119 results found
Brown R, Chan D, Terzidou V, et al., 2019, Prospective observational study of vaginal microbiota pre- and post-rescue cervical cerclage, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol: 126, Pages: 916-925, ISSN: 1470-0328
ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between vaginal microbiota composition and outcome of rescue cervical cerclage.DesignProspective observational study.SettingQueen Charlotte’s and Chelsea Hospital, LondonPopulationTwenty singleton pregnancies undergoing a rescue cervical cerclage.MethodsVaginal microbiota composition was analysed in women presenting with a dilated cervix and exposed fetal membranes before and 10 days following rescue cervical cerclage and correlated with clinical outcomes.Main outcome measuresComposition of vaginal bacteria characterised by culture independent next generation sequencing.Successful cerclage, defined as those resulting in the birth of a neonate discharged from hospital without morbidity.Unsuccessful cerclage, defined as procedures culminating in miscarriage, intrauterine death, neonatal death or significant neonatal morbidity.ResultsReduced Lactobacillus spp. relative abundance was observed in 40% of cases prior to rescue cerclage compared to 10% of gestational age matched controls (8/20, 40% vs 3/30, 10%, P=0.017). Gardnerella vaginalis was over-represented in women presenting with symptoms (3/7, 43% vs 0/13, 0%, P=0.03, LDA (log 10) and casesculminating in miscarriage (3/6, 50% vs 0/14, 0%, P=0.017). In the majority of cases (10/14, 71%) bacterial composition was unchanged following cerclage insertionand peri-operative interventions.ConclusionsReduced relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. is associated with premature cervical dilatation, whereas high levels of Gardnerella vaginalis are associated with unsuccessful rescue cerclage cases. The insertion of a rescue cerclage does not affect the underlying bacterial composition in the majority of cases.
Ridout AE, Ibeto L, Ross G, et al., 2019, Cervical length and quantitative fetal fibronectin in the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women with congenital uterine anomaly., American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pages: 1-41, ISSN: 0002-9378
BACKGROUND: Congenital uterine anomalies (CUA) are associated with late miscarriage and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to 1) determine the rate of sPTB in each type of CUA and 2) assess the performance of quantitative fetal fibronectin (qfFN) and transvaginal cervical length (CL) measurement by ultrasound in asymptomatic women with CUA for the prediction of sPTB at <34 and <37 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort of women with CUA asymptomatic for sPTB, from four UK tertiary referral centres (2001-2016). CUAs were categorised into fusion (unicornuate, didelphic and bicornuate uteri) or resorption defects (septate, with or without resection and arcuate uteri), based on pre-pregnancy diagnosis. All women underwent serial transvaginal ultrasound CL assessment in the second trimester (16 to 24 weeks' gestation); a subgroup underwent qfFN testing from 18 weeks' gestation. We investigated the relationship between CUA and predictive test performance for sPTB before 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: Three hundred and nineteen women were identified as having CUA within our high-risk population. 7% (23/319) delivered spontaneously <34 weeks, and 18% (56/319) <37 weeks' gestation. Rates of sPTB by type were: 26% (7/27) for unicornuate, 21% (7/34) for didelphic, 16% (31/189) for bicornuate, 13% (7/56) for septate and 31% (4/13) for arcuate. 80% (45/56) of women who had sPTB <37 weeks did not develop a short CL (<25 mm) during the surveillance period (16-24 weeks). The diagnostic accuracy of short CL had low sensitivity (20.3) for predicting sPTB <34 weeks. Cervical Length had ROC AUC of 0.56 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.64) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.64) for prediction of sPTB <34 and 37 weeks' respectively. The AUC for CL to predict sPTB <34 weeks was 0.48 for fusion defects (95% CI 0.39 to 0.57) but 0.78 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.91) for women with resorption defects. Overall quantitative fetal fibronectin had
Brown RG, Al-Memar M, Marchesi JR, et al., 2019, Establishment of vaginal microbiota composition in early pregnancy and its association with subsequent preterm prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes, Translational Research, Vol: 207, Pages: 30-43, ISSN: 1931-5244
Vaginal bacterial community composition influences pregnancy outcome. Preterm prelabor rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM), which precedes 30% of all spontaneous preterm births, is associated with high vaginal bacterial diversity prior to rupture. The point at which vaginal bacterial diversity is established before PPROM is unknown. In this study, we use metataxonomics to longitudinally characterize the vaginal bacterial composition from as early as 6 weeks of gestation in women at high (n = 38) and low (n = 22) risk of preterm birth who subsequently experience PPROM and in women delivering at term without complications (n = 36). Reduced Lactobacillus spp. abundance and high diversity was observed prior to PPROM in 20% and 26% of women at low and high risk of preterm births respectively, but in only 3% of women who delivered at term. PPROM was associated with instability of bacterial community structure during pregnancy and a shift toward higher diversity predominately occurring during the second trimester. This was characterized by increased relative abundance of potentially pathogenic species including Prevotella, Peptoniphilus, Streptococcus, and Dialister. This study identifies reduced Lactobacillus spp. abundance and increasing vaginal bacterial diversity as an early risk factor for PPROM and highlights the need for interventional studies designed to assess the impact of modifying vaginal bacterial composition for the prevention of preterm birth.
