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Journal articleNg KCG, Daou HE, Bankes MJK, et al., 2019,
Journal articleReznikov N, Boughton OR, Ghouse S, et al., 2019,
Journal articleDoyle R, Boughton O, Plant D, et al., 2019,
Journal articleEl Daou H, Ng KCG, Van Arkel R, et al., 2019,
Journal articleGetgood A, Brown C, Lording T, et al., 2019,
The structure and function of the anterolateral complex (ALC) of the knee has created much controversy since the ‘re-discovery’ of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and its proposed role in aiding control of anterolateral rotatory laxity in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured knee. A group of surgeons and researchers prominent in the field gathered to produce consensus as to the anatomy and biomechanical properties of the ALC. The evidence for and against utilisation of ALC reconstruction was also discussed, generating a number of consensus statements by following a modified Delphi process. Key points include that the ALC consists of the superficial and deep aspects of the iliotibial tract with its Kaplan fibre attachments on the distal femur, along with the ALL, a capsular structure within the anterolateral capsule. A number of structures attach to the area of the Segond fracture including the capsule-osseous layer of the iliotibial band, the ALL and the anterior arm of the short head of biceps, and hence it is not clear which is responsible for this lesion. The ALC functions to provide anterolateral rotatory stability as a secondary stabiliser to the ACL. Whilst biomechanical studies have shown that these structures play an important role in controlling stability at the time of ACL reconstruction, the optimal surgical procedure has not yet been defined clinically. Concern remains that these procedures may cause constraint of motion, yet no clinical studies have demonstrated an increased risk of osteoarthritis development. Furthermore, clinical evidence is currently lacking to support clear indications for lateral extra-articular procedures as an augmentation to ACL reconstruction. The resulting statements and scientific rationale aim to inform readers on the most current thinking and identify areas of needed basic science and clinical research to help improve patient outcomes following ACL injury and subsequent reconstruction.
Journal articleKedgley AE, Saw TH, Segal NA, et al., 2019,
Purpose: To analyse the stress distribution through longitudinal and radial meniscal tears in three tear locations in weight-bearing conditions and use it to ascertain the impact of tear location and type on the potential for healing of meniscal tears. Methods: Subject-specific finite-element models of a healthy knee under static loading at 0°, 20°, and 30° knee flexion were developed from unloaded magnetic resonance images and weight-bearing, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Simulations were then run after introducing tears into the anterior, posterior, and midsections of the menisci. Results: Absolute differences between the displacements of anterior and posterior segments modelled in the intact state and those quantified from in vivo weight-bearing images were less than 0.5 mm. There were tear-location-dependent differences between hoop stress distributions along the inner and outer surfaces of longitudinal tears; the longitudinal tear surfaces were compressed together to the greatest degree in the lateral meniscus and were most consistently in compression on the midsections of both menisci. Radial tears resulted in an increase in stress at the tear apex and in a consistent small compression of the tear surfaces throughout the flexion range when in the posterior segment of the lateral meniscus. Conclusions: Both the type of meniscal tear and its location within the meniscus influenced the stresses on the tear surfaces under weight bearing. Results agree with clinical observations and suggest reasons for the inverse correlation between longitudinal tear length and healing, the inferior healing ability of medial compared with lateral menisci, and the superior healing ability of radial tears in the posterior segment of the lateral meniscus compared with other radial tears. This study has shown that meniscal tear location in addition to type likely plays a crucial role in dictating the success of non-operative treatment of the menisci. T
Journal articleCorrea T, Pal B, van Arkel R, et al., 2018,
BackgroundRevision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) has poorer results than primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and the prostheses are invasive and cause strain-shielding of the bones near the knee. This paper describes an RTKA system with extracortical fixation. It was hypothesised that this would reduce strain-shielding compared with intramedullary fixation.MethodsTwelve replica tibiae were prepared for full-field optical surface strain analysis. They were either left intact, implanted with RTKA components with cemented intramedullary fixation stems, or implanted with a novel design with a tibial tray subframe supported by two extracortical fixation plates and screw fixation. They were loaded to simulate peak walking and stair climbing loads and the surface strains were measured using digital image correlation. The measurements were validated with strain gauge rosettes.ResultsCompared to the intact bone model, extracortical fixation reduced surface strain-shielding by half versus intramedullary fixation. For all load cases and bone regions examined, the extracortical implant shielded 8–27% of bone strain, whereas the intramedullary component shielded 37–56%.ConclusionsThe new fixation design, which offers less bone destruction than conventional RTKA, also reduced strain-shielding. Clinically, this design may allow greater rebuilding of bone loss, and should increase long-term fixation.
