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Using your search engine's advanced search can help you find grey literature

Make sure to evaluate grey literature well

Grey literature differs from regular academic research output and may need to be accessed differently.

What is grey literature?

Grey literature is a general term for published materials and research that is not available through the traditional routes of academic publishing, such as peer-reviewed journals. The term 'grey literature' covers a range of materials, including: annual reports, technical reports, government documents, white papers and working papers. Such material is usually published independently by government or civil departments and agencies, independent organisations, commercial organisations, private companies, consultancies, etc.

How to find grey literature

Grey literature will not necessarily show up while searching bibliographic databases so you may need to try other specialist databases or specific websites.

Here are a couple of suggestions:

Using Google's advanced search can be useful. You can limit the search to a particular site or domain likely to host grey literature e.g.,,

Evaluate grey literature

When evaluating grey literature, we recommend finding additional sources which back up the information, see What is good information?