restricting analysis to a sub-cohort matched for BMI consisting of n = 15 with PWS with BMI range 21.5-33.7 kg/m2, and n = 29 controls with BMI 21.7-34.2 kg/m2 (effect size +5.51 ± 2.56 years [95% CI 3.44, 10.38], P = .037). In the PWS group, brain-PAD scores were not associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), use of hormonal and psychotropic medications, nor severity of repetitive or disruptive

Journal article

Scott GPT, Zetterberg H, Jolly A, Cole JH, De Simoni S, Jenkins PO, Feeney C, Owen DR, Lingford-Hughes A, Howes O, Patel MC, Goldstone AP, Gunn RN, Blennow K, Matthews PM, Sharp DJet al., 2017, Minocycline reduces chronic microglial activation after brain trauma but increases neurodegeneration, Brain, Vol: 141, Pages: 459-471, ISSN: 1460-2156

Survivors of a traumatic brain injury can deteriorate years later, developing brain atrophy and dementia. Traumatic brain injury triggers chronic microglial activation, but it is unclear whether this is harmful or beneficial. A successful chronic-phase treatment for traumatic brain injury might be to target microglia. In experimental models, the antibiotic minocycline inhibits microglial activation. We investigated the effect of minocycline on microglial activation and neurodegeneration using PET, MRI, and measurement of the axonal protein neurofilament light in plasma. Microglial activation was assessed using 11C-PBR28 PET. The relationships of microglial activation to measures of brain injury, and the effects of minocycline on disease progression, were assessed using structural and diffusion MRI, plasma neurofilament light, and cognitive assessment. Fifteen patients at least 6 months after a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury received either minocycline 100 mg orally twice daily or no drug, for 12 weeks. At baseline, 11C-PBR28 binding in patients was increased compared to controls in cerebral white matter and thalamus, and plasma neurofilament light levels were elevated. MRI measures of white matter damage were highest in areas of greater 11C-PBR28 binding. Minocycline reduced 11C-PBR28 binding (mean Δwhite matter binding = −23.30%, 95% confidence interval −40.9 to −5.64%, P = 0.018), but increased plasma neurofilament light levels. Faster rates of brain atrophy were found in patients with higher baseline neurofilament light levels. In this experimental medicine study, minocycline after traumatic brain injury reduced chronic microglial activation while increasing a marker of neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that microglial activation has a reparative effect in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury.

Journal article

Glaysher M, Mohanaruban A, Prechtl CG, Goldstone AP, Miras AD, Lord J, Chhina N, Falaschetti E, Johnson NA, Al-Najim W, smith C, Li JV, Patel M, Ahmed AR, Moore M, Poulter NR, Bloom S, Darzi A, Le Roux C, Byrne JP, teare Jet al., 2017, A randomised controlled trial of a duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve device (EndoBarrier) compared with standard medical therapy for the management of obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, BMJ Open, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The non-surgical and reversible nature of these devices represents an attractive therapeutic option for patients with obesity and T2DM by potentially improving glycaemic control and reducing their weight.Methods and analysis In this multicentre, randomised, controlled, non-blinded trial, male and female patients aged 18–65 years with a body mass index 30–50 kg/m2 and inadequately controlled T2DM on oral antihyperglycaemic medications (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 58–97 mmol/mol) will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the EndoBarrier device (n=80) for 12 months or conventional medical therapy, diet and exercise (n=80). The primary outcome measure will be a reduction in HbA1c by 20% at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will include percentage weight loss, change in cardiovascular risk factors and medications, quality of life, cost, quality-adjusted life years accrued and adverse events. Three additional subgroups will investigate the mechanisms behind the effect of the EndoBarrier device, looking at changes in gut hormones, metabolites, bile acids, microbiome, food hedonics and preferences, taste, brain reward system responses to food, eating and addictive behaviours, body fat content, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal tissue gene expression.

