BibTex format

author = {Horcher, D and Graham, DJ and Anderson, RJ},
doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.015},
journal = {Transportation Research Part B - Methodological},
pages = {105--125},
title = {Crowding cost estimation with large scale smart card and vehicle location data},
url = {},
volume = {95},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Crowding discomfort is an external cost of public transport trips imposed on fellow passengers that has to be measured in order to derive optimal supply-side decisions. This paper presents a comprehensive method to estimate the user cost of crowding in terms of the equivalent travel time loss, in a revealed preference route choice framework. Using automated demand and train location data we control for fluctuations in crowding conditions on the entire length of a metro journey, including variations in the density of standing passengers and the probability of finding a seat. The estimated standing penalty is 26.5% of the uncrowded value of in-vehicle travel time. An additional passenger per square metre on average adds 11.9% to the travel time multiplier. These results are in line with earlier revealed preference values, and suggest that stated choice methods may overestimate the user cost of crowding. As a side-product, and an important input of the route choice analysis, we derive a novel passenger-to-train assignment method to recover the daily crowding and standing probability pattern in the metro network.
AU - Horcher,D
AU - Graham,DJ
AU - Anderson,RJ
DO - 10.1016/j.trb.2016.10.015
EP - 125
PY - 2016///
SN - 0191-2615
SP - 105
TI - Crowding cost estimation with large scale smart card and vehicle location data
T2 - Transportation Research Part B - Methodological
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 95
ER -