Cook J, Bennett P, Kim SH, et al., 2019, First trimester circulating MicroRNA biomarkers predictive of subsequentpreterm delivery and cervical shortening, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant death and disability worldwide. The onset of preterm uterine contractions is preceded by asymptomatic cervical remodelling and ripening, which can be seen on trans-vaginal ultrasound as cervical shortening. This study aimed to identify plasma miRNA biomarkers that predict preterm birth and/or cervical shortening. We collected serial plasma samples from pregnant women prospectively from 12 to 22 weeks gestation. The nCounter miRNA assay was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs associated with spontaneous PTB and/or cervical shortening (n = 16 term no short, n = 13 preterm, n = 24 short). Predictive values of the miRNA biomarkers were confirmed in an independent validation cohort consisting of 96 women who delivered at term, 14 preterm and 21 early cervical shortening at <20 weeks gestation. Nine miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-15b-5p, hsa-miR-19b-3p, hsa-miR-23a-3p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, hsa-miR-185-5p and hsa-miR-191-5p) were differentially expressed (P < 0.001) in women subsequently experiencing PTB or cervical shortening. Hsa-miR-150-5p had the strongest ability to predict PTB (AUC = 0.8725) and cervical shortening (AUC = 0.8514). Plasma miRNAs in the first trimester can predict PTB and cervical shortening in women at risk of preterm delivery. This is a key period in pregnancy when early identification of PTB risk allows time to deliver outcome-modifying interventions.
Kim SH, Riaposova L, Ahmed H, et al., 2019, Oxytocin receptor antagonists, atosiban and nolasiban, inhibit prostaglandin F2α-induced contractions and inflammatory responses in human myometrium, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Oxytocin receptor antagonists (OTR-A) have been developed as tocolytics for the management of preterm labour due to the significant role of oxytocin (OT) in the onset of both term and preterm labour. Similar to OT, prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in myometrial contractility and cervical ripening. Inhibition of PG synthesis/activity is used to delay preterm birth. Thus, targeting the PG pathway in combination with an OTR-A may be an effective strategy for delaying preterm delivery. In this study, we examined the effects of atosiban and nolasiban on PGF2α-induced contractions and pro-inflammatory responses in human pregnant myometrium. Both OTR-As, atosiban and nolasiban, inhibited PGF2α-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). These inhibitory effects involved the suppression of PGF2α-mediated increase in intracellular calcium levels. In addition, the OTR-As significantly suppressed PGF2α-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways such as NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the subsequent expression of contraction-associated-protein, COX-2. We have demonstrated that atosiban and nolasiban not only inhibit contractions elicited by OT, but also inhibit contractions and inflammation induced by PGF2α. This suggests a possible crosstalk between OTR and PG receptor signalling and highlights the importance of understanding G protein-coupled receptor interactions/crosstalk in the development of future tocolytics.