Journal article

Tan CL, Alavi SA, Baldeweg SE, Belli A, Carson A, Feeney C, Goldstone AP, Greenwood R, Menon DK, Simpson HL, Toogood AA, Gurnell M, Hutchinson PJet al., 2017, The screening and management of pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in adults: British Neurotrauma Group guidance, JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 88, Pages: 971-981, ISSN: 0022-3050

Pituitary dysfunction is a recognised, but potentially underdiagnosed complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) can have major consequences for patients physically, psychologically, emotionally and socially, leading to reduced quality of life, depression and poor rehabilitation outcome. However, studies on the incidence of PTHP have yielded highly variable findings. The risk factors and pathophysiology of this condition are also not yet fully understood. There is currently no national consensus for the screening and detection of PTHP in patients with TBI, with practice likely varying significantly between centres. In view of this, a guidance development group consisting of expert clinicians involved in the care of patients with TBI, including neurosurgeons, neurologists, neurointensivists and endocrinologists, was convened to formulate national guidance with the aim of facilitating consistency and uniformity in the care of patients with TBI, and ensuring timely detection or exclusion of PTHP where appropriate. This article summarises the current literature on PTHP, and sets out guidance for the screening and management of pituitary dysfunction in adult patients with TBI. It is hoped that future research will lead to more definitive recommendations in the form of guidelines.

Journal article

Feeney C, Sharp DJ, Hellyer PJ, Jolly AE, Cole JH, Scott G, Baxter D, Jilka S, Ross E, Ham TE, Jenkins PO, Li LM, Gorgoraptis N, Midwinter M, Goldstone APet al., 2017, Serum IGF-I levels are associated with improved white matter recovery after TBI., Annals of Neurology, Vol: 82, Pages: 30-43, ISSN: 0364-5134

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common disabling condition with limited treatment options. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures recovery of axonal injury in white matter (WM) tracts after TBI. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) after TBI may impair axonal and neuropsychological recovery, and serum IGF-I may mediate this effect. We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the effects of baseline serum IGF-I concentrations on WM tract and neuropsychological recovery after TBI. METHODS: Thirty-nine adults after TBI (84.6% male; age median 30.5y; 87.2% moderate-severe; time since TBI median 16.3 months, n=4 with GHD) were scanned twice, 13.3 months (12.1-14.9) apart, and 35 healthy controls scanned once. Symptom and quality of life questionnaires and cognitive assessments were completed at both visits (n=33). Our main outcome measure was fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM tract integrity, in a priori regions of interest: splenium of corpus callosum (SPCC), and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC). RESULTS: At baseline, FA was reduced in many WM tracts including SPCC and PLIC following TBI compared to controls, indicating axonal injury, with longitudinal increases indicating axonal recovery. There was a significantly greater increase in SPCC FA over time in patients with serum IGF-I above vs. below the median-for-age. Only the higher IGF-I group had significant improvements in immediate verbal memory recall over time. INTERPRETATION: WM recovery and memory improvements after TBI were greater in patients with higher serum IGF-I at baseline. These findings suggest that GH/IGF-I system may be a potential therapeutic target following TBI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Journal article

Limbrick-Oldfield E, Mick I, Cocks R, McGonigle J, Sharman S, Goldstone A, Stokes P, Waldman A, Erritzoe D, Bowden-Jones H, Nutt DJ, Lingford-Hughes A, Clark Let al., 2017, Neural substrates of cue reactivity and craving in gambling disorder, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2158-3188

Cue reactivity is an established procedure in addictions research for examining the subjective experience and neural basis of craving. This experiment sought to quantify cue-related brain responses in Gambling Disorder using personally tailored cues in conjunction with subjective craving, as well as a comparison with appetitive non-gambling stimuli. Participants with Gambling Disorder (n=19) attending treatment and 19 controls viewed personally tailored blocks of gambling-related cues, as well as neutral cues and highly appetitive (food) images during a functional MRI scan performed ~2-3 hours after a usual meal. fMRI analysis examined cue-related brain activity, cue-related changes in connectivity, and associations with block-by-block craving ratings. Craving ratings in the participants with Gambling Disorder increased following gambling cues compared with non-gambling cues. fMRI analysis revealed group differences in left insula and anterior cingulate cortex, with the Gambling Disorder group showing greater reactivity to the gambling cues, but no differences to the food cues. In participants with Gambling Disorder, craving to gamble correlated positively with gambling cue-related activity in the bilateral insula and ventral striatum, and negatively with functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial PFC. Gambling cues, but not food cues, elicit increased brain responses in reward-related circuitry in individuals with Gambling Disorder (compared to controls), providing support for the incentive sensitisation theory of addiction. Activity in the insula co-varied with craving intensity, and may be a target for interventions.

