Ionising Tissue and Flow Imaging

Module aims

This module explains the basic physics of nuclear medicine and its practical application to nuclear medicine. It also provides an overview of a range of applications in the diagnosis and treatment of patients and provides description of imaging and non-imaging equipment used. It gives an understanding of the role of imaging process and computers in nuclear medicine, provides instruction on the safe use of ionising radiation and helps students to understand the importance of quality assurance in nuclear medicine.

Learning outcomes

Recognise and describe the underlying physical principles involved in nuclear medicine Describe the system used to detect and analyse the emissions from radioactive atoms and comment on how these are used in nuclear medicine Identify how computers are used in nuclear medicine to display and process images Describe the principle and methods of operation of gamma camera and positron imaging systems, and describe how these systems are used for single photon computerised tomography and positron emission tomography Perform basic radiation dose calculations and image processing Describe the kinetics of the radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine and how the techniques of modelling, compartmental analysis and deconvolutions are used Comment on radiation protections issues in nuclear medicine, and know about legislation involving the use of radioactive materials relevant to nuclear medicine Describe the quality control procedures that are used to check the performance of equipment used in nuclear medicine Able to make your own course notes over and above those handed out

Module syllabus

Instrumentation: Detectors and their use in counters, scintillation cameras, isotope calibrators and contamination monitors; pulse height analysers; scintillation camera systems including SPECT, whole body and multiple head systems, acquisition, processing and display of images; PET imaging; quality control and quality assurance including standards for measurement of uniformity, intrinsic system and energy resolution, collimator and count rate performance; use of phantoms. Hybrid imaging systems (PET/CT, SPECT/CT). Radiopharmaceuticals: Choice of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine diagnosis and therapy; methods of cyclotron and reactor production and characteristics of radionuclides produced; principles of radionuclide generators; handling and measurement of radionuclides; radiopharmacy design and quality assurance. Internal and External Dosimetry and Radiation Protection: Basic radiation biology as applied to alpha, beta and gamma emitters; definition and use of dosimetry units; the MIRD scheme and use of S values; practical measurement of internal doses and organ uptake and clearance; use of effective doses. Legal basis for and organisation of radiation protection; external dose measurement and dose limits. Application to Clinical and Medical Research Problems: Investigations of physiological/pathological function of heart. Lung, liver, gastro-intestinal (GI) tract, brain skeleton, bone marrow and endocrine glands; imaging of tumours, infection and inflammation; measurement and data analysis of blood flow, volumes, absorption and clearance/loss. Radionuclide therapies: I-131 therapy for hyperthyriodism. Novel therapies using Lu-177 Dotatate, Octreotide. Y-90- microsphere treatment in liver cancer.

Pre-requisites

 BE9-MBIMG Basic calculus

Assessments

 Examinations:
‚óŹ  Written exam: 100% weighting
    Rubrics: 3 Compulsory Questions (note new course, but sample papers will be provided with outline answers


Feedback : Feedback will be provided in study groups on answers to problems. feedback will be provided during practical session