Journal articleStephen JM, Sopher R, Tullie S, et al., 2018,
The infrapatellar fat pad is a dynamic and mobile structure, which deforms during knee motion, and has proximal extensions which wrap around the patella, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 26, Pages: 3515-3524, ISSN: 0942-2056
PURPOSE: The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) is a common cause of knee pain and loss of knee flexion and extension. However, its anatomy and behavior are not consistently defined. METHODS: Thirty-six unpaired fresh frozen knees (median age 34 years, range 21-68) were dissected, and IFP attachments and volume measured. The rectus femoris was elevated, suprapatellar pouch opened and videos recorded looking inferiorly along the femoral shaft at the IFP as the knee was flexed. The patellar retinacula were incised and the patella reflected distally. The attachment of the ligamentum mucosum (LMuc) to the intercondylar notch was released from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), both menisci and to the tibia via meniscotibial ligaments. IFP strands projecting along both sides of the patella were elevated and the IFP dissected from the inferior patellar pole. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one knee at ten flexion angles was performed and the IFP, patella, tibia and femur segmented. RESULTS: In all specimens the IFP attached to the inferior patellar pole, femoral intercondylar notch (via the LMuc), proximal patellar tendon, intermeniscal ligament, both menisci and the anterior tibia via the meniscotibial ligaments. In 30 specimens the IFP attached to the anterior ACL fibers via the LMuc, and in 29 specimens it attached directly to the central anterior tibia. Proximal IFP extensions were identified alongside the patella in all specimens and visible on MRI [medially (100% of specimens), mean length 56.2 ± 8.9 mm, laterally (83%), mean length 23.9 ± 6.2 mm]. Mean IFP volume was 29.2 ± 6.1 ml. The LMuc, attached near the base of the middle IFP lobe, acting as a 'tether' drawing it superiorly during knee extension. The medial lobe consistently had a pedicle superomedially, positioned between the patella and medial trochlea. MRI scans demonstrated how the space between the anterior tibia and patellar t
Journal articleInderhaug E, Stephen JM, Williams A, et al., 2018,
Effect of anterolateral complex sectioning and tenodesis on patellar kinematics and patellofemoral joint contact pressures, American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 46, Pages: 2922-2928, ISSN: 0363-5465
Background:Anterolateral complex injuries are becoming more recognized. While these are known to affect tibiofemoral mechanics, it is not known how they affect patellofemoral joint behavior.Purpose:To determine the effect of (1) sectioning the anterolateral complex and (2) performing a MacIntosh tenodesis under various conditions on patellofemoral contact mechanics and kinematics.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Methods:Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were tested in a customized rig, with the femur fixed and tibia free to move, with optical tracking to record patellar kinematics and with thin pressure sensors to record patellofemoral contact pressures at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The quadriceps and iliotibial tract were loaded with 205 N throughout testing. Intact and anterolateral complex–sectioned states were tested, followed by 4 randomized tenodeses applying 20- and 80-N graft tension, each with the tibia in its neutral intact alignment or left free to rotate. Statistical analyses were undertaken with repeated measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc analysis, and paired samples t tests.Results:Patellar kinematics and contact pressures were not significantly altered after sectioning of the anterolateral complex (all: P > .05). Similarly, they were not significantly different from the intact knee in tenodeses performed when fixed tibial rotation was combined with 20- or 80-N graft tension (all: P > .05). However, grafts tensioned with 20 N and 80 N while the tibia was free hanging resulted in significant increases in lateral patellar tilt (P < .05), and significantly elevated lateral peak patellofemoral pressures (P < .05) were observed for 80 N.Conclusion:This work did not find that an anterolateral injury altered patellofemoral mechanics or kinematics, but adding a lateral tenodesis can elevate lateral contact pressures and induce lateral patellar tilting if the tibia is pulled into external ro
