183 results found
Carlson T, Demiris Y, 2009, Using Visual Attention to Evaluate Collaborative Control Architectures for Human Robot Interaction, AISB'09: New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction
Collaborative control architectures assist human users in performing tasks, without undermining their capabilities or curtailing the natural development of their skills. In this study, we evaluate our collaborative control architecture by investigating the visual attention patterns of robotic wheelchair users. Our initial hypothesis stated that the user would require less visual attention for driving, whilst they are being assisted by the collaborative system, thus allowing them to concentrate on higher level cognitive tasks, such as planning. However, our analysis of eye gaze patterns—as recorded by ahead mounted eye tracking system—supports the opposite conclusion: that patterns of saccadic activation increase and become more chaotic under the assisted mode. Our findings highlight the necessity for techniques that assist the user in forming an appropriate mental model of the collaborative control architecture.
Tidemann A, Ozturk P, Demiris Y, 2009, A Groovy Virtual Drumming Agent, 9th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Pages: 104-+, ISSN: 0302-9743
Takács B, Demiris Y, 2009, Multi-robot plan adaptation by constrained minimal distortion feature mapping., Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 742-749
Demiris Y, Carlson T, 2009, Lifelong robot-assisted mobility: models, tools, and challenges, IET Conference on Assisted Living 2009, Publisher: IET
Demiris Y, Meltzoff A, 2008, The Robot in the Crib: A Developmental Analysis of Imitation Skills in Infants and Robots., Infant and Child Development, Vol: 17, Pages: 43-53, ISSN: 1522-7227
Interesting systems, whether biological or artificial, develop. Starting from some initial conditions, they respond to environmental changes, and continuously improve their capabilities. Developmental psychologists have dedicated significant effort to studying the developmental progression of infant imitation skills, because imitation underlies the infant's ability to understand and learn from his or her social environment. In a converging intellectual endeavour, roboticists have been equipping robots with the ability to observe and imitate human actions because such abilities can lead to rapid teaching of robots to perform tasks. We provide here a comparative analysis between studies of infants imitating and learning from human demonstrators, and computational experiments aimed at equipping a robot with such abilities. We will compare the research across the following two dimensions: (a) initial conditions-what is innate in infants, and what functionality is initially given to robots, and (b) developmental mechanisms-how does the performance of infants improve over time, and what mechanisms are given to robots to achieve equivalent behaviour. Both developmental science and robotics are critically concerned with: (a) how their systems can and do go 'beyond the stimulus' given during the demonstration, and (b) how the internal models used in this process are acquired during the lifetime of the system.
Demiris Y, Khadhouri B, 2008, Content-based control of goal-directed attention during human action perception, Interaction Studies, Vol: 9, Pages: 353-376, ISSN: 1572-0373
During the perception of human actions by robotic assistants, the robotic assistant needs to direct its computational and sensor resources to relevant parts of the human action. In previous work we have introduced HAMMER (Hierarchical Attentive Multiple Models for Execution and Recognition) (Demiris and Khadhouri, 2006), a computational architecture that forms multiple hypotheses with respect to what the demonstrated task is, and multiple predictions with respect to the forthcoming states of the human action. To confirm their predictions, the hypotheses request information from an attentional mechanism, which allocates the robot's resources as a function of the saliency of the hypotheses. In this paper we augment the attention mechanism with a component that considers the content of the hypotheses' requests, with respect to the content's reliability, utility and cost. This content-based attention component further optimises the utilisation of the resources while remaining robust to noise. Such computational mechanisms are important for the development of robotic devices that will rapidly respond to human actions, either for imitation or collaboration purposes.
