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    Ahmadzadeh SR, Mastrogiovanni F, Kormushev P, 2016,

    Visuospatial Skill Learning for Robots

    A novel skill learning approach is proposed that allows a robot to acquirehuman-like visuospatial skills for object manipulation tasks. Visuospatialskills are attained by observing spatial relationships among objects throughdemonstrations. The proposed Visuospatial Skill Learning (VSL) is a goal-basedapproach that focuses on achieving a desired goal configuration of objectsrelative to one another while maintaining the sequence of operations. VSL iscapable of learning and generalizing multi-operation skills from a singledemonstration, while requiring minimum prior knowledge about the objects andthe environment. In contrast to many existing approaches, VSL offerssimplicity, efficiency and user-friendly human-robot interaction. We also showthat VSL can be easily extended towards 3D object manipulation tasks, simply byemploying point cloud processing techniques. In addition, a robot learningframework, VSL-SP, is proposed by integrating VSL, Imitation Learning, and aconventional planning method. In VSL-SP, the sequence of performed actions arelearned using VSL, while the sensorimotor skills are learned using aconventional trajectory-based learning approach. such integration easilyextends robot capabilities to novel situations, even by users withoutprogramming ability. In VSL-SP the internal planner of VSL is integrated withan existing action-level symbolic planner. Using the underlying constraints ofthe task and extracted symbolic predicates, identified by VSL, symbolicrepresentation of the task is updated. Therefore the planner maintains ageneralized representation of each skill as a reusable action, which can beused in planning and performed independently during the learning phase. Theproposed approach is validated through several real-world experiments.

    Jamisola RS, Kormushev PS, Roberts RG, Caldwell DGet al., 2016,

    Task-Space Modular Dynamics for Dual-Arms Expressed through a Relative Jacobian

    , JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT & ROBOTIC SYSTEMS, Vol: 83, Pages: 205-218, ISSN: 0921-0296
    Kormushev PS, 2016,

    Robot Learning for Persistent Autonomy

    , Handling Uncertainty and Networked Structure in Robot Control, Publisher: Springer, ISBN: 9783319263274

    Chapter. 1. Robot. Learning. for. Persistent. Autonomy. Petar Kormushev and Seyed Reza Ahmadzadeh Abstract Autonomous robots are not very good at being autonomous. They work well in structured environments, but fail quickly in the real ...

    Palomeras N, Carrera A, Hurtos N, Karras GC, Bechlioulis CP, Cashmore M, Magazzeni D, Long D, Fox M, Kyriakopoulos KJ, Kormushev P, Salvi J, Carreras Met al., 2016,

    Toward persistent autonomous intervention in a subsea panel

    , AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS, Vol: 40, Pages: 1279-1306, ISSN: 0929-5593
    Ahmadzadeh SR, Paikan A, Mastrogiovanni F, Natale L, Kormushev P, Caldwell DGet al., 2015,

    Learning Symbolic Representations of Actions from Human Demonstrations

    , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 3801-3808, ISSN: 1050-4729
    Bimbo J, Kormushev P, Althoefer K, Liu Het al., 2015,

    Global estimation of an object's pose using tactile sensing

    , ADVANCED ROBOTICS, Vol: 29, Pages: 363-374, ISSN: 0169-1864
    Carrera A, Palomeras N, Hurtos N, Kormushev P, Carreras Met al., 2015,

    Cognitive system for autonomous underwater intervention

    , PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS, Vol: 67, Pages: 91-99, ISSN: 0167-8655
    Carrera A, Palomeras N, Hurtos N, Kormushev P, Carreras Met al., 2015,

    Learning multiple strategies to perform a valve turning with underwater currents using an I-AUV

    , Oceans 2015 Genova, Publisher: IEEE
    Jamali N, Kormushev P, Vinas AC, Carreras M, Caldwell DGet al., 2015,

    Underwater Robot-Object Contact Perception using Machine Learning on Force/Torque Sensor Feedback

    , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 3915-3920, ISSN: 1050-4729
    Jamisola RS, Kormushev P, Caldwell DG, Ibikunle Fet al., 2015,

    Modular Relative Jacobian for Dual-Arms and the Wrench Transformation Matrix

    , Proceedings of the 2015 7th IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS) And Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM), Publisher: IEEE
    Kormushev P, Demiris Y, Caldwell DG, 2015,

    Encoderless Position Control of a Two-Link Robot Manipulator

    , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 943-949, ISSN: 1050-4729
    Kormushev P, Demiris Y, Caldwell DG, 2015,

    Kinematic-free Position Control of a 2-DOF Planar Robot Arm

    , IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 5518-5525, ISSN: 2153-0858
    Kryczka P, Kormushev P, Tsagarakis NG, Caldwell DGet al., 2015,

    Online Regeneration of Bipedal Walking Gait Pattern Optimizing Footstep Placement and Timing

    , IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3352-3357, ISSN: 2153-0858
    Lane DM, Maurelli F, Kormushev P, Carreras M, Fox M, Kyriakopoulos Ket al., 2015,

    PANDORA - Persistent Autonomy through Learning, Adaptation, Observation and Replanning

    , IFAC Workshop on Navigation, Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles (NGCUV’2015)

    PANDORA is a EU FP7 project that is developing new computational methodsto make underwater robots Persistently Autonomous, significantly reducing the frequency ofassistance requests. The aim of the project is to extend the range of tasks that can be carried onautonomously and increase their complexity while reducing the need for operator assistances.Dynamic adaptation to the change of conditions is very important while addressing autonomyin the real world and not just in well-known situation. The key of Pandora is the ability torecognise failure and respond to it, at all levels of abstraction. Under the guidance of majorindustrial players, validation tasks of inspection, cleaning and valve turning have been trialledwith partners’ AUVs in Scotland and Spain.

    Takano W, Asfour T, Kormushev P, 2015,

    Special Issue on Humanoid Robotics

    , Advanced Robotics, Vol: 29
    Ahmadzadeh SR, Kormushev P, Caldwell DG, 2014,

    Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning for AUV Thruster Failure Recovery

    , ADPRL 2014, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1-8

    This paper investigates learning approaches for discovering fault-tolerant control policies to overcome thruster failures in Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). The proposed approach is a model-based direct policy search that learns on an on-board simulated model of the vehicle. When a fault is detected and isolated the model of the AUV is reconfigured according to the new condition. To discover a set of optimal solutions a multi-objective reinforcement learning approach is employed which can deal with multiple conflicting objectives. Each optimal solution can be used to generate a trajectory that is able to navigate the AUV towards a specified target while satisfying multiple objectives. The discovered policies are executed on the robot in a closed-loop using AUV's state feedback. Unlike most existing methods which disregard the faulty thruster, our approach can also deal with partially broken thrusters to increase the persistent autonomy of the AUV. In addition, the proposed approach is applicable when the AUV either becomes under-actuated or remains redundant in the presence of a fault. We validate the proposed approach on the model of the Girona500 AUV.

    Ahmadzadeh SR, Kormushev P, Jamisola RS, Caldwell DGet al., 2014,

    Learning Reactive Robot Behavior for Autonomous Valve Turning

    , 14th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 366-373, ISSN: 2164-0572
    Carrera A, Palomeras N, Hurtos N, Kormushev P, Carreras Met al., 2014,

    Learning by demonstration applied to underwater intervention

    , Seventeenth International Conference of the Catalan Association of Artificial Intelligence (CCIA 2014)

    Performing subsea intervention tasks is a challenge due to the complexitiesof the underwater domain. We propose to use a learning by demonstraitionalgorithm to intuitively teach an intervention autonomous underwater vehicle (IAUV)how to perform a given task. Taking as an input few operator demonstrations,the algorithm generalizes the task into a model and simultaneously controlsthe vehicle and the manipulator (using 8 degrees of freedom) to reproduce the task.A complete framework has been implemented in order to integrate the LbD algorithmwith the different onboard sensors and actuators. A valve turning interventiontask is used to validate the full framework through real experiments conducted in awater tank.

    Dallali H, Kormushev P, Tsagarakis NG, Caldwell DGet al., 2014,

    Can Active Impedance Protect Robots from Landing Impact?

    , 14th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1022-1027, ISSN: 2164-0572
    Jamali N, Kormushev P, Ahmadzadeh SR, Caldwell DGet al., 2014,

    Covariance Analysis as a Measure of Policy Robustness in Reinforcement Learning


    —In this paper we propose covariance analysis as ametric for reinforcement learning to improve the robustness ofa learned policy. The local optima found during the explorationare analyzed in terms of the total cumulative reward and thelocal behavior of the system in the neighborhood of the optima.The analysis is performed in the solution space to select a policythat exhibits robustness in uncertain and noisy environments.We demonstrate the utility of the method using our previouslydeveloped system where an autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV) has to recover from a thruster failure. When a failure isdetected the recovery system is invoked, which uses simulationsto learn a new controller that utilizes the remaining functioningthrusters to achieve the goal of the AUV, that is, to reach a targetposition. In this paper, we use covariance analysis to examinethe performance of the top, n, policies output by the previousalgorithm. We propose a scoring metric that uses the output ofthe covariance analysis, the time it takes the AUV to reach thetarget position and the distance between the target position andthe AUV’s final position. The top polices are simulated in a noisyenvironment and evaluated using the proposed scoring metric toanalyze the effect of noise on their performance. The policy thatexhibits more tolerance to noise is selected. We show experimentalresults where covariance analysis successfully selects a morerobust policy that was ranked lower by the original algorithm.

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