Journal articleHoogeslag RAG, Brouwer RW, Huis In 't Veld R, et al., 2018,
Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 26, Pages: 2986-2996, ISSN: 0942-2056
PURPOSE: There is a lack of objective evidence investigating how previous non-augmented ACL suture repair techniques and contemporary augmentation techniques in ACL suture repair restrain anterior tibial translation (ATT) across the arc of flexion, and after cyclic loading of the knee. The purpose of this work was to test the null hypotheses that there would be no statistically significant difference in ATT after non-, static- and dynamic-augmented ACL suture repair, and they will not restore ATT to normal values across the arc of flexion of the knee after cyclic loading. METHODS: Eleven human cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig, and knee kinematics from 0° to 90° of flexion were recorded by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded without load and with 89-N tibial anterior force. The knees were tested in the following states: ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, non-augmented suture repair, static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation after 10 and 300 loading cycles. RESULTS: Only static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation restored ATT to values similar to the ACL-intact state directly postoperation, and maintained this after cyclic loading. However, contrary to dynamic augmentation, the ATT after static tape augmentation failed to remain statistically less than for the ACL-deficient state after cyclic loading. Moreover, after cyclic loading, ATT was significantly less with dynamic augmentation when compared to static tape augmentation. CONCLUSION: In contrast to non-augmented ACL suture repair and static tape augmentation, only dynamic augmentation resulted in restoration of ATT values similar to the ACL-intact knee and decreased ATT values when compared to the ACL-deficient knee immediately post-operation and also after cyclic loading, across the arc of flexion, thus allowing the null hypotheses to be rejected. This may assist healing of the ruptured ACL. Therefore, this study would support further clinical evaluation of dyna
Journal articleStephen J, Alva A, Lumpaopong P, et al., 2018,
A cadaveric model to evaluate the effect of unloading the medial quadriceps on patellar tracking and patellofemoral joint pressure and stability, Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2197-1153
BackgroundVastus Medialis Muscles (VMM) damage has been widely identified following patellar dislocation. Rehabilitation programmes have been suggested to strengthen the VMM and reduce clinical symptoms of pain and instability. This controlled laboratory study investigated the hypothesis that reduced Vastus Medialis Obliquus (VMO) and Vastus Medialis Longus (VML) muscle tension would alter patellar tracking, stability and PFJ contact pressures.MethodsNine fresh-frozen dissected cadaveric knees were mounted in a rig with the quadriceps and iliotibial band loaded to 205 N. An optical tracking system measured joint kinematics and pressure sensitive film between the patella and trochlea measured PFJ contact pressures. Measurements were repeated for three conditions: 1. With all quadriceps heads and iliotibial band (ITB) loaded; 2. as 1, but with the VMO muscle unloaded and 3. as 1, but with the VMO and VML unloaded. Measurements were also repeated for the three conditions with a 10 N lateral displacement force applied to the patella.ResultsReduction of VMM tension resulted in significant increases in lateral patellar tilt (2.8°) and translation (4 mm), with elevated lateral and reduced medial joint contact pressures from 0.48 to 0.14 MPa, and reduced patellar stability (all p < 0.05).ConclusionsThese findings provide basic scientific rationale to support the role of quadriceps strengthening to resist patellar lateral maltracking and rebalance the articular contact pressure away from the lateral facet in patients with normal patellofemoral joint anatomy.
