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  • Journal article
    van Arkel RJ, Jeffers JRT, 2016,

    In vitro hip testing in the International Society of Biomechanics coordinate system

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 49, Pages: 4154-4158, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Athwal K, El Daou, Lord B, Davies AJ, Manning W, Rodriguez y Baena, Deehan DJ, Amiset al., 2016,

    Lateral soft-tissue structures contribute to cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty stability.

    , Journal of Orthopaedic Science, Vol: 35, Pages: 1902-1909, ISSN: 0949-2658

    Little information is available to surgeons regarding how the lateral structures prevent instability in the replaced knee. The aim of this study was to quantify the lateral soft‐tissue contributions to stability following cruciate‐retaining total knee arthroplasty (CR TKA). Nine cadaveric knees were tested in a robotic system at full extension, 30°, 60°, and 90° flexion angles. In both native and CR implanted states, ±90 N anterior–posterior force, ±8 Nm varus–valgus, and ±5 Nm internal–external torque were applied. The anterolateral structures (ALS, including the iliotibial band), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), the popliteus tendon complex (Pop T), and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were transected and their relative contributions to stabilizing the applied loads were quantified. The LCL was found to be the primary restraint to varus laxity (an average 56% across all flexion angles), and was significant in internal–external rotational stability (28% and 26%, respectively) and anterior drawer (16%). The ALS restrained 25% of internal rotation, while the PCL was significant in posterior drawer only at 60° and 90° flexion. The Pop T was not found to be significant in any tests. Therefore, the LCL was confirmed as the major lateral structure in CR TKA stability throughout the arc of flexion and deficiency could present a complex rotational laxity that cannot be overcome by the other passive lateral structures or the PCL. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1902–1909, 2017.

  • Journal article
    Cheong VS, Karunaratne A, Amis AA, Bull AMJet al., 2016,

    Strain rate dependency of fractures of immature bone

    , Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 66, Pages: 68-76, ISSN: 1751-6161

    Radiological features alone do not allow the discrimination between accidental paediatric long bone fractures or those sustained by child abuse. Therefore, there is a clinical need to elucidate the mechanisms behind each fracture to provide a forensic biomechanical tool for the vulnerable child. Four-point bending and torsional loading tests were conducted at more than one strain rate for the first time on immature bone, using a specimen-specific alignment system, to characterise structural behaviour at para-physiological strain rates. The bones behaved linearly to the point of fracture in all cases and transverse, oblique, and spiral fracture patterns were consistently reproduced. The results showed that there was a significant difference in bending stiffness between transverse and oblique fractures in four-point bending. For torsional loading, spiral fractures were produced in all cases with a significant difference in the energy and obliquity to fracture. Multiple or comminuted fractures were seen only in bones that failed at a higher stress or torque for both loading types. This demonstrates the differentiation of fracture patterns at different strain rates for the first time for immature bones, which may be used to match the case history given of a child and the fracture produced.

  • Conference paper
    Ma S, Goh EL, Patel B, Jin A, Boughton O, Cobb J, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2016,

    Are the cracks starting to appear in bisphosphonate therapy?

    , British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) 2016 Conference, Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, Pages: 53-53, ISSN: 2049-4416
  • Journal article
    Lord BR, El-Daou H, Sabnis BM, Gupte CM, Wilson AJ, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    Erratum to: Biomechanical comparison of graft structures in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (vol 25, pg 559, 2017)

    , Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 25, Pages: 988-988, ISSN: 0942-2056

