Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Research Postgraduate







Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, TW9 3DSSir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





William is a PhD student investigating the ecology and evolution of fungal symbiosis in early land plants.  The evolution of a symbiosis with fungi was essential for the terrestrialisation of plants which led to massive changes in the global climate.  By looking at the most ancient living plants it is possible to predict how this plant-fungus relationship first evolved.  Williams’s principle research interests lie in the fungal symbioses of liverworts and lycopods.  

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Rimington WR, Duckett JG, Field KJ, 2014, There and back again: an eagerly awaited journey to a primitive paradise, Field Bryology

Field KJ, Rimington WR, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2016, Functional analysis of liverworts in dual symbiosis with Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina fungi under a simulated Palaeozoic CO2 decline, ISME Journal, Vol:10, ISSN:1751-7362, Pages:1514-1526

Field KJ, Leake JR, Tille S, et al., 2015, From mycoheterotrophy to mutualism: mycorrhizal specificity and functioning in Ophioglossum vulgatum sporophytes, New Phytologist, Vol:205, ISSN:0028-646X, Pages:1492-1502

Field KJ, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2015, Symbiotic options for the conquest of land, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol:30, ISSN:0169-5347, Pages:477-486

Field KJ, Rimington WR, Bidartondo MI, et al., 2015, First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO2, New Phytologist, Vol:205, ISSN:0028-646X, Pages:743-756

Rimington WR, Pressel S, Duckett JG, et al., 2015, Fungal associations of basal vascular plants: reopening a closed book?, New Phytologist, Vol:205, ISSN:0028-646X, Pages:1394-1398

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