Journal articleJunaid S, Gregory T, Fetherston S, et al., 2018,
Cadaveric study validating in vitro monitoring techniques to measure the failure mechanism of glenoid implants against clinical CT, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Vol: 36, Pages: 2524-2532, ISSN: 0736-0266
Definite glenoid implant loosening is identifiable on radiographs, however, identifying early loosening still eludes clinicians. Methods to monitor glenoid loosening in vitro have not been validated to clinical imaging. This study investigates the correlation between in vitro measures and CT images. Ten cadaveric scapulae were implanted with a pegged glenoid implant and fatigue tested to failure. Each scapulae were cyclically loaded superiorly and CT scanned every 20,000 cycles until failure to monitor progressive radiolucent lines. Superior and inferior rim displacements were also measured. A finite element (FE) model of one scapula was used to analyze the interfacial stresses at the implant/cement and cement/bone interfaces. All ten implants failed inferiorly at the implant-cement interface, two also failed at the cement-bone interface inferiorly, and three showed superior failure. Failure occurred at of 80,966 ± 53,729 (mean ± SD) cycles. CT scans confirmed failure of the fixation, and in most cases, was observed either before or with visual failure. Significant correlations were found between inferior rim displacement, vertical head displacement and failure of the glenoid implant. The FE model showed peak tensile stresses inferiorly and high compressive stresses superiorly, corroborating experimental findings. In vitro monitoring methods correlated to failure progression in clinical CT images possibly indicating its capacity to detect loosening earlier for earlier clinical intervention if needed. Its use in detecting failure non-destructively for implant development and testing is also valuable. The study highlights failure at the implant-cement interface and early signs of failure are identifiable in CT images. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research® Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2018.
Journal articleZhao S, Arnold M, Ma S, et al., 2018,
Objectives: The ability to determine human bone stiffness is of clinical relevance in many fields, including bone quality assessment and orthopaedic prosthesis design. Stiffness can be measured using compression testing; an experimental technique commonly used to test bone specimens in vitro. This systematic review aims to determine how best to perform compression testing of human bone. Methods: A keyword search of all English language articles up until December 2017 of compression testing of bone was undertaken in Medline, Embase, PubMed and Scopus databases. Studies using bulk tissue, animal tissue, whole bone or testing techniques other than compression testing were excluded. Results: 4712 abstracts were retrieved with a total of 177 papers included in the analysis. 20 studies directly analysed the compression testing technique to improve the accuracy of the testing technique. Several influencing factors should be considered when testing bone samples in compression. These include the method of data analysis, specimen storage, specimen preparation, testing configuration and loading protocol. Conclusions: Compression testing is a widely used technique for measuring the stiffness of bone but there is a great deal of inter-study variation in experimental techniques across the literature. Based on best evidence from the literature, suggestions for bone compression testing are made in this review, though further studies are needed to help establish standardised bone testing techniques to increase the comparability and reliability of bone stiffness studies.
Journal articleLord BR, Colaco HB, Gupte CM, et al., 2018,
PURPOSE: A common problem during ACL reconstruction is asymmetry of proximal-distal graft diameter leading to tunnel upsizing and graft-tunnel mismatch. Compression downsizing provides a graft of uniform size, allowing easy passage into a smaller tunnel. The purpose of this study was to quantify the graft compression technique and its effects on graft biomechanics and stability. It was hypothesised that compression downsizing would significantly reduce cross-sectional area (CSA); that no significant changes in graft biomechanics would occur; graft fixation stability would be improved. METHOD: Sixty-eight non-irradiated peroneus longus (PL) tendons were investigated. Twenty were halved and paired into ten four-strand grafts, 20 strands were compressed by 0.5-1 mm diameter and changes in CSA recorded using an alginate mould technique. The following properties were compared with 20 control strands: cyclic strain when loaded 70-220 N for 1000 cycles; stiffness; ultimate tensile load and stress; Young's modulus. 