Julia MG, Kim SH, West C, et al., 2019, The Effect of Oxytocin and Atosiban on the Inflammatory State and the miRNA Expression Profile of Desidualized Human Endometrial Stromal Cells., 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 288A-288A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Kim SH, MacIntyre DA, Bennett PR, et al., 2019, The Effects of Blood Storage on Plasma miRNA Expression Profiles., 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 285A-286A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Riaposova L, Kim SH, Hanyaloglu A, et al., 2019, Prostaglandin F2 alpha-Mediated Pro-Inflammatory Signalling in Human Myometrium., 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 308A-308A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Carter J, Tribe RM, Sandall J, et al., 2018, The Preterm Clinical Network (PCN) Database: a web-based systematic method of collecting data on the care of women at risk of preterm birth., BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, Vol: 18
BACKGROUND: Despite much research effort, there is a paucity of conclusive evidence in the field of preterm birth prediction and prevention. The methods of monitoring and prevention strategies offered to women at risk vary considerably around the UK and depend on local maternity care provision. It is becoming increasingly recognised that this experience and knowledge, if captured on a larger scale, could be a utilized as a valuable source of evidence for others. The UK Preterm Clinical Network (UKPCN) was established with the aim of improving care and outcomes for women at risk of preterm birth through the sharing of a wealth of experience and knowledge, as well as the building of clinical and research collaboration. The design and development of a bespoke internet-based database was fundamental to achieving this aim. METHOD: Following consultation with UKPCN members and agreement on a minimal dataset, the Preterm Clinical Network (PCN) Database was constructed to collect data from women at risk of preterm birth and their children. Information Governance and research ethics committee approval was given for the storage of historical as well as prospectively collected data. Collaborating centres have instant access to their own records, while use of pooled data is governed by the PCN Database Access Committee. Applications are welcomed from UKPCN members and other established research groups. The results of investigations using the data are expected to provide insights into the effectiveness of current surveillance practices and preterm birth interventions on a national and international scale, as well as the generation of ideas for innovation and research. To date, 31 sites are registered as Data Collection Centres, four of which are outside the UK. CONCLUSION: This paper outlines the aims of the PCN Database along with the development process undertaken from the initial idea to live launch.
Pohl O, Chollét A, Kim SH, et al., 2018, OBE022, an oral and selective prostaglandin F2α receptor antagonist as an effective and safe modality for the treatment of preterm labor, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, ISSN: 0022-3565
Preterm birth is the major challenge in obstetrics affecting ~10% of pregnancies. Pan-prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (NSAID) prevent preterm labor and prolong pregnancy but raise concerns about fetal renal and cardiovascular safety. We conducted preclinical studies examining the tocolytic effect and fetal safety of the oral prodrug candidate OBE022 and its parent OBE002, both potent and highly selective antagonist of the contractile PGF2α prostaglandin receptor (FP). Efficacy of OBE022 and OBE002, alone and in combination with other tocolytics, was assessed in human tissues and pregnant animal models for inhibition of uterine contraction and delay of parturition. Selective safety of OBE022 and/or OBE002, compared to NSAID indomethacin, was assessed on renal function, closure of the ductus arteriosus and inhibition of platelet aggregation. In in vitro studies, OBE002 inhibited spontaneous, oxytocin- and PGF2α-induced human myometrial contractions alone and was more effective in combination with atosiban or nifedipine. In in vivo studies, OBE022 and OBE002 reduced spontaneous contractions in near-term pregnant rat. In pregnant mice, OBE022 delayed RU486-induced parturition and exerted synergistic effects in combination with nifedipine. OBE022 and/or OBE002 did not show the fetal side effects of ductus arteriosus constriction, impairment of kidney function or inhibition of platelet aggregation observed with indomethacin. Orally active OBE022 and OBE002 exhibits potent tocolytic effects on human tissues ex vivo and animal models in vivo without causing the adverse fetal side effects seen with indomethacin. Selectively targeting the FP receptor in combination with existing tocolytics may be an effective strategy for preventing or delaying preterm delivery.