    Purpose: Double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may offer kinematic restoration superior to anatomic single bundle (SB), but it remains technically challenging. The femoral attachment site has the most effect on ACL graft isometry, so a simplified three-socket (3S) construct which still uses two sockets to cover the femoral ACL attachment is attractive. It was hypothesised that ACL reconstruction using three- and four-socket techniques would more closely restore native knee kinematics compared to anatomic two-socket (SB) surgery.Methods: Nine cadaveric knees were used to evaluate the kinematics of ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, anatomic SB, three-socket, and DB arthroscopic ACL reconstructions. Suspensory fixation was used, and grafts were tensioned to match the anterior draw of the intact knee at 20°. A six-degree-of-freedom robotic system measured knee laxity under 90 N anterior tibial force and rotational laxity under 5 N-m torque. Combined moments were applied to simulate the pivot-shift subluxation: 4 N-m internal rotation and 8 N-m valgus.Results: Significant differences between reconstructions were not found during anterior tibial loading, apart from SB being more lax than DB at 60° flexion. All reconstructions produced comparable laxity to the intact state, apart from SB at 60°. Significant differences between reconstructions were not found at any flexion angle during tibial internal/external applied torques. Under combined loading, DB produced significantly less laxity than SB constructs apart from anterior tibial translation at 0° and internal rotation at 45°. 3S and DB were comparable to the native knee throughout.Conclusion: Although 3S restored laxities to a similar extent to DB, significant superiority over SB surgery was not observed. Although statistically significant differences were found between SB and DB surgery during anterior tibial and simulated pivot-shift loading, both remained similar to the nativ

  • Journal article
    Merican AM, Iranpour F, Amis AA, 2016,

    Iliotibial band tension reduces patellar lateral stability

    , J Orthop Res
  • Journal article
    Sopher R, Amis A, Davies D, Jeffers Jet al., 2016,

    The influence of muscle pennation angle and cross-sectional area on contact forces in the ankle joint

    , Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, Vol: 52, Pages: 12-23, ISSN: 0309-3247

    Data about a muscle’s fibre pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area are used in musculoskeletal modelling to estimate muscle forces, which are used to calculate joint contact forces. For the leg, muscle architecture data are derived from studies that measured pennation angle at the muscle surface, but not deep within it. Musculoskeletal models developed to estimate joint contact loads have usually been based on the mean values of pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area.Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate differences between superficial and deep pennation angles within each muscle acting over the ankle and predict how differences may influence muscle forces calculated in musculoskeletal modelling. The second aim was to investigate how inter-subject variability in physiological cross-sectional area and pennation angle affects calculated ankle contact forces.Eight cadaveric legs were dissected to excise the muscles acting over the ankle. The mean surface and deep pennation angles, fibre length and physiological cross-sectional area were measured. Cluster analysis was applied to group the muscles according to their architectural characteristics. A previously validated OpenSim model was used to estimate ankle muscle forces and contact loads using architecture data from all eight limbs.The mean surface pennation angle for soleus was significantly greater (54%) than the mean deep pennation angle. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of muscles with similar architecture and function: deep plantarflexors and peroneals, superficial plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. Peak ankle contact force was predicted to occur before toe-off, with magnitude greater than five times bodyweight. Inter-specimen variability in contact force was smallest at peak force.These findings will help improve the development of experimental and computational musculoskeletal models by providing data to estimate force based on both surface and deep

  • Journal article
    Lord BR, El-Daou H, Sabnis BM, Gupte CM, Wilson AM, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    Biomechanical comparison of graft structures in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    , Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy, Vol: 25, Pages: 559-568, ISSN: 1433-7347

    PURPOSE: Double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may offer kinematic restoration superior to anatomic single bundle (SB), but it remains technically challenging. The femoral attachment site has the most effect on ACL graft isometry, so a simplified three-socket (3S) construct which still uses two sockets to cover the femoral ACL attachment is attractive. It was hypothesised that ACL reconstruction using three- and four-socket techniques would more closely restore native knee kinematics compared to anatomic two-socket (SB) surgery. METHODS: Nine cadaveric knees were used to evaluate the kinematics of ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, anatomic SB, three-socket, and DB arthroscopic ACL reconstructions. Suspensory fixation was used, and grafts were tensioned to match the anterior draw of the intact knee at 20°. A six-degree-of-freedom robotic system measured knee laxity under 90 N anterior tibial force and rotational laxity under 5 N-m torque. Combined moments were applied to simulate the pivot-shift subluxation: 4 N-m internal rotation and 8 N-m valgus. RESULTS: Significant differences between reconstructions were not found during anterior tibial loading, apart from SB being more lax than DB at 60° flexion. All reconstructions produced comparable laxity to the intact state, apart from SB at 60°. Significant differences between reconstructions were not found at any flexion angle during tibial internal/external applied torques. Under combined loading, DB produced significantly less laxity than SB constructs apart from anterior tibial translation at 0° and internal rotation at 45°. 3S and DB were comparable to the native knee throughout. CONCLUSION: Although 3S restored laxities to a similar extent to DB, significant superiority over SB surgery was not observed. Although statistically significant differences were found between SB and DB surgery during anterior tibial and simulated pivot-shift loading, both remain