24 PL tendons were quadrupled into grafts, 12 were compressed and all 24 were submerged in Ringer's solution at 37 °C and the CSA recorded over 12 h. Twelve compressed and 12 control quadrupled grafts were mounted in porcine femurs, placed in Ringer's solution for 12 h at 37 °C and graft displacement at the bone tunnel aperture recorded under cyclic loading. RESULTS: Mean decreases in CSA of 31% under a stress of 471 kPa and 21% under a stress of 447 kPa were observed for doubled and quadrupled grafts, respectively. Compressed grafts re-expanded by 19% over 12 h compared to 2% for controls. No significant differences were observed between compressed and control grafts in the biomechanical properties and graft stability; mean cyclic displacements were 0.3 mm for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: No detrimental biomechanical effects of graft compression on allograft PL tendons were observed. Following compression, t
Journal articleHeilpern G, Stephen J, Ball S, et al., 2018,
It is safe and effective to use all inside meniscal repair devices for posteromedial meniscal 'ramp' lesions, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 26, Pages: 2310-2316, ISSN: 0942-2056
PURPOSE: Recently, it has been recognized that meniscocapsular ('ramp') lesions of the posterior one-third of the medial meniscus frequently occur during injuries causing ACL rupture, and that these lesions are easily missed at arthroscopy. Furthermore, it is clear that these lesions are biomechanically significant, adding to the deficits caused by ACL rupture, and that their repair can reverse this. The efficacy of an all inside repair technique has been questioned by some authors and by those who advocate a suture shuttle technique via an accessory posteromedial portal. The use of Ultra FastFix and FastFix 360 meniscal repair devices to repair posteromedial meniscocapsular separations was investigated in terms of safe deployment and the effectiveness. Author: Affiliations: Journal instruction requires a country for affiliations; however, these are missing in affiliations [1, 2]. Please verify if the provided country is correct and amend if necessary. METHODS: Twenty cadaveric fresh frozen knees were used-ten in each of two groups. A ramp lesion was created using a Beaver knife. The lesion was then repaired with either 4 Ultra FastFix (Smith and Nephew) or 4 FastFix 360 (Smith and Nephew) meniscal repair devices. The knees were put through a standardized loading cycle consisting of 10 Lachman's tests and ten maximum loading manual anterior drawer tests at 90° of flexion. Each knee was then flexed and extended fully ten times. The specimens were sectioned just proximal to the menisci and each suture anchor identified and its position recorded and photographed. Author: Author details: Kindly check and confirm whether the corresponding author mail id is correctly identified and amend if necessary. RESULTS: In the Ultra FastFix group, a single anchor was found to be in an intra-articular position-a failure rate of 2.5%. In the FastFix 360 group, 5 anchors failed-a 12.5% failure rate. In all cases, the anchors were attached to their suture and so not truly loose wit
Journal articleGhouse S, Babu S, Nai K, et al., 2018,
Journal articlevan Arkel RJ, Ng KCG, Muirhead-Allwood SK, et al., 2018,
Journal articleBoughton OR, Ma S, Zhao S, et al., 2018,
ObjectivesBone material properties are a major determinant of bone health in older age, both in terms of fracture risk and implant fixation, in orthopaedics and dentistry. Bone is an anisotropic and hierarchical material so its measured material properties depend upon the scale of metric used. The scale used should reflect the clinical problem, whether it is fracture risk, a whole bone problem, or implant stability, at the millimetre-scale. Indentation, an engineering technique involving pressing a hard-tipped material into another material with a known force, may be able to assess bone stiffness at the millimetre-scale (the apparent elastic modulus). We aimed to investigate whether spherical-tip indentation could reliably measure the apparent elastic modulus of human cortical bone.Materials and methodsCortical bone samples were retrieved from the femoral necks of nineteen patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery (10 females, 9 males, mean age: 69 years). The samples underwent indentation using a 1.5 mm diameter, ruby, spherical indenter tip, with sixty indentations per patient sample, across six locations on the bone surfaces, with ten repeated indentations at each of the six locations. The samples then underwent mechanical compression testing. The repeatability of indentation measurements of elastic modulus was assessed using the co-efficient of repeatability and the correlation between the bone elastic modulus measured by indentation and compression testing was analysed by least-squares regression.ResultsIn total, 1140 indentations in total were performed. Indentation was found to be repeatable for indentations performed at the same locations on the bone samples with a mean co-efficient of repeatability of 0.4 GigaPascals (GPa), confidence interval (C.I): 0.33–0.42 GPa. There was variation in the indentation modulus results between different locations on the bone samples (mean co-efficient of repeatability: 3.1 GPa, C.I: 2.2–3.90 GPa). No cle