Brown RG, Chan D, Lee Y, et al., 2018, Rescue Cervical Cerclage is Associated with Good Neonatal Outcomes in Asymptomatic Women Who Are Not Colonised by Gardnerella Vaginalis., 65th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 112A-112A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Kim SH, MacIntyre DA, Sykes L, et al., 2018, Comparing the Levels of miRNA Expression in Plasma from Blood Collected Using EDTA and Heparin Tubes, and Heparinase-Treated Plasma., 65th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 315A-315A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Khanjani S, Islam R, Khalid J, et al., 2018, Plasma microRNAs Identified as Novel Markers of Embryo Implantation., 65th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 110A-110A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Kim SH, Binkhamis R, Cook JR, et al., 2018, A pilot study of circulating miRNAs as potential biomarkers for small-for-gestational-age births, 65th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: Sage, Pages: 282A-282A, ISSN: 1933-7191
MacIntyre DA, Brown R, Marchesi J, et al., 2018, Vaginal dysbiosis increases risk of preterm fetal membrane rupture, neonatal sepsis and is exacerbated by erythromycin, BMC Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1741-7015
Background: Preterm prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM) precedes 30% of preterm births and is a risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. As PPROM is strongly associated with ascending vaginal infection prophylactic antibiotics are widely used. The evolution of vaginal microbiota composition associated with PPROM and the impact of antibiotics on bacterial composition is unknown. Methods: We prospectively assessed vaginal microbiota prior to and following PPROM using MiSeq-based sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and examined the impact of erythromycin prophylaxis on bacterial load and community structures.Results: In contrast to pregnancies delivering at term, vaginal dysbiosis characterised by Lactobacillus spp. depletion, was present prior to the rupture of fetal membranes in approximately a third of cases (0% versus 27%, P= 0.026) and persisted following membrane rupture (31%, P= 0.005). Vaginal dysbiosis was exacerbated by erythromycin treatment (47%, P= 0.00009) particularly in women initially colonised by Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus depletion and increased relative abundance of Sneathia spp. was associated with subsequent funisitis and early onset neonatal sepsis. Conclusions:Our data show that vaginal microbiota composition is a risk-factor for subsequent PPROM and is associated with adverse short-term maternal and neonatal outcomes. This highlights vaginal microbiota as a potentially modifiable antenatal risk factor for PPROM and suggests that routine use of erythromycin for PPROM be re-examined.
kalliala I, Markozannes G, Gunter M, et al., 2017, Obesity and gynaecological and obstetrical conditions: an umbrella review of the literature, British Medical Journal, Vol: 7, ISSN: 0959-8138
Objective To study the strength and validity of associations between adiposity and risk of any type of obstetric or gynaecological conditions.Design An umbrella review of meta-analyses.Data sources PubMed, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, manual screening of references for systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies evaluating the association between adiposity and risk of any obstetrical or gynaecological outcome.Main outcomes Meta-analyses of cohort studies on associations between indices of adiposity and obstetric and gynaecological outcomes.Data synthesis Evidence from observational studies was graded into strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, or weak based on the significance of the random effects summary estimate and the largest study in the included meta-analysis, the number of cases, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction intervals, small study effects, excess significance bias, and sensitivity analysis with credibility ceilings. Interventional meta-analyses were assessed separately.Results 156 meta-analyses of observational studies were included, investigating associations between adiposity and risk of 84 obstetric or gynaecological outcomes. Of the 144 meta-analyses that included cohort studies, only 11 (8%) had strong evidence for eight outcomes: adiposity was associated with a higher risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, antenatal depression, total and emergency caesarean section, pre-eclampsia, fetal macrosomia, and low Apgar score. The summary effect estimates ranged from 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.29) for an association between a 0.1 unit increase in waist to hip ratio and risk endometrial cancer up to 4.14 (3.61 to 4.75) for risk of pre-eclampsia for BMI >35 compared with <25. Only three out of these eight outcomes were also assessed in meta-analyses of trials evaluating weight loss interventions. These interventions significantly reduced the risk of caesarean section and pre
Riaposova L, Kim SH, Pohl O, et al., 2017, Combination tocolytics on the inhibition of OT-induced contractions of human pregnant myometrium in vitro, 33rd Annual Meeting of the European-Society-of-Human-Reproduction-and-Embryology (ESHRE), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 54-54, ISSN: 0268-1161
Kim SH, Riaposova L, Pohl O, et al., 2017, FP receptor antagonist, OBE002, inhibits both PGF2 alpha- and OT-induced contractions of human pregnant myometrium in vitro, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 452-452, ISSN: 0268-1161
Cook JR, Chatfield S, Chandiramani M, et al., 2017, Cerclage position, cervical length and preterm delivery in women undergoing ultrasound indicated cervical cerclage: A retrospective cohort study, PLOS One, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
ObjectiveThe objectives were to assess whether anatomical location of ultrasound (USS) indicated cervical cerclage and/or the degree of cervical shortening (cervical length; CL) prior to and following cerclage affects the risk of preterm birth (PTB).MethodA retrospective cohort study of 179 women receiving cerclage for short cervix (≤25mm) was performed. Demographic data, CL before and after cerclage insertion, height of cerclage (distance from external os) and gestation at delivery were collected. Relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR) of preterm delivery were calculated according to the anatomical location of the cerclage within the cervix and the CL before and after cerclage as categorical and continuous variables. Partition tree analysis was used to identify the threshold cerclage height that best predicts PTB.Results25% (n = 45) delivered <34 weeks and 36% (n = 65) delivered <37 weeks. Risk of PTB was greater with cerclage in the distal 10mm (RR2.37, 95% CI 1.45–3.87) or the distal half of a closed cervix (RR2.16, 95% CI 1.45–3.87). Increasing absolute cerclage height was associated with a reduction in PTB (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82–0.94). A cerclage height <14.5 mm best predicts PTB (70.8%). Increasing CL following cerclage was associated with a reduction in PTB (OR0.87, 95% CI 0.82–0.94). Conversely, the risk of PTB was increased where CL remained static or shortened further following cerclage (RR2.34, 95% CI 1.04–5.25).ConclusionThe higher a cerclage was placed within a shortened cervix, the lower the subsequent odds of PTB. Women whose cerclage is placed in the distal 10mm of closed cervix or whose cervix fails to elongate subsequently, should remain under close surveillance as they have the highest risk of PTB.
