Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering

Research Associate



x.liu15 Website




ObservatorySouth Kensington Campus





Dr. Xinhua Liu is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at Imperial College London in the Dyson School of Design Engineering and member of the Electrochemical Science and Engineering group.

Her research activities include:

- Additive manufacturing for energy applications, including 3D printed structural energy devices and electrospun nanofiber based flexible energy devices

- Material science, including polymer materials (ionogel and hydrogel electrolytes, binder for lithium batteries), exfoliated 2D materials (TMD and MXene) and nanofiber composite materials for supercapacitor, soft robots, metal air battery, Lithium-ion batteries and related functions

- EV: DTV diagnose method to estimate lithium battery SOH

- Battery pack modelling for lithium-ion batteries

Research Highlights

1. Self-recovering Tough Gel Electrolyte with Adjustable Supercapacitor Performance


A self-recovering gel with integrated functions synthesized via self-initiated UV poly­merization is described. It offers an effective platform for a gel electrolyte to attain adjustable supercapacitor performances for energy-storage devices.

It was reported in Materials Views  性能可调控的高强凝胶基柔性超级电容器 - Materials Views 中国

2. 3D-Printed Structural Pseudocapacitors 


Direct metal laser sintering is used to create 3D hierarchical porous metallic scaffolds which are then functionalized with a co-electrodeposition of MnO2, Mn2O3, and doped conducting polymer. This approach of functionalizing metal 3D printed scaffolds thus opens new possibilities for structural energy storage devices with enhanced performance and lifetime characteristics. 

It was reported in Materials Views 3D 打印新型结构化超级电容器 - Materials Views 中国

This work was selected as Cover Page in Advanced Materials Technologies - Volume 1, Issue 9 - December 2016 - Wiley Online Library

Structural energy storage devices have the potential to transform products such as aerial vehicles, cars and consumer electronics. In article number 1600167, Xinhua Liu, Billy Wu, and co-workers use direct metal laser sintering to create 3D hierarchical scaffolds with high mechanical strength. Functionalisation with MnOx-PEDOT:PSS imparts the structure with pseduocapacitive properties and multi-scale x-ray tomography highlights how this approach improves device performance and lifetime.

cover page



Liu M, Jia W, Liu X, et al., 2018, Transalkylation Properties of Hierarchical MFI and MOR Zeolites: Direct Synthesis over Modulating the Zeolite Grow Kinetics with Controlled Morphology, Catalysis Letters, Vol:148, ISSN:1011-372X, Pages:1396-1406

Liu X, Marlow MN, Cooper SJ, et al., 2018, Flexible all-fiber electrospun supercapacitor, Journal of Power Sources, Vol:384, ISSN:0378-7753, Pages:264-269

Wang Z, He B, Liu X, et al., 2017, Development and modeling of a new ionogel based actuator, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol:28, ISSN:1045-389X, Pages:2036-2050

Zhang CJ, Pinilla S, McEyoy N, et al., 2017, Oxidation Stability of Colloidal Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbides (MXenes), Chemistry of Materials, Vol:29, ISSN:0897-4756, Pages:4848-4856


Liu X, Rhodri Jervis, Robert C. Maher, et al., 3D Printed Structural Pseudocapacitors - a Multi-Scale X-Ray Tomography Study, ECS

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