BibTex format

author = {Zhang, F and Graham, DJ and Wong, M},
doi = {10.1016/j.tra.2018.08.004},
journal = {Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice},
pages = {191--215},
title = {Quantifying the substitutability and complementarity between high-speed rail and air transport},
url = {},
volume = {118},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - This paper quantifies the substitution and complementary effects of high-speed rail (HSR) on air travel demand in terms of both route traffic and airport enplanement. Employing the difference-in-differences (DID) method, the first part of the analysis measures the effect of new HSR routes on parallel air route traffic with a focus on East Asian regions (Mainland China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan). The second part examines the effect of air-HSR integration on passenger enplanement at East Asian airports and compares with that in the Central European market. We find that in general the airport’s access cost (reflected by the distance from central city) has a negative impact on the air traffic. The substitution effects of HSR are the most significant on short- and medium-haul (below 1000km) air routes while introducing HSR services has encouraged long distance (over 1000km) air travels in Mainland China. The complementary effect is investigated in the context of air-HSR integration, which has significantly positive impacts on airport enplanement at primary hub airports when fitted with on-site HSR links. The benefit is limited at secondary hubs and regional airports possibly by locations and HSR service frequencies.
AU - Zhang,F
AU - Graham,DJ
AU - Wong,M
DO - 10.1016/j.tra.2018.08.004
EP - 215
PY - 2018///
SN - 0965-8564
SP - 191
TI - Quantifying the substitutability and complementarity between high-speed rail and air transport
T2 - Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
UR -
UR -
VL - 118
ER -