  • Journal article
    Ma S, Boughton O, Karunaratne A, Jin A, Cobb JP, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2016,

    Synchrotron imaging assessment of bone quality

    , Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Vol: 14, Pages: 150-160, ISSN: 1559-0119

    Bone is a complex hierarchical structure and its principal function is to resist mechanical forces and fracture. Bone strength depends not only on the quantity of bone tissue but also on the shape and hierarchical structure. The hierarchical levels are interrelated, especially the micro-architecture, collagen and mineral components; hence analysis of their specific roles in bone strength and stiffness is difficult. Synchrotron imaging technologies including micro-CT and small/wide angle X-Ray scattering/diffraction are becoming increasingly popular for studying bone because the images can resolve deformations in the micro-architecture and collagen-mineral matrix under in situ mechanical loading. Synchrotron cannot be directly applied in-vivo due to the high radiation dose but will allow researchers to carry out systematic multifaceted studies of bone ex-vivo. Identifying characteristics of aging and disease will underpin future efforts to generate novel devices and interventional therapies for assessing and promoting healthy aging. With our own research work as examples, this paper introduces how synchrotron imaging technology can be used with in-situ testing in bone research.

  • Journal article
    Hansen UN, 2016,

    Dynamic three-dimensional shoulder MRI during active motion for investigation of rotator cuff diseases

    , PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203

    BackgroundMRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases.MethodsDynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI.ResultsThe study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05).ConclusionThe Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position.

  • Conference paper
    Geraldes D, Hansen U, Jeffers J, Amis Aet al., 2016,

    Interference fit optimisation for small press-fitted pegs

    , International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 2015, Publisher: BRITISH EDITORIAL SOCIETY OF BONE & JOINT SURGERY, Pages: 150-150, ISSN: 2049-4416
  • Journal article
    Kittl C, El-Daou H, Athwal KK, Gupte CM, Weiler A, Williams A, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    The Role of the Anterolateral Structures and the ACL in Controlling Laxity of the Intact and ACL-Deficient Knee: Response.

    , American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 44, Pages: NP15-NP18, ISSN: 1552-3365
  • Book chapter
    Halewood C, Amis AA, 2016,

    Physiology: Biomechanics

    , Surgery of the Meniscus, Pages: 35-45, ISBN: 9783662491867
  • Journal article
    Stephen JM, Kittl C, Williams A, Zaffagnini S, Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, Fink C, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    Effect of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction method on patellofemoral contact pressures and kinematics.

    , American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 44, Pages: 1186-1194, ISSN: 1552-3365

    BACKGROUND: There remains a lack of evidence regarding the optimal method when reconstructing the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and whether some graft constructs can be more forgiving to surgical errors, such as overtensioning or tunnel malpositioning, than others. HYPOTHESIS: The null hypothesis was that there would not be a significant difference between reconstruction methods (eg, graft type and fixation) in the adverse biomechanical effects (eg, patellar maltracking or elevated articular contact pressure) resulting from surgical errors such as tunnel malpositioning or graft overtensioning. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were placed on a customized testing rig, where the femur was fixed but the tibia could be moved freely from 0° to 90° of flexion. Individual quadriceps heads and the iliotibial tract were separated and loaded to 205 N of tension using a weighted pulley system. Patellofemoral contact pressures and patellar tracking were measured at 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion using pressure-sensitive film inserted between the patella and trochlea, in conjunction with an optical tracking system. The MPFL was transected and then reconstructed in a randomized order using a (1) double-strand gracilis tendon, (2) quadriceps tendon, and (3) tensor fasciae latae allograft. Pressure maps and tracking measurements were recorded for each reconstruction method in 2 N and 10 N of tension and with the graft positioned in the anatomic, proximal, and distal femoral tunnel positions. Statistical analysis was undertaken using repeated-measures analyses of variance, Bonferroni post hoc analyses, and paired t tests. RESULTS: Anatomically placed grafts during MPFL reconstruction tensioned to 2 N resulted in the restoration of intact medial joint contact pressures and patellar tracking for all 3 graft types investigated (P > .050). However, femoral tunnels positioned proxim

