BibTex format

author = {Zhang, F and Graham, DJ},
doi = {10.1080/01441647.2020.1738587},
journal = {Transport Reviews},
pages = {506--528},
title = {Air transport and economic growth: a review of the impact mechanism and causal relationships},
url = {},
volume = {40},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The impacts of air transport on the economy arise both directly, via activity in the aviation sector; and indirectly, via increased spending and wider economic benefits associated with improved access to resources, markets, technology and economic mass. Economic activity, in turn, supports and generates demand for air transport. Despite its potential importance, the reciprocal nature of the causal relationship between air transport and economic performance has remained somewhat understudied. This paper provides a synthesis review of the channels the aviation sector interacts with regional economy. The review focuses on quantitative studies that contribute to the state-of-the-art understandings of the causality. We find that the reciprocal causal relationship is more likely to prevail in less developed economies. For more developed economies, only one direction of the causality is recognised, which runs from air transport to economic growth. Especially substantial is the effect of airline enplanement on service-related employment. The reverse direction of the relationship is, however, not as significant as believed in a causal sense within the developed world. Therefore, cautions need to be taken when applying income elasticities (such as the elasticity of air passenger demand with respect to GDP) in air travel demand forecasting, which implicitly assumes that economic growth causally leads to air traffic increment. Based on the fundamental links between air transport and economic growth, some typical imperfections and inefficiencies in aviation markets are discussed and promising avenues for future research are proposed.
AU - Zhang,F
AU - Graham,DJ
DO - 10.1080/01441647.2020.1738587
EP - 528
PY - 2020///
SN - 0144-1647
SP - 506
TI - Air transport and economic growth: a review of the impact mechanism and causal relationships
T2 - Transport Reviews
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 40
ER -