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  • Journal article
    Kanca Y, Milner P, Dini D, Amis Aet al., 2018,

    Tribological evaluation of biomedical polycarbonate urethanes against articular cartilage

    , Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 82, Pages: 394-402, ISSN: 1751-6161

    This research investigated the in-vitro wear and friction performance of polycarbonate urethane (PCU) 80A as they interact with articular cartilage, using a customised multidirectional pin-on-plate tester. Condyles were articulated against PCU 80A discs (Bionate® I and Bionate® II) (configuration 1) and the results arising from these tests were compared to those recorded during the sliding of PCU pins against cartilage plates (configuration 2). Configuration 1 produced steadily increasing coefficient of friction (COF) (up to 0.64 ± 0.05) and had the same trend as the cartilage–on–stainless steel articulation (positive control). When synovial fluid rather than bovine calf serum was used as lubricant, average COF significantly decreased from 0.50 ± 0.02–0.38 ± 0.06 for condyle–on–Bionate® I (80AI) and from 0.41 ± 0.02–0.24 ± 0.04 for condyle–on–Bionate® II (80AII) test configurations (p < 0.05). After 15 h testing, the cartilage–on–cartilage articulation (negative control) tests showed no cartilage degeneration. However, different levels of cartilage volume loss were found on the condyles from the positive control (12.5 ± 4.2 mm3) and the PCUs (20.1 ± 3.6 mm3 for 80 AI and 19.0 ± 2.3 mm3 for 80AII) (p > 0.05). A good correlation (R2 =0.84) was found between the levels of average COF and the volume of cartilage lost during testing; increasing wear was found at higher levels of COF. Configuration 2 showed low and constant COF values (0.04 ± 0.01), which were closer to the negative control (0.03 ± 0.01) and significantly lower than configuration 1 (p < 0.05). The investigation showed that PCU is a good candidate for use in hemiarthroplasty components, where only one of the two articulating surfaces is replaced, as long as the synthetic material is implanted in a region where migrating cartilage contact is achieved. Bio

  • Journal article
    Halewood C, Athwal KK, Amis A, 2018,

    Pre-clinical assessment of total knee replacement anterior-posterior constraint

    , Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 73, Pages: 153-160, ISSN: 0021-9290

    Pre-clinical, bench-top assessment of Total Knee Replacements (TKR) can provide information about the inherent constraint provided by a TKR, which does not depend on the condition of the patient undergoing the arthroplasty. However little guidance is given by the ASTM standard on test configurations such as medial-lateral (M:L) loading distribution, flexion angle or restriction of secondary motions. Using a purpose built rig for a materials testing machine, four TKRs currently in widespread clinical use, including medial-pivot and symmetrical condyle types, were tested for anterior-posterior translational constraint. Compressive joint loads from 710 to 2000 N, and a range of medial-lateral (M:L) load distributions, from 70:30% to 30:70% M:L, were applied at different flexion angles with secondary motions unconstrained. It was found that TKA constraint was significantly less at 60 and 90° flexion than at 0°, whilst increasing the compressive joint load increased the force required to translate the tibia to limits of AP constraint at all flexion angles tested. Additionally when M:L load distribution was shifted medially, a coupled internal rotation was observed with anterior translation and external rotation with posterior translation. This paper includes some recommendations for future development of pre-clinical testing methods.

  • Journal article
    van Arkel RJ, Ghouse S, Milner PE, Jeffers JRTet al., 2018,

    Additive manufactured push-fit implant fixation with screw-strength pull out

    , JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Vol: 36, Pages: 1508-1518, ISSN: 0736-0266
  • Journal article
    Han S, Alexander JW, Thomas VS, Choi J, Harris JD, Doherty DB, Jeffers JRT, Noble PCet al., 2018,

    Does Capsular Laxity Lead to Microinstability of the Native Hip?

    , AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 46, Pages: 1315-1323, ISSN: 0363-5465
  • Journal article
    Ng KCG, Lamontagne M, Jeffers JRT, Grammatopoulos G, Beaule PEet al., 2018,

    Anatomic Predictors of Sagittal Hip and Pelvic Motions in Patients With a Cam Deformity

    , AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 46, Pages: 1331-1342, ISSN: 0363-5465
  • Journal article
    Musahl V, Getgood A, Neyret P, Claes S, Burnham JM, Batailler C, Sonnery-Cottet B, Williams A, Amis A, Zaffagnini S, Karlsson Jet al., 2018,

    Contributions of the anterolateral complex and the anterolateral ligament to rotatory knee stability in the setting of ACL Injury: a roundtable discussion

    , Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 25, Pages: 997-1008, ISSN: 0942-2056

    Persistent rotatory knee laxity is increasingly recognized as a common finding after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. While the reasons behind rotator knee laxity are multifactorial, the impact of the anterolateral knee structures is significant. As such, substantial focus has been directed toward better understanding these structures, including their anatomy, biomechanics, in vivo function, injury patterns, and the ideal procedures with which to address any rotatory knee laxity that results from damage to these structures. However, the complexity of lateral knee anatomy, varying dissection techniques, differing specimen preparation methods, inconsistent sectioning techniques in biomechanical studies, and confusing terminology have led to discrepancies in published studies on the topic. Furthermore, anatomical and functional descriptions have varied widely. As such, we have assembled a panel of expert surgeons and scientists to discuss the roles of the anterolateral structures in rotatory knee laxity, the healing potential of these structures, the most appropriate procedures to address rotatory knee laxity, and the indications for these procedures. In this round table discussion, KSSTA Editor-in-Chief Professor Jón Karlsson poses a variety of relevant and timely questions, and experts from around the world provide answers based on their personal experiences, scientific study, and interpretations of the literature. Level of evidence V.

  • Journal article
    Milner PE, Parkes M, Puetzer JL, Chapman R, Stevens MM, Cann P, Jeffers JRTet al., 2018,

    A low friction, biphasic and boundary lubricating hydrogel for cartilage replacement

    , ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, Vol: 65, Pages: 102-111, ISSN: 1742-7061
  • Book chapter
    Inderhaug E, Amis AA, 2018,

    Femoral Tunnel Placement to Restore Normal Knee Laxity after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    , The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Reconstruction and Basic Science: Second Edition, Pages: 188-193.e1, ISBN: 9780323389624
  • Journal article
    Williams A, Amis A, Zaffagnini S, Karlsson Jet al., 2018,

    Erratum to: Contributions of the anterolateral complex and the anterolateral ligament to rotatory knee stability in the setting of ACL Injury: a roundtable discussion (Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, (2017), 25, 4, (997-1008), 10.1007/s00167-017-4436-7)

    , Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 26, Pages: 353-353, ISSN: 0942-2056

    © 2016, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA). In the original article, one of the co-authors’ name has been published incorrectly. The correct name should be Jeremy M. Burnham. The original article has been updated accordingly.

  • Journal article
    Parkes M, Sayer K, Goldhofer M, Cann P, Walter WL, Jeffers Jet al., 2017,

    Zirconia phase transformation in retrieved, wear simulated, and artificially aged ceramic femoral heads

    , JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Vol: 35, Pages: 2781-2789, ISSN: 0736-0266
  • Journal article
    Geraldes DM, Hansen U, Jeffers J, Amis AAet al., 2017,

    Stability of small pegs for cementless implant fixation

    , JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Vol: 35, Pages: 2765-2772, ISSN: 0736-0266
  • Journal article
    Inderhaug E, Stephen JM, Williams A, Amis AAet al., 2017,

    Anterolateral Tenodesis or Anterolateral Ligament Complex Reconstruction Effect of Flexion Angle at Graft Fixation When Combined With ACL Reconstruction

    , American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 45, Pages: 3089-3097, ISSN: 0363-5465

    Background:Despite numerous technical descriptions of anterolateral procedures, knowledge is limited regarding the effect of knee flexion angle during graft fixation.Purpose:To determine the effect of knee flexion angle during graft fixation on tibiofemoral joint kinematics for a modified Lemaire tenodesis or an anterolateral ligament (ALL) complex reconstruction combined with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Methods:Twelve cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig with kinematics recorded from 0° to 90° flexion. Loads applied to the tibia were 90-N anterior translation, 5-N·m internal tibial rotation, and combined 90-N anterior force and 5-N·m internal rotation. Intact, ACL-deficient, and combined ACL plus anterolateral-deficient states were tested, and then ACL reconstruction was performed and testing was repeated. Thereafter, modified Lemaire tenodeses and ALL procedures with graft fixation at 0°, 30°, and 60° of knee flexion and 20-N graft tension were performed combined with the ACL reconstruction, and repeat testing was performed throughout. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni-adjusted t tests were used for statistical analysis.Results:In combined ACL and anterolateral deficiency, isolated ACL reconstruction left residual laxity for both anterior translation and internal rotation. Anterior translation was restored for all combinations of ACL and anterolateral procedures. The combined ACL reconstruction and ALL procedure restored intact knee kinematics when the graft was fixed in full extension, but when the graft was fixed in 30° and 60°, the combined procedure left residual laxity in internal rotation (P = .043). The combined ACL reconstruction and modified Lemaire procedure restored internal rotation regardless of knee flexion angle at graft fixation. When the combined ACL reconstruction and lateral procedure states were compared with the ACL-