Journal article

Miras AD, Herring R, Vuisrikala A, Shojaee-Moradi F, Jackson NC, Chandaria S, Jackson SN, Goldstone AP, Hakim N, Patel A, Umpleby AM, le Roux CWet al., 2016, Measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity early after the bypass of the proximal small bowel in humans, Obesity Science & Practice, Vol: 3, Pages: 95-98, ISSN: 2055-2238

Objective: Unlike gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy procedures, intestinal bypass procedures, and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in particular, lead to rapid improvements in glycaemia early after surgery. The bypass of the proximal small bowel may have weight loss and even caloric restriction independent glucose-lowering properties on hepatic insulin sensitivity. In this first in humans mechanistic study, we examined this hypothesis by investigating the early effects of the duodeno-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL; GI Dynamics, USA) on the hepatic insulin sensitivity using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp methodology. Method: Seven patients with obesity underwent measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity at baseline, one week after a low-calorie liquid diet and after a further one week following insertion of the DJBL whilst on the same diet.Results: DJBL did not improve the insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose production (HGP) beyond the improvements achieved with caloric restriction. Conclusions: Caloric restriction may be the predominant driver of early increases in hepatic insulin sensitivity after the endoscopic bypass of the proximal small bowel. The same mechanism may be at play after RYGB and explain, at least in part, the rapid improvements in glycaemia.

Journal article

Feeney C, Scott GP, Cole JH, Sastre M, Goldstone AP, Leech Ret al., 2016, Seeds of neuroendocrine doubt, Nature, Vol: 535, Pages: E1-E2, ISSN: 0028-0836

Journal article

Feeney C, Scott G, Raffel J, Roberts S, Coello C, Jolly A, Searle G, Goldstone AP, Brooks DJ, Nicholas RS, Trigg W, Gunn RN, Sharp DJet al., 2016, Kinetic analysis of the translocator protein positron emission tomography ligand [18F]GE-180 in the human brain, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol: 43, Pages: 2201-2210, ISSN: 1619-7089

PURPOSE: PET can image neuroinflammation by targeting the translocator protein (TSPO), which is upregulated in activated microglia. The high nonspecific binding of the first-generation TSPO radioligand [(11)C]PK-11195 limits accurate quantification. [(18)F]GE-180, a novel TSPO ligand, displays superior binding to [(11)C]PK-11195 in vitro. Our objectives were to: (1) evaluate tracer characteristics of [(18)F]GE-180 in the brains of healthy human subjects; and (2) investigate whether the TSPO Ala147Thr polymorphism influences outcome measures. METHODS: Ten volunteers (five high-affinity binders, HABs, and five mixed-affinity binders, MABs) underwent a dynamic PET scan with arterial sampling after injection of [(18)F]GE-180. Kinetic modelling of time-activity curves with one-tissue and two-tissue compartment models and Logan graphical analysis was applied to the data. The primary outcome measure was the total volume of distribution (V T) across various regions of interest (ROIs). Secondary outcome measures were the standardized uptake values (SUV), the distribution volume and SUV ratios estimated using a pseudoreference region. RESULTS: The two-tissue compartment model was the best model. The average regional delivery rate constant (K 1) was 0.01 mL cm(-3) min(-1) indicating low extraction across the blood-brain barrier (1 %). The estimated median V T across all ROIs was also low, ranging from 0.16 mL cm(-3) in the striatum to 0.38 mL cm(-3) in the thalamus. There were no significant differences in V T between HABs and MABs across all ROIs. CONCLUSION: A reversible two-tissue compartment model fitted the data well and determined that the tracer has a low first-pass extraction (approximately 1 %) and low V T estimates in healthy individuals. There was no observable dependency on the rs6971 polymorphism as compared to other second-generation TSPO PET tracers. Investigation of [(18)F]GE-180 in populations with neuroinflammatory disease is nee