Tidemann A, Demiris Y, 2008, Groovy Neural Networks, 18th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Publisher: I O S PRESS, Pages: 271-275, ISSN: 0922-6389
Tidemann A, Demiris Y, 2008, A Drum Machine That Learns to Groove, 31st Annual German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Pages: 144-+, ISSN: 0302-9743
Carlson T, Demiris Y, 2008, Human-wheelchair collaboration through prediction of intention and adaptive assistance, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3926-3931, ISSN: 1050-4729
Takacs B, Demiris Y, 2008, Balancing Spectral Clustering for Segmenting Spatio-Temporal Observations of Multi-Agent Systems, 8th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 580-587, ISSN: 1550-4786
Sastoque JCM, Rovira JLP, Lima ERD, et al., 2008, A Hybrid Method based on Fuzzy Inference and Non-Linear Oscillators for Real-Time Control of Gait., Publisher: INSTICC - Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication, Pages: 44-51
, 2008, Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE international conference on Human robot interaction, HRI 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 12-15, 2008, Publisher: ACM
Fong T, Dautenhahn K, Scheutz M, et al., 2008, The Third International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction., AI Magazine, Vol: 29, Pages: 77-78
Demiris Y, Khadhouri B, 2008, Content-based control of goal-directed attention during human action perception, Interaction Studies: social behaviour and communication in biological and artificial systems, Vol: 9, Pages: 353-376
Takács B, Butler S, Demiris Y, 2007, Multi-agent Behaviour Segmentation via Spectral Clustering, AAAI-2007 Workshop on Plan, Activity and Intention Recognition (PAIR), Publisher: AAAI, Pages: 74-81
We examine the application of spectral clustering for breaking up the behaviour of a multi-agent system in space and time into smaller, independent elements. We extend the clustering into the temporal domain and propose a novel similarity measure, which is shown to possess desirable temporal properties when clustering multi-agent behaviour. We also propose a technique to add knowledge about events of multi-agent interaction with different importance. We apply spectral clustering with this measure for analysing behaviour in a strategic game.
Demiris Y, 2007, Prediction of intent in robotics and multi-agent systems., Cognitive Processing, Vol: 8, Pages: 151-158, ISSN: 1612-4782
Moving beyond the stimulus contained in observable agent behaviour, i.e. understanding the underlying intent of the observed agent is of immense interest in a variety of domains that involve collaborative and competitive scenarios, for example assistive robotics, computer games, robot-human interaction, decision support and intelligent tutoring. This review paper examines approaches for performing action recognition and prediction of intent from a multi-disciplinary perspective, in both single robot and multi-agent scenarios, and analyses the underlying challenges, focusing mainly on generative approaches.
Tidemann A, Demiris Y, 2007, Imitating the Groove: Making Drum Machines more Human, AISB'07: Artificial and Ambient Intelligence, Publisher: AISB, Pages: 232-240
Current music production software allows rapid programming of drum patterns, but programmed patterns often lack the groove that a human drummer will provide, both in terms of being rhythmically too rigid and having no variation for longer periods of time. We have implemented an artificial software drummer that learns drum patterns by extracting user specific variations played by a human drummer. The artificial drummer then builds up a library of patterns it can use in different musical contexts. The artificial drummer models the groove and the variations of the human drummer, enhancing the realism of the produced patterns.
Demiris Y, Billard A, 2007, Special Issue on Robot Learning by Observation, Demonstration, and Imitation, IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics Part B-Cybernetics, Vol: 37, Pages: 254-255, ISSN: 1083-4419
This special issue contains selected extended contributions from both the Adaptation in Artificial and Biological Systems symposium held in Hertforshire in 2006 and the wider academic community following a public call for papers in 2006. The papers presented serve as a good illustration of the challenges faced by robotics researchers today in the field of programming by observation, demonstration, and imitation.
Dearden A, Demiris Y, Grau O, 2007, Learning models of camera control for imitation in football matches, AISB'07: Artificial and Ambient Intelligence, Publisher: AISB, Pages: 227-231
In this paper, we present ongoing work towards a system capable of learning from and imitating the movement of a trained cameraman and his director covering a football match. Useful features such as the pitch and the movement of players in the scene are detected using various computer vision techniques. In simulation, a robotic camera trains its own internal model for how it can affect these features. The movement of a real cameraman in an actual football game can be imitated by using this internal model.
Dearden A, Demiris Y, 2007, From exploration to imitation: using learnt internal models to imitate others, AISB'07: Artificial and Ambient Intelligence, Publisher: AISB, Pages: 218-226
We present an architecture that enables asocial and social learning mechanisms to be combined in a unified framework on a robot. The robot learns two kinds of internal models by interacting with the environment with no a priori knowledge of its own motor system: internal object models are learnt about how its motor system and other objects appear in its sensor data; internal control models are learnt by babbling and represent how the robot controls objects. These asocially-learnt models of the robot’s motor system are used to understand the actions of a human demonstrator on objects that they can both interact with. Knowledge acquired through self-exploration is therefore used as a bootstrapping mechanism to understand others and benefit from their knowledge.
Johnson M, Demiris Y, 2007, Visuo-Cognitive Perspective Taking for Action Recognition, AISB'07: Artificial and Ambient Intelligence, Publisher: AISB, Pages: 262-269
Many excellent architectures exist that allow imitation of actions involving observable goals. In this paper, we develop a Simulation Theory-based architecture that uses continuous visual perspective taking to maintain a persistent model of the demonstrator's knowledge of object locations in dynamic environments; this allows an observer robot to attribute potential actions in the presence of goal occlusions, and predict the unfolding of actions through prediction of visual feedback to the demonstrator. The architecture is tested in robotic experiments, and results show that the approach also allows an observer robot to solve Theory-of-Mind tasks from the 'False Belief' paradigm.