  • Journal article
    Kanca Y, Milner P, Dini D, Amis AAet al., 2017,

    Tribological properties of PVA/PVP blend hydrogels against articular cartilage.

    , Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 78, Pages: 36-45, ISSN: 1751-6161

    This research investigated in-vitro tribological performance of the articulation of cartilage-on- polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend hydrogels using a custom-designed multi-directional wear rig. The hydrogels were prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles at different concentrations and PVA to PVP fractions at a given concentration. PVA/PVP blend hydrogels showed low coefficient of friction (COF) values (between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.14 ± 0.02) which were closer to the cartilage-on-cartilage articulation (0.03 ± 0.01) compared to the cartilage-on-stainless steel articulation (0.46 ± 0.06). The COF increased with increasing hydrogel concentration (p = 0.03) and decreasing PVP content at a given concentration (p < 0.05). The cartilage-on-hydrogel tests showed only the surface layers of the cartilage being removed (average volume loss of the condyles was 12.5 ± 4.2mm3). However, the hydrogels were found to be worn/deformed. The hydrogels prepared at a higher concentration showed lower apparent volume loss. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.94) was found between the COF and compressive moduli of the hydrogel groups, resulting from decreasing contact congruency. It was concluded that the hydrogels were promising as hemiarthroplasty materials, but that improved mechanical behaviour was required for clinical use.

  • Journal article
    Jin A, Cobb JP, Hansen U, Bhattacharya R, Reinhard C, Vo N, Atwood R, Li J, Abel RLet al., 2017,

    The effect of long term bisphosphonate therapy on trabecular bone strength and microcrack density

    , Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 602-609, ISSN: 2046-3758

    ObjectivesBisphosphonates (BP) are the first-line treatment for preventing fragility fractures. However, concern regarding the efficacy is growing because bisphosphonate is associated with over-suppression of remodelling and accumulation of microcracks. While DEXA scanning may show a gain in bone density the impact of this class of drug on mechanical properties remains unclear. We therefore sought to quantify the mechanical strength of bone treated with BP (oral alendronate for this study), and correlate this with the microarchitecture and density of microcracks in comparison with untreated controls. MethodsTrabecular bone from hip-fracture patients treated with BP (n=10) was compared to naïve fractured (n=14) and non-fractured controls (n=6). Trabecular cores were synchrotron and micro-CT scanned for microstructural analysis including quantification of bone volume fraction, micro-architecture and microcracks, then mechanically tested in compression. ResultsBP bone was 28% lower in strength than untreated hip-fracture bone and 48% lower in strength than and non-fracture control bone (4.6 vs 6.4 vs 8.9 MPa). BP treated bone had 24% more microcracks than naïve fractured bone and 51% more than non-fractured control (8.12 vs 6.55 vs 5.25 /cm2). BP and naïve fracture bone exhibited similar trabecular microarchitecture, with significantly lower bone volume fraction and connectivity than non-fractured controls. ConclusionsBP therapy had no detectable mechanical benefit. Instead its use was associated with substantially reduced bone strength. This low strength was probably due to the greater accumulation of microcracks and a lack of any discernible improvement in bone volume or microarchitecture. This preliminary study suggests that the clinical impact of BP induced microcrack accumulation may be substantial and long term.

  • Journal article
    Ghouse S, Babu S, Van Arkel RJ, Nai K, Hooper PA, Jeffers JRTet al., 2017,

    The influence of laser parameters and scanning strategies on the mechanical properties of a stochastic porous material

    , MATERIALS & DESIGN, Vol: 131, Pages: 498-508, ISSN: 0264-1275
  • Journal article
    Kittl C, Inderhaug E, Williams A, Amis AAet al., 2017,

    Biomechanics of the Anterolateral Structures of the Knee

    , Clinics in Sports Medicine, Vol: 37, Pages: 21-31, ISSN: 0278-5919
  • Journal article
    Arnold M, Zhao S, Ma S, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Cobb JP, Abel RL, Boughton ORet al., 2017,

