Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Lecturer in Reproductive Immunology







Chelsea and Westminster HospitalChelsea and Westminster Campus





I am a Lecturer in Reproductive Immunology based in the Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction at Imperial College London.

I did my PhD at the University of Cambridge on NK cells in human pregnancy. I then went on to a post-doctoral project investigating the transcriptional control of NK cell development in mice, which I undertook at Imperial College London. In 2015, I was awarded a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship, which I used to start my own laboratory at the Royal Free Hospital Campus of UCL. Working closely with the liver transplant team, my group showed that long-lived resident NK cells are present in the human liver and defined some of that pathways by which they develop. They also showed that NK cells recruited to the liver become less functional in obesity-associated liver disease, and that this is associated with a decreased ability to clear cancer cells.

In 2019, I returned to Imperial, and to reproductive immunology, and took up my Lectureship in Reproductive Immunology in 2021. Using clinical samples and a novel mouse model, my research group is investigating how ILCs in the uterus work to establish and maintain pregnancy, and how this may fail in disorders of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth.

I lecture on Immunology of Pregnancy, Immunology of Transplantation, Viral Immunity and SARS-CoV2 Immunology, act as a mentor to a Windsor Fellow and do outreach in local primary schools.

Students or post-docs interested in my group's work should email me at



Woon EV, Greer O, Shah N, et al., 2022, Number and function of uterine natural killer cells in recurrent miscarriage and implantation failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Human Reproduction Update, ISSN:1355-4786

Male V, 2021, Menstrual changes after covid-19 vaccination, Bmj, Vol:374, ISSN:1759-2151, Pages:1-2

Dhillon P, Altmann D, Male V, 2021, COVIDÔÇÉ19 vaccines: what do we know so far?, The Febs Journal, ISSN:1742-464X

Keestra SM, Male V, Salali GD, 2021, Out of balance: the role of evolutionary mismatches in the sex disparity in autoimmune disease, Medical Hypotheses, Vol:151, ISSN:0306-9877, Pages:1-15

Male V, 2021, Are COVID-19 vaccines safe in pregnancy? (Mar, 10.1038/s41577-021-00525-y, 2021), Nature Reviews Immunology, Vol:21, ISSN:1474-1733, Pages:268-268

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