Journal articleMarsland D, Stephen JM, Calder T, et al., 2018,
Strength of Interference Screw Fixation to Cuboid vs Pulvertaft Weave to Peroneus Brevis for Tibialis Posterior Tendon Transfer for Foot Drop., Foot and Ankle International, Vol: 39, Pages: 858-864, ISSN: 1071-1007
BACKGROUND: Tibialis posterior (TP) tendon transfer is an effective treatment for foot drop. Currently, standard practice is to immobilize the ankle in a cast for 6 weeks nonweightbearing, risking postoperative stiffness. To assess whether early active dorsiflexion and protected weightbearing could be safe, the current study assessed tendon displacement under cyclic loading and load to failure, comparing the Pulvertaft weave (PW) to interference screw fixation (ISF) in a cadaveric foot model. METHODS: Twenty-four cadaveric ankles had TP tendon transfer performed, 12 with the PW technique and 12 with ISF to the cuboid. The TP tendon was cycled 1000 times at 50 to 150 N and then loaded to failure in a materials testing machine. Tendon displacement at the insertion site was recorded every 100 cycles. An independent t test and 2-way analysis of variance were performed to compare techniques, with a significance level of P < .05. RESULTS: Mean tendon displacement was similar in the PW group (2.9 ± 2.5 mm [mean ± SD]) compared with the ISF group (2.4 ± 1.1 mm), P = .35. One specimen in the ISF group failed early by tendon pullout. None of the PW group failed early, although displacement of 8.9 mm was observed in 1 specimen. Mean load to failure was 419.1 ± 82.6 N in the PW group in comparison to 499.4 ± 109.6 N in the ISF group, P = .06. CONCLUSION: For TP tendon transfer, ISF and PW techniques were comparable, with no differences in tendon displacement after cyclical loading or load to failure. Greater variability was observed in the PW group, suggesting it may be a less reliable technique. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results indicate that early active dorsiflexion and protected weightbearing may be safe for clinical evaluation, with potential benefits for the patient compared with cast immobilization.
Journal articleWillmott H, Al-Wattar Z, Halewood C, et al., 2018,
Evaluation of different shape-memory staple configurations against crossed screws for first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis: A biomechanical study, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Vol: 24, Pages: 259-263, ISSN: 1268-7731
BACKGROUND: The first metatarsophalangeal joint may be fused in order to treat arthritis or instability. The use of shape-memory staples for fixation is well recognised, but little work has been done into the optimal configuration of staples. METHODS: The structural behaviour of first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) arthrodeses using shape-memory staples or crossed screws was studied using cadaveric porcine joints. Five fixation configurations were tested: single vertical or horizontal staple, paired staples in dorsal-medial configuration (0-90° to the sagittal plane), paired staples in oblique orthogonal configuration (45-135°); or two crossed screws. Specimens were loaded in cyclical dorsiflexion for 1000 cycles. Plantar gapping and shearing were measured. Specimens were then loaded to failure. RESULTS: Cyclic testing caused more shear in the 45-135° staples than the crossed screws (1.0mm±0.5mm compared to 0.14mm±0.4mm, p<0.01). No significant difference was found in plantar gap formation. Single vertical and horizontal single staples failed at 15N and 19. CONCLUSIONS: N, respectively. Paired 0-90° staples failed at 43N±9N, significantly lower than the 45-135° staples (141N±25N; p<0.001) and crossed screws (180N±67N; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the 45-135° staples and crossed screws. Screws failed by sudden cortical fracture; staples displayed gradual pull-out and shearing. First MTPJ arthrodeses fixed with single staples are not recommended. Arthrodeses fixed with staples at 0-90° to the sagittal plane were significantly less strong than two crossed screws. However, positioning oblique staples at 45-135° significantly improved stability, creating a construct as strong as, crossed screws. None of the constructs was strong enough for immediate weight bearing.
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