    Microindentation: a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness? A systematic review

    , Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 542-549, ISSN: 2046-3758

    Objectives: Microindentation hasthe potential to measuretheelasticity(stiffness)of individualpatients’bone. Bone elasticity plays a crucial role in the press-fit stability of orthopaedic implants.Arming surgeons with accuratebone elasticityinformation may reduce surgical complicationsincluding peri-prosthetic fractures. The question we address with this systematicreview is whether microindentation can accurately measure cortical bone stiffness.Methods: A systematic review of all English language articles using a keyword search was undertaken in Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Studies thatonly used nanoindentation, cancellous boneoranimal tissue were excluded.Results: 1094abstracts were retrieved and 32papers were included in the analysis, 20 of which used reference point indentation and 12of which used traditional depth sensing indentation.There are a number of factors thatmust be taken into account when using microindentation such as tip size, depth and method of analysis.Only two studies validated microindentation againsttraditional mechanical testing techniques. Bothstudies used reference point indentation(RPI) with one showing that RPI parameters correlate well with mechanical testing, butanother suggestedthatthey do not. Conclusion: Microindentation has been used in various studies to assess bone elasticity but only two studies with conflicting results compared microindentation to traditional mechanical testing techniques. Further research,includingmore studies comparingmicroindentationto other mechanical testing methodsare needed,before microindentation can be reliably used to calculate cortical bone stiffness.

  • Journal article
    El Daou H, Lord B, Amis A, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2017,

    Assessment of pose repeatability and specimen repositioning of a robotic joint testing platform

    , MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 47, Pages: 210-213, ISSN: 1350-4533

    This paper describes the quantitative assessment of a robotic testing platform, consisting of an industrial robot and a universal force-moment sensor, via the design of fixtures used to hold the tibia and femur of cadaveric knees. This platform was used to study the contributions of different soft tissues and the ability of implants and reconstruction surgeries to restore normal joint functions, in previously published literature.To compare different conditions of human joints, it is essential to reposition specimens with high precision after they have been removed for a surgical procedure. Methods and experiments carried out to determine the pose repeatability and measure errors in repositioning specimens are presented. This was achieved using an optical tracking system (fusion Track 500, Atracsys Switzerland) to measure the position and orientation of bespoke rigid body markers attached to the tibial and femoral pots after removing and reinstalling them inside the rigs. The pose repeatability was then evaluated by controlling the robotic platform to move a knee joint repeatedly to/from a given pose while tracking the position and orientation of a rigid body marker attached to the tibial fixture.The results showed that the proposed design ensured a high repeatability in repositioning the pots with standard deviations for the computed distance and angle between the pots at both ends of the joint equal to 0.1 mm, 0.01 mm, 0.13° and 0.03° for the tibial and femoral fixtures respectively. Therefore, it is possible to remove and re-setup a joint with high precision. The results also showed that the errors in repositioning the robotic platform (that is: specimen path repeatability) were 0.11 mm and 0.12°, respectively.

  • Journal article
    Alidousti H, Giles JW, Emery RJH, Jeffers Jet al., 2017,

    Spatial mapping of humeral head bone density

    , JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY, Vol: 26, Pages: 1653-1661, ISSN: 1058-2746
  • Journal article
    Li J, Clarke S, Cobb JP, Amis AAet al., 2017,

    Novel curved surface preparation technique for knee resurfacing

    , Medical Engineering and Physics, Vol: 49, Pages: 89-93, ISSN: 1350-4533

    Conventional tools are incapable of preparing the curved articular surface geometry required during cartilage repair procedures. A novel curved surface preparation technique was proposed and tested to provide an accurate low-cost solution. Three shapes of samples, with flat, 30 mm radius and 60 mm radius surfaces, were manufactured from foam bone substitute for testing. Registering guides and cutting guides were designed and 3-D printed to fit onto the foam samples. A rotational cutting tool with an adapter was used to prepare the surfaces following the guidance slots in the cutting guides. The accuracies of the positions and shapes of the prepared cavities were measured using a digital calliper, and the surface depth accuracy was measured using a 3-D scanner. The mean shape and position errors were both approximately ± 0.5 mm and the mean surface depth error ranged from 0 to 0.3 mm, range − 0.3 to + 0.45 mm 95% CI. This study showed that the technique was able to prepare a curved surface accurately; with some modification it can be used to prepare the knee surface for cartilage repair.

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