Kim SH, Pohl O, Chollet A, et al., 2017, Differential Effects of Oxytocin Receptor Antagonists, Atosiban and Nolasiban, on Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Human Amnion and Myometrium, MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 91, Pages: 403-415, ISSN: 0026-895X
One of the most established roles of oxytocin (OT) is in inducing uterine contractions and labor. Apart from inducing contractions, our recent studies showed that OT can also activate proinflammatory pathways in both human myometrial and amnion cells, which suggests that the proinflammatory role of OT should be taken into account when developing tocolytics targeting the OT/oxytocin receptor (OTR) system. The OTR antagonist, atosiban, is currently used therapeutically for the treatment of preterm labor. We previously showed that atosiban fails to inhibit the proinflammatory effects of OT in human amnion; atosiban alone activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases, thus upregulating downstream prolabor genes. In contrast with our findings with atosiban, the presence of the orally active OTR antagonist, nolasiban, reduced the effect of OT on NF-κB and p38 kinase activation in both myometrial and amnion cells. Consistent with the activation of these inflammatory mediators, OT led to increases in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2, which was reflected in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by nolasiban also translated to suppression of downstream prolabor gene expression, such as cyclooxygenase-2, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. We also demonstrated that nolasiban treatment alone has no significant stimulatory effect on both the myometrium and amnion. In conclusion, our findings indicate that nolasiban possesses promising potential as a novel tocolytic agent for both acute and maintenance therapy, as it inhibits both myometrial contractions and the proinflammatory effects of OT without the biased agonist effects.
Kim SH, Ahmed H, Riaposova L, et al., 2017, Both OTR Antagonists, Atosiban and Nolasiban, Inhibits PGE(2)/PGF(2 alpha)-Induced Contractions of Human Pregnant Myometrium In Vitro., 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 245A-245A, ISSN: 1933-7191
West C, Kim SH, Khanjani S, et al., 2017, Oxytocin Activates Pro-Inflammatory Pathways in Decidualised Human Endometrial Stromal Cells., 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 162A-162A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Vasavan T, Schultz F, Kim SH, et al., 2017, Ursodeoxycholic acid reverses the induction of calcium signalling by PGE2 in a human myometrium in vitro model of preterm labour, Special Issue: Abstracts of the British Maternal & Fetal Medicine Society (BMFMS) 19th Annual Conference 2017., Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 8-8, ISSN: 1470-0328
Andrews V, Terzidou V, Wales N, et al., 2017, Positive predictors of pregnancy outcome following USS indicated and rescue cervical cerclage, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 138-139, ISSN: 1470-0328
Andrews V, Meritahti M, Thomas S, et al., 2017, Ultrasound-Indicated and Rescue Cervical Cerclage and Immediate Pregnancy Outcomes: A Retrospective Observational Study., 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Reproductive-Investigation (SRI), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 183A-183A, ISSN: 1933-7191
Kim SH, Bennett PR, Terzidou V, 2017, Advances in the role of oxytocin receptors in human parturition., Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol: 449, Pages: 56-63, ISSN: 1872-8057
Oxytocin (OT) is a neurohypophysial hormone which has been found to play a central role in the regulation of human parturition. The most established role of oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OT/OTR) system in human parturition is the initiation of uterine contractions, however, recent evidence have demonstrated that it may have a more complex role including initiation of inflammation, regulation of miRNA expression, as well as mediation of other non-classical oxytocin actions via receptor crosstalk with other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this review we highlight both established and newly emerging roles of OT/OTR system in human parturition and discuss the expanding potential for OTRs as pharmacological targets in the management of preterm labour.