Demiris Y K, 2007, Using Robots to study the mechanisms imitation, Neuroconstructivism: Perspectives and Prospects, Editors: Mareschal, Sirois, Westermann, Publisher: Oxford University Press, Pages: 159-178
Demiris Y K, Johnson M, 2007, Simulation Theory for Understanding Others: A Robotics Perspective, Imitation and Social Learning in Robots, Humans and Animals: Behavioural Social and Communicative Dimensions, Pages: 89-102
Dearden A, Demiris Y, Grau O, 2006, Tracking football player movement from a single moving camera using particle filters, Pages: 29-37
Demiris Y, Khadhouri B, 2006, Content-Based Control of Goal-Directed Attention During Human Action Perception, Pages: 226-231
Demiris Y, Khadhouri B, 2006, Hierarchical attentive multiple models for execution and recognition of actions, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol: 54, Pages: 361-369, ISSN: 0921-8890
According to the motor theories of perception, the motor systems of an observer are actively involved in the perception of actions when these are performed by a demonstrator. In this paper we review our computational architecture, HAMMER (Hierarchical Attentive Multiple Models for Execution and Recognition), where the motor control systems of a robot are organised in a hierarchical, distributed manner, and can be used in the dual role of (a) competitively selecting and executing an action, and (b) perceiving it when performed by a demonstrator. We subsequently demonstrate that such an arrangement can provide a principled method for the top-down control of attention during action perception, resulting in significant performance gains. We assess these performance gains under a variety of resource allocation strategies.
Simmons G, Demiris Y, 2006, Object grasping using the minimum variance model, BIOLOGICAL CYBERNETICS, Vol: 94, Pages: 393-407, ISSN: 0340-1200
Veskos P, Demiris Y, 2006, Neuro-mechanical entrainment in a bipedal robotic walking platform, AISB'06: Adaptation in Artificial and Biological Systems, Publisher: AISB, Pages: 78-84
In this study, we investigated the use of van der Pol oscillators in a 4-dof embodied bipedal robotic platform for the purposes of planar walking. The oscillator controlled the hip and knee joints of the robot and was capable of generating waveforms with the correct frequency and phase so as to entrain with the mechanical system. Lowering its oscillation frequency resulted in an increase to the walking pace, indicating exploitation of the global natural dynamics. This is verified by its operation in absence of entrainment, where faster limb motion results in a slower overall walking pace.
Demiris Y, Simmons G, 2006, Perceiving the unusual: temporal properties of hierarchical motor representations for action perception, Neural Networks, Vol: 19, Pages: 272-284, ISSN: 0893-6080
Recent computational approaches to action imitation have advocated the use of hierarchical representations in the perception and imitation of demonstrated actions. Hierarchical representations present several advantages, with the main one being their ability to process information at multiple levels of detail. However, the nature of the hierarchies in these approaches has remained relatively unsophisticated, and their relation with biological evidence has not been investigated in detail, in particular with respect to the timing of movements. Following recent neuroscience work on the modulation of the premotor mirror neuron activity during the observation of unpredictable grasping movements, we present here an implementation of our HAMMER architecture using the minimum variance model for implementing reaching and grasping movements that have biologically plausible trajectories. Subsequently, we evaluate the performance of our model in matching the temporal dynamics of the modulation of cortical excitability during the passive observation of normal and unpredictable movements of human demonstrators.
Veskos P, Demiris Y, 2006, Experimental comparison of the van der Pol and Rayleigh nonlinear oscillators for a robotic swinging task, AISB'06: Adaptation in Artificial and Biological Systems, Publisher: AISB, Pages: 197-202
In this paper, the effects of different lower-level building blocks of a robotic swinging system are explored, from the perspective of motor skill acquisition. The van der Pol and Rayleigh oscillators are used to entrain to the system’s natural dynamics, with two different network topologies being used: a symmetric and a hierarchical one. Rayleigh outperformed van der Pol regarding maximum oscillation amplitudes for every morphological configuration examined. However, van der Pol started large amplitude relaxation oscillations faster, attaining better performance during the first half of the transient period. Hence, even though there are great similarities between the oscillators, differences in their resultant behaviours are more pronounced than originally expected.
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