  • Journal article
    Ghosh KM, Manning WA, Blain AP, Rushton SP, Longstaff LM, Amis AA, Deehan DJet al., 2016,

    Influence of increasing construct constraint in the presence of posterolateral deficiency at knee replacement: A biomechanical study

    , JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Vol: 34, Pages: 427-434, ISSN: 0736-0266
  • Journal article
    Stephen JM, Kader D, Lumpaopong P, Deehan DJ, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    The effect of femoral tunnel position and graft tension on patellar contact mechanics and kinematics after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (vol 42, pg 364, 2014)

    , AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 44, Pages: NP11-NP11, ISSN: 0363-5465
  • Journal article
    Stephen JM, Urquhart DWJ, van Arkel RJ, Ball S, Jaggard MKJ, Lee JC, Church JSet al., 2016,

    The use of sonographically guided botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) injections into the tensor fasciae latae for the treatment of lateral patellofemoral overload syndrome

    , American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 44, Pages: 1195-1202, ISSN: 1552-3365

    Background: Pain in the anterior and lateral parts of the knee during exercise is a common clinical problem for which current management strategies are often unsuccessful.Purpose: To investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin (BT) injection into the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), followed by physical therapy, in patients classified with lateral patellofemoral overload syndrome (LPOS) who failed to respond to conventional treatment.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: A total of 45 patients (mean ± SD age, 32.4 ± 8.6 years) who met the inclusion criteria of (1) activity-related anterolateral knee symptoms, (2) symptoms lasting longer than 3 months, (3) a pathological abnormality confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and (4) previous failed physical therapy received an ultrasound-guided injection of BT into the TFL followed by physical therapy. Patient-reported outcomes were collected at 5 intervals: before the injection; at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the injection; and at a mean 5 years after the injection. In 42 patients, relative iliotibial band (ITB) length changes were assessed using the modified Ober test at the first 4 time points. A computational model was run to simulate the effect of TFL weakening on gluteus medius (GMed) activity. Statistical analysis was undertaken using 1-way analysis of variance and paired t tests with Bonferroni post hoc correction.Results: There was a significant improvement in Anterior Knee Pain Scale scores from before the injection (61 ± 15) to 1 (67 ± 15), 4 (70 ± 16), and 12 weeks (76 ± 16) after the injection and in 87% of patients (39/45 patients available for follow-up) at approximately 5 years (from 62.9 ± 15.4 to 87.0 ± 12.5) after the injection (all P < .010). A significant effect on the modified Ober test was identified as a result of the intervention, with an increase in leg drop found at 1 (3° ± 5°), 4 (4° &

  • Journal article
    Stephen JM, Halewood C, Kittl C, Bollen SR, Williams A, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    Posteromedial Meniscocapsular Lesions Increase Tibiofemoral Joint Laxity With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency, and Their Repair Reduces Laxity

    , American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 44, Pages: 400-408, ISSN: 0363-5465

    Background:Injury to the posteromedial meniscocapsular junction has been identified after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture; however, there is a lack of objective evidence investigating how this affects knee kinematics or whether increased laxity can be restored by repair. Such injury is often overlooked at surgery, with possible compromise to results.Hypotheses:(1) Sectioning the posteromedial meniscocapsular junction in an ACL-deficient knee will result in increased anterior tibial translation and rotation. (2) Isolated ACL reconstruction in the presence of a posteromedial meniscocapsular junction lesion will not restore intact knee laxity. (3) Repair of the posteromedial capsule at the time of ACL reconstruction will reduce tibial translation and rotation to normal. (4) These changes will be clinically detectable.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Methods:Nine cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig where knee kinematics were recorded from 0° to 100° of flexion by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded with the following loads: 90-N anterior-posterior tibial forces, 5-N·m internal-external tibial rotation torques, and combined 90-N anterior force and 5-N·m external rotation torque. Manual Rolimeter readings of anterior translation were taken at 30° and 90°. The knees were tested in the following conditions: intact, ACL deficient, ACL deficient and posteromedial meniscocapsular junction sectioned, ACL deficient and posteromedial meniscocapsular junction repaired, ACL patellar tendon reconstruction with posteromedial meniscocapsular junction repair, and ACL reconstructed and capsular lesion re-created. Statistical analysis used repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests with Bonferroni correction.Results:Tibial anterior translation and external rotation were both significantly increased compared with the ACL-deficient knee after posterior meniscocapsular sectioning (P <

