Aeronautical Engineering (MEng)
This module will build on existing knowledge of incompressible and compressible aerodynamics, and the basic prediction methods for aerofoil design at both low and high speed. The first part of the module extends the incompressible analyses of the first year Aerodynamics module and introduces potential flow. The second part of the module introduces compressible flow, shock waves and high speed aerodynamics. This module forms a direct link to the third year course in Aerodynamics.
On successfully completing this module, you should be able to:
• Fundamentals: vorticity and circulation; free and forced vortex, Rankine vortex; equations of motion; Bernoulli equation; normal pressure gradient; relation between vorticity and gradient of total pressure.
• Control volumes: Reminder of control volume formulation, examples including: force on a converging nozzle, total pressure loss on a duct with rapidly expanding area.
• Stream Function and Velocity Potential: stream function and velocity potential for uniform stream at incidence, source/sink, free vortex; superposition of solutions; source/sink combinations; Joukowski lift theorem; flow past a circular cylinder with and without lift.
• The Complex Potential: complex coordinates and complex velocity; basic solutions for uniform stream, source/sink, vortex; image reflection at walls.
• Conformal mapping; circle to ellipse and flat plate; relation between complex velocities in circle plane and transformed plane; flow past ellipse at zero incidence; flow past ellipse at incidence; control of circulation/lift by specifying rear stagnation point; Kutta condition; lift of a flat plate; pressure distribution on the flat plate; Joukowski aerofoil; effect of camber and thickness.
• Introduction and one-dimensional compressible flow: Speed of sound, Mach number, subsonic and supersonic flow; propagation of weak waves; Mach waves and Mach cones; physical differences between two-dimensional subsonic and supersonic aerofoils.
• One-dimensional compressible flow: one-dimensional flow, nozzle flow; continuity, momentum and energy equations; convergent-divergent nozzles, choking; the appearance of shock waves; stationary and moving shock normal waves; supersonic wind tunnel.
• Two-dimensional compressible flow: The oblique shock wave; sharp wedge, attached and detached shock waves; shock wave reflection; very weak shock waves; two-dimensional supersonic linear theory (Ackeret) and wave interactions using linear theory; wave drag; the Prandtl-Meyer function and isentropic supersonic expansion. Shock expansion theory and supersonic aerofoils.
The module will be delivered primarily through large-class lectures introducing the key concepts and methods, supported by a variety of delivery methods combining the traditional and the technological. The content is presented via a combination of slides, whiteboard and visualiser.
This module presents opportunities for both formative and summative assessment.
You will be formatively assessed through progress tests and tutorial sessions.
You will have additional opportunities to self-assess your learning via tutorial problem sheets.
You will be summatively assessed by a written examination at the end of the module as well as through practical laboratory assessments and a written laboratory report.
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