Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering

Research Associate



x.liu15 Website




ObservatorySouth Kensington Campus





Dr. Xinhua Liu is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at Imperial College London in the Dyson School of Design Engineering and member of the Electrochemical Science and Engineering group.

Her research activities include:

- Additive manufacturing for energy applications, including 3D printed structural energy devices and electrospun nanofiber based flexible energy devices

- Material science, including polymer materials (ionogel and hydrogel electrolytes, binder for lithium batteries), exfoliated 2D materials (TMD and MXene) and nanofiber composite materials for supercapacitor, soft robots, metal air battery, Lithium-ion batteries and related functions

- EV: DTV diagnose method to estimate lithium battery SOH

- Battery pack modelling for lithium-ion batteries

Research Highlights

4. Shaping the Future Energy: Multi-Scale Design for Structural Energy Storages

3. Aligned Ionogel Electrolytes for High‐Temperature Supercapacitors was selected as cover page in Advanced Science.


In the article number 1801337, we report a self‐initiated cryopolymerization method to prepare nanocomposite ionogels with hierarchical aligned pores for use in high temperature supercapacitors. Diffusion simulations based on X‐ray tomographic 3D reconstructed images are used to explain the origins of the observed electrochemical enhancements in the aligned ionogels, which highlight the potential for structured materials in energy storage devices.

cover page

2. Self-recovering Tough Gel Electrolyte with Adjustable Supercapacitor Performance


A self-recovering gel with integrated functions synthesized via self-initiated UV poly­merization is described. It offers an effective platform for a gel electrolyte to attain adjustable supercapacitor performances for energy-storage devices.

It was reported in Materials Views  性能可调控的高强凝胶基柔性超级电容器 - Materials Views 中国

1. 3D-Printed Structural Pseudocapacitors 


Direct metal laser sintering is used to create 3D hierarchical porous metallic scaffolds which are then functionalized with a co-electrodeposition of MnO2, Mn2O3, and doped conducting polymer. This approach of functionalizing metal 3D printed scaffolds thus opens new possibilities for structural energy storage devices with enhanced performance and lifetime characteristics. 

It was reported in Materials Views 3D 打印新型结构化超级电容器 - Materials Views 中国

This work was selected as Cover Page in Advanced Materials Technologies - Volume 1, Issue 9 - December 2016 - Wiley Online Library

Structural energy storage devices have the potential to transform products such as aerial vehicles, cars and consumer electronics. In article number 1600167, Xinhua Liu, Billy Wu, and co-workers use direct metal laser sintering to create 3D hierarchical scaffolds with high mechanical strength. Functionalisation with MnOx-PEDOT:PSS imparts the structure with pseduocapacitive properties and multi-scale x-ray tomography highlights how this approach improves device performance and lifetime.

cover page



Chen X, Liu X, Ouyang M, et al., 2019, Multi-metal 4D printing with a desktop electrochemical 3D printer, Scientific Reports, Vol:9, ISSN:2045-2322

Tomaszewska A, Chu Z, Feng X, et al., Lithium-ion battery fast charging: A review, Etransportation, ISSN:2590-1168

Xu J, Liu X, Zhang Z, et al., 2019, Controllable generation of nanofibers through a magnetic-field-assisted electrospinning design, Materials Letters, Vol:247, ISSN:0167-577X, Pages:19-24

Xi Z, Liu X, Li J, et al., 2019, A Novel Ni/NiF2-AlF3 Catalyst with Mild-Strength Lewis Acid Sites for Dehydrofluorination of 1, 1, 1, 2-Tetrafluoroethane to Synthesize Trifluoroethylene, Chemistryselect, Vol:4, ISSN:2365-6549, Pages:4506-4511

Liu X, Ai W, Naylor Marlow M, et al., The effect of cell-to-cell variations and thermal gradients on the performance and degradation of lithium-ion battery packs, Applied Energy, ISSN:0306-2619

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