Kindinger L, MacIntyre D, Lee Y, et al., 2016, Cervical cerclage using braided suture induces vaginal dysbiosis, inflammation and is associated with increased rates of preterm birth, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: E4-E4, ISSN: 1470-0328
Kindinger LM, Kyrgiou M, MacIntyre DA, et al., 2016, Preterm Birth Prevention Post-Conization: A Model of Cervical Length Screening with Targeted Cerclage, PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
Women with a history of excisional treatment (conization) for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) are at increased risk of preterm birth, perinatal morbidity and mortality in subsequent pregnancy. We aimed to develop a screening model to effectively differentiate pregnancies post-conization into low- and high-risk for preterm birth, and to evaluate the impact of suture material on the efficacy of ultrasound indicated cervical cerclage. We analysed longitudinal cervical length (CL) data from 725 pregnant women post-conization attending preterm surveillance clinics at three London university Hospitals over a ten year period (2004–2014). Rates of preterm birth <37 weeks after targeted cerclage for CL<25mm were compared with local and national background rates and expected rates for this cohort. Rates for cerclage using monofilament or braided suture material were also compared. Of 725 women post-conization 13.5% (98/725) received an ultrasound indicated cerclage and 9.7% (70/725) delivered prematurely, <37weeks; 24.5% (24/98) of these despite insertion of cerclage. The preterm birth rate was lower for those that had monofilament (9/60, 15%) versus braided (15/38, 40%) cerclage (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, P = 0.008). Accuracy parameters of interval reduction in CL between longitudinal second trimester screenings were calculated to identify women at low risk of preterm birth, who could safely discontinue surveillance. A reduction of CL <10% between screening timepoints predicts term birth, >37weeks. Our triage model enables timely discharge of low risk women, eliminating 36% of unnecessary follow-up CL scans. We demonstrate that preterm birth in women post-conization may be reduced by targeted cervical cerclage. Cerclage efficacy is however suture material-dependant: monofilament is preferable to braided suture. The introduction of triage prediction models has the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary CL scan for women at low risk of
Kindinger LM, MacIntyre DA, Lee YS, et al., 2016, Relationship between vaginal microbial dysbiosis, inflammation and pregnancy outcomes in cervical cerclage, Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1946-6242
Preterm birth, the leading cause of death in children under five, may be caused by inflammation triggered by ascending vaginal infection. About two million cervical cerclages are performed annually to prevent preterm birth. The procedure is thought to provide structural support and maintain the endocervical mucus plug as a barrier to ascending infection. Two types of suture material are used for cerclage: monofilament or multifilament braided. Braided sutures are most frequently used, though no evidence exists to favor them over monofilament sutures. In this study we assessed birth outcomes in a retrospective cohort of 678 women receiving cervical cerclage in 5 UK university hospitals and showed that braided cerclage was associated with increased intrauterine death (15% v 5%, P = 0.0001) and preterm birth (28% v 17%, P = 0.0006) compared to monofilament suture. To understand the potential underlying mechanism, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiome in women at risk of preterm birth because of short cervical length (≤25 mm) who received braided (n=25) or monofilament (n=24) cerclage under otherwise comparable circumstances. Braided suture induced a persistent shift towards vaginal microbiome dysbiosis characterized by reduced Lactobacillus spp. and enrichment of pathobionts. Vaginal dysbiosis was associated with inflammatory cytokine and interstitial collagenase excretion into cervicovaginal fluid and premature cervical remodeling. Monofilament suture had comparatively minimal impact upon the vaginal microbiome and its interactions with the host. These data provide in vivo evidence that a dynamic shift of the human vaginal microbiome toward dysbiosis correlates with preterm birth.
Cook J, MacIntyre D, Sykes L, et al., 2016, Prediction of cervical shortening and preterm delivery using specific cell free plasma microRNAs, Publisher: Wiley, Pages: 59-60, ISSN: 1470-0328
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