Journal article

Iacovazzo D, Caswell R, Bunce B, Jose S, Yuan B, Hernández-Ramírez LC, Kapur S, Caimari F, Evanson J, Ferraù F, Dang MN, Gabrovska P, Larkin SJ, Ansorge O, Rodd C, Vance ML, Ramírez-Renteria C, Mercado M, Goldstone AP, Buchfelder M, Burren CP, Gurlek A, Dutta P, Choong CS, Cheetham T, Trivellin G, Stratakis CA, Lopes MB, Grossman AB, Trouillas J, Lupski JR, Ellard S, Sampson JR, Roncaroli F, Korbonits Met al., 2016, Germline or somatic GPR101 duplication leads to X-linked acrogigantism: a clinico-pathological and genetic study, Acta Neuropathologica Communications, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2051-5960

Non-syndromic pituitary gigantism can result from AIP mutations or the recently identified Xq26.3 microduplication causing X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG). Within Xq26.3, GPR101 is believed to be the causative gene, and the c.924G > C (p.E308D) variant in this orphan G protein-coupled receptor has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of acromegaly.We studied 153 patients (58 females and 95 males) with pituitary gigantism. AIP mutation-negative cases were screened for GPR101 duplication through copy number variation droplet digital PCR and high-density aCGH. The genetic, clinical and histopathological features of XLAG patients were studied in detail. 395 peripheral blood and 193 pituitary tumor DNA samples from acromegaly patients were tested for GPR101 variants.We identified 12 patients (10 females and 2 males; 7.8 %) with XLAG. In one subject, the duplicated region only contained GPR101, but not the other three genes in found to be duplicated in the previously reported patients, defining a new smallest region of overlap of duplications. While females presented with germline mutations, the two male patients harbored the mutation in a mosaic state. Nine patients had pituitary adenomas, while three had hyperplasia. The comparison of the features of XLAG, AIP-positive and GPR101&AIP-negative patients revealed significant differences in sex distribution, age at onset, height, prolactin co-secretion and histological features. The pathological features of XLAG-related adenomas were remarkably similar. These tumors had a sinusoidal and lobular architecture. Sparsely and densely granulated somatotrophs were admixed with lactotrophs; follicle-like structures and calcifications were commonly observed. Patients with sporadic of familial acromegaly did not have an increased prevalence of the c.924G > C (p.E308D) GPR101 variant compared to public databases.In conclusion, XLAG can result from germline or somatic duplicati

Journal article

Byrne CS, Chambers ES, Alhabeeb H, Chhina N, Morrison DJ, Preston T, Tedford C, Fizpatrick J, Irani C, Busza A, Garcia-Perez I, Fountana S, Holmes E, Goldstone AP, Frost GSet al., 2016, Increased colonic propionate reduces anticipatory reward responses in the human striatum to high-energy foods, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 104, ISSN: 1938-3207

BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites produced through the microbial fermentation of nondigestible dietary components, have key roles in energy homeostasis. Animal research suggests that colon-derived SCFAs modulate feeding behavior via central mechanisms. In humans, increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate acutely reduces energy intake. However, evidence of an effect of colonic propionate on the human brain or reward-based eating behavior is currently unavailable. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of increased colonic propionate production on brain anticipatory reward responses during food picture evaluation. We hypothesized that elevated colonic propionate would reduce both reward responses and ad libitum energy intake via stimulation of anorexigenic gut hormone secretion. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, 20 healthy nonobese men completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) food picture evaluation task after consumption of control inulin or inulin-propionate ester, a unique dietary compound that selectively augments colonic propionate production. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was measured in a priori brain regions involved in reward processing, including the caudate, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, anterior insula, and orbitofrontal cortex (n = 18 had analyzable fMRI data). RESULTS: Increasing colonic propionate production reduced BOLD signal during food picture evaluation in the caudate and nucleus accumbens. In the caudate, the reduction in BOLD signal was driven specifically by a lowering of the response to high-energy food. These central effects were partnered with a decrease in subjective appeal of high-energy food pictures and reduced energy intake during an ad libitum meal. These observations were not related to changes in blood peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose, or insulin concentrations. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that colonic propionate production may play

