Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Module aims

This module will introduce you to the fundamental concepts of normal tissue development and how researchers have used this information to imitate nature in a lab setting, engineering cells and tissues that may be used to model diseases, treat disease, or develop drugs. Topics that you have the opportunity to discuss include: Societal challenges for tissue engineering Cell building blocks Normal tissue development and regeneration Adult stem cells -Induced pluripotent stem cells Challenges in imitating nature Cell and tissue therapy Gene therapy Drug development

Learning outcomes

 Upon successful completion of this module you will be able to: 

• Explain the pillars and principles of tissue engineering

• Define cell building blocks, and be able to explain how these building blocks are composed and can be changed to make cells with different functions 

• Explain why different cell types are required in different tissues.

• Describe common stem cell techniques such as those for generating induced pluripotent stem cells and for stem cell differentiation and how these protocols were developed (imitating nature).

• Discuss where gene therapy and cell and tissue therapy are beneficial and any ethical implications of these therapies.

• Describe how tissue engineering can be beneficial in drug development. 

• Propose tissue engineering solutions for different diseases. 

• Design experimental protocols for processing of tissue samples, including the screening of a blood samples or tissue biopsies for a defined range of diseases.

Module syllabus

Cell building blocks: How do cells take a DNA code to make proteins? Amino acid structure and charge. INDELS and SNPS and their impact on protein structures. Cells: Molecules that organise cell structure. Intermediate filaments, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix. Tissue development: Complexity of tissues. Challenges in imitating nature. Hox codes and positional identity. Stem cells: Adult stem cells and their niche. Embryonic stem cells and development. Reprogramming; Induced pluripotent stem cells and cloning. Ethical and scientific obstacles. Tissue engineering: Directed differentiation, transdifferentiation, reporters, imaging techniques, 3D printing. In vitro differentiation-examples include neuronal and heart tissue. In vivo organ regeneration. Organs on a chip. Cell and gene therapies: Fibroblast and bone marrow therapy. Role of the immune system and implications for transplantation. Revertant mosacism, and gene correction. Drug development. Drug delivery challenges. Routes of drug delivery. IPSC and drug discovery.

Pre-requisites

 BE1-HCMP Molecules, cells and processes BE1-HMS1 Medical Science 1 BE2-HMS2 Medical Science 2 

Teaching methods

Lectures: 18 hours

Tutorials: 10 hours  

Assessments

Examinations:

●  Written exam: Main exam; 60% weighting

    Rubrics: 1 hour, 5 Qs

    No type of previous exam answers or solutions will be available

Courseworks:

●  Poster: Poster Coursework; 40% weighting