  • Journal article
    Kittl C, El-Daou H, Athwal KK, Gupte CM, Weiler A, Williams A, Amis AAet al., 2016,

    The role of the anterolateral structures and the ACL in controlling laxity of the intact and ACL-deficient knee

    , AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 44, Pages: 345-354, ISSN: 0363-5465

    Background:Anterolateral rotatory instability (ALRI) may result from combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and lateral extra-articular lesions, but the roles of the anterolateral structures remain controversial.Purpose:To determine the contribution of each anterolateral structure and the ACL in restraining simulated clinical laxity in both the intact and ACL-deficient knee.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Methods:A total of 16 knees were tested using a 6 degrees of freedom robot with a universal force-moment sensor. The system automatically defined the path of unloaded flexion/extension. At different flexion angles, anterior-posterior, internal-external, and internal rotational laxity in response to a simulated pivot shift were tested. Eight ACL-intact and 8 ACL-deficient knees were tested. The kinematics of the intact/deficient knee was replayed after transecting/resecting each structure of interest; therefore, the decrease in force/torque reflected the contribution of the transected/resected structure in restraining laxity. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance and paired t tests.Results:For anterior translation, the intact ACL was clearly the primary restraint. The iliotibial tract (ITT) resisted 31% ± 6% of the drawer force with the ACL cut at 30° of flexion; the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and anterolateral capsule resisted 4%. For internal rotation, the superficial layer of the ITT significantly restrained internal rotation at higher flexion angles: 56% ± 20% and 56% ± 16% at 90° for the ACL-intact and ACL-deficient groups, respectively. The deep layer of the ITT restrained internal rotation at lower flexion angles, with 26% ± 9% and 33% ± 12% at 30° for the ACL-intact and ACL-deficient groups, respectively. The other anterolateral structures provided no significant contribution. During the pivot-shift test, the ITT provided 72% ± 14% of the restraint at 45° for th

  • Journal article
    Shah SIMRANA, Jin ANDI, Wilson HANNAHCP, Abel PAULD, Price PATRICIAM, Hansen ULRICHN, Abel RICHARDLet al., 2015,

    Novel Computed Tomography-based Metric Reliably Estimates bone Strength, Offering Potentially Meaningful Enhancement in Clinical Fracture Risk Prediction

    , European Journal of Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 214-220, ISSN: 2310-3434

    Osteoporosis with resultant fractures is a major global health problem with huge socioeconomicimplications for patients, families and healthcare services. Areal (2D bone mineraldensity (BMD) assessment is commonly used for predicting such fracture risk, but is unreliable,estimating only about 50% of bone strength. By contrast, computed tomography (CT) basedtechniques could provide improved metrics for estimating bone strength such as bone volumefraction (BVF; a 3D volumetric measure of mineralised bone), enabling cheap, safe and reliablestrategies for clinical application, and to help divert resources to patients identified as most likelyto benefit, meeting an unmet need.Here we describe a novel method for measuring BVF at clinical-CT like low-resolution(550µm voxel size). Femoral heads (n=8) were micro-CT scanned ex-vivo. Micro-CT data weredowngraded in resolution from 30µm to 550µm voxel size and BVF calculated at high and lowresolution. Experimental mechanical testing was applied to measure ex vivo bone strength ofsamples. BVF measures collected at high-resolution showed high correlation (correlationcoefficient r2=0.95) with low-resolution data. Low-resolution BVF metrics showed high correlation(r2=0.96) with calculated sample strength. These results demonstrate that measuring BVF at lowresolution is feasible, which also predicts bone strength. Measures of BVF should be useful for clinically estimating bone strength and fracture risk. The method needs to be validated using clinical CT scans.

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