Journal article

Jamall O, Feeney C, Zaw-Linn J, Malik A, Niemi M, Tenorio-Jimenez C, Ham TE, Jilka SR, Jenkins PO, Scott G, Li LM, Gorgoraptis N, Baxter D, Sharp DJ, Goldstone APet al., 2016, Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in adults after traumatic brain injury, Clinical Endocrinology, Vol: 85, Pages: 636-644, ISSN: 1365-2265

Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of long-term disability with variable recovery. Preclinicalstudies suggest that vitamin D status influences recovery after TBI. However, there is no publishedclinical data on links between vitamin D status and TBI outcomes. To determine the: (i) prevalence ofvitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, and associations of vitamin D status with (ii) demographic factors andTBI severity, and with (iii) cognitive function, symptoms and quality of life, in adults after TBI.Design: Retrospective audit of patients seen between July 2009 and March 2015. Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol) was categorised as deficient (<40nmol/L), insufficient (40-70nmol/L) or replete(>70nmol/L).Patients: 353 adults seen in tertiary hospital clinic (75.4% lighter-skinned, 74.8% male, age median 35.1y,range 26.6-48.3y), 0.3-56.5 months after TBI (74.5% moderate-severe).Measurements: Serum vitamin D concentrations; Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), BeckDepression Inventory II (BDI-II), SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.Results: 46.5% of patients after TBI had vitamin D deficiency and 80.2% insufficiency/deficiency. Patientswith vitamin D deficiency had lower ACE-R scores than those vitamin D replete (mean effect size ± SEM 4.5± 2.1, P=0.034), and higher BDI-II scores than those vitamin D insufficient (4.5 ± 1.6, P=0.003), correcting forage, gender, time since TBI, TBI severity. There was no association between vitamin D status and markers ofTBI severity, sleep or quality of life.Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients after TBI and associated with impaired cognitivefunction and more severe depressive symptoms.

Journal article

Goldstone AP, Miras AD, Scholtz S, Jackson S, Neff KJ, Penicaud L, Geoghegan J, Chhina N, Durighel G, Bell JD, Meillon S, le Roux CWet al., 2015, Link between increased satiety gut hormones and reduced food reward following gastric bypass surgery for obesity, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol: 101, Pages: 599-609, ISSN: 1945-7197

Context: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weightloss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms.Objective: To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined foodhedonic-reward responses following their acute post-prandial suppression.Design: Randomised placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over experimental medicine studies.Patients: Two groups, over 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n7–11), compared with non-obesecontrols (n10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n9).Intervention: Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analogueOctreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and non-obese controls, performed abehavioral progressive ratio task (PRT) for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB,and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) foodpicture evaluation task.Main outcome measures: Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in thePRT (n9), and food appeal (n9) and reward system blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal(n7) in the fMRI task, in the RYGB group, but not in control groups.ISSN

Journal article

Goldstone AP, 2015, Changes in Reward after Gastric Bypass: the Advantages and Disadvantages, Current Atherosclerosis Reports, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1534-6242

Gastric bypass surgery is an effective long-term weight loss intervention. Key to its success appears a putative shift in food preference away from high-energy-density foods associated with a reduced appetitive drive and loss of neural reactivity in the reward system of the brain towards food. Post-prandial exaggerated satiety gut hormone responses have been implicated as mediators. Whilst the positive impact of bariatric surgery on both physical and psychological outcomes for many patients is clearly evident, a subset of patients appear to be detrimentally affected by this loss of reward from food and by a lack of alternative strategies for regulating affect after surgery. Mindfulness training has emerged as a potential tool in reducing the need for immediate reward that underpins much of eating behaviour. Further research is needed to help identify patients who may be more vulnerable after gastric bypass and which forms of support may be most beneficial.

Journal article

Alsters SIM, Goldstone AP, Buxton JL, Zekavati A, sosinsky A, Yiorkas AM, Holder S, Klaber RE, Bridges N, Haelst MM, le roux CW, Walley AJ, Walters RG, Mueller M, Blakemore AIFet al., 2015, Truncating homozygous mutation of carboxypeptidase E (CPE) in a morbidly obese female with type 2 diabetes mellitus, intellectual disability and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

Carboxypeptidase E is a peptide processing enzyme, involved in cleaving numerous peptide precursors, including neuropeptides and hormones involved in appetite control and glucose metabolism. Exome sequencing of a morbidly obese female from a consanguineous family revealed homozygosity for a truncating mutation of the CPE gene (c.76_98del; p.E26RfsX68). Analysis detected no CPE expression in whole blood-derived RNA from the proband, consistent with nonsense-mediated decay. The morbid obesity, intellectual disability, abnormal glucose homeostasis and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism seen in this individual recapitulates phenotypes in the previously described fat/fat and Cpe knockout mouse models, evidencing the importance of this peptide/hormone-processing enzyme in regulating body weight, metabolism, and brain and reproductive function in humans.

Journal article

Scheimann AO, Nadler EE, Driscoll DJ, Butler MG, Miller JL, Markovic TP, Goldstone APet al., 2015, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in 108 Obese Children and Adolescents Ages 5 to 21 Years by Alqahtani AR, Antonisamy B, Alamri H, Elahmedi M, Zimmerman VA, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 261, Pages: E118-E118, ISSN: 1528-1140

Journal article

Sam AH, Sleeth ML, Thomas EL, Ismail NA, Daud NM, Chambers E, Shojaee-Moradie F, Umpleby M, Goldstone AP, Le Roux CW, Bech P, Busbridge M, Laurie R, Cuthbertson DJ, Buckley A, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Frost GS, Bell JD, Murphy KGet al., 2015, Circulating Pancreatic Polypeptide Concentrations Predict Visceral and Liver Fat Content, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, Vol: 100, Pages: 1048-1052, ISSN: 0021-972X

Journal article

Bereket A, Kiess W, Lustig RH, Muller HL, Goldstone AP, Weiss R, Yavuz Y, Hochberg Zet al., 2015, Hypothalamic obesity in children

© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Hypothalamic obesity (HyOb) is a severe and rapidly developing form of obesity that was initially described in patients with hypothalamic tumours and surgical damage. However, this definition has now expanded to include obesity developing after a variety of insults to hypothalamic centres, such as infections, infiltrations, trauma, vascular problems, and hydrocephalus in addition to acquired or congenital functional defects in central energy homeostasis. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying HyOb are complex and multifactorial. Weight gain results from damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus, which may lead to hyperphagia, a low resting metabolic rate, autonomic imbalance, growth hormone, gonadotropin and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiencies, hypomobility and insomnia. Disruption of leptin signalling and decreased central sympathetic output seem to have a critical role in the development of HyOb. Surgical strategies to preserve hypothalamic integrity are mandatory for the prevention of HyOb in patients with craniopharyngioma or other hypothalamic tumours. At present, there is no standard pharmacological intervention that has been shown to consistently help these complicated patients. In select cases, octreotide seems to be effective when introduced early after the cranial insult. The safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in the management of HyOb has also not been well established. A general overview on HyOb with special emphasis on craniopharyngioma and Prader-Willi syndrome is provided in this chapter.


Kweh FA, Miller JL, Sulsona CR, Wasserfall C, Atkinson M, Shuster JJ, Goldstone AP, Driscoll DJet al., 2015, Hyperghrelinemia in Prader-Willi Syndrome Begins in Early Infancy Long Before the Onset of Hyperphagia, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART A, Vol: 167, Pages: 69-79, ISSN: 1552-4825

Journal article

Daud NM, Ismail NA, Thomas EL, Fitzpatrick JA, Bell JD, Swann JR, Costabile A, Childs CE, Pedersen C, Goldstone AP, Frost GSet al., 2014, The Impact of Oligofructose on Stimulation of Gut Hormones, Appetite Regulation and Adiposity, OBESITY, Vol: 22, Pages: 1430-1438, ISSN: 1930-7381

Journal article

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