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  • Journal article
    Ramasamy A, Newell N, Masouros S, 2014,

    From the battlefield to the laboratory: the use of clinical data analysis in developing models of lower limb blast injury

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, Vol: 160, Pages: 117-120, ISSN: 0035-8665
  • Journal article
    Singleton JAG, Walker NM, Gibb IE, Bull AMJ, Clasper JCet al., 2014,

    Case suitability for definitive through knee amputation following lower extremity blast trauma: analysis of 146 combat casualties, 2008-2010

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, Vol: 160, Pages: 187-190, ISSN: 0035-8665
  • Conference paper
    Villette CC, Phillips ATM, Modenese L, 2014,

    Combined musculoskeletal and finite element predictive modelling of bone structure and simple fracture analysis

    , 12th international symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
  • Journal article
    Arora H, Kelly M, Worley A, Del Linz P, Fergusson A, Hooper PA, Dear JPet al., 2014,

    Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials

    , Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 372, Pages: 1-27, ISSN: 1364-503X

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast.

  • Conference paper
    Villette CC, Phillips ATM, 2014,

    Towards a patient-specific combined musculoskeletal and finite element model of bone structure

    , 2nd UK Patient Specific Modelling Meeting - IPEM conferences
  • Journal article
    Russell R, Clasper J, Jenner B, Hodgetts TJ, Mahoney PFet al., 2014,

    ABC of Major Trauma, 4th Edition Ballistic Injury

    , BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 348, ISSN: 1756-1833
  • Conference paper
    Nguyen TT, Davey T, Proud W, 2014,

    Percolation of Gas and Attenuation of Shock Waves through Granular Beds and Perforated Sheets

    , New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials
  • Journal article
    Breeze J, Granger CJ, Pearkes TD, Clasper JCet al., 2014,

    Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, Vol: 160, Pages: 32-37, ISSN: 0035-8665
  • Conference paper
    Villette CC, Phillips ATM, 2014,

    Combined finite element and musculoskeletal predictive structural modelling of the femur: Potential mechanobiology applications

    , 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics
  • Conference paper
    Villette CC, Phillips ATM, 2014,

    Combined predictive structural finite element and musculoskeletal modeling of bone structure for study of fracture under solid blast condition

    , IStructE Young Researchers' Conference
  • Conference paper
    Nguyen T-TN, Wilgeroth JM, Proud WG, 2014,

    Controlling blast wave generation in a shock tube for biological applications

    , 18th Joint Int Conf of the APS Topical-Grp on Shock Compress of Condensed Matter / 24th Int Conf of the Int-Assoc-for-the-Advancement-of-High-Pressure-Sci-and-Technol, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588
  • Conference paper
    Butler BJ, Bo C, Tucker AW, Jardine AP, Proud WG, Williams A, Brown KAet al., 2014,

    Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    , 18th Joint Int Conf of the APS Topical-Grp on Shock Compress of Condensed Matter / 24th Int Conf of the Int-Assoc-for-the-Advancement-of-High-Pressure-Sci-and-Technol, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588
  • Conference paper
    Wilgeroth JM, Nguyen T-TN, Proud WG, 2014,

    Interaction between blast wave and reticulated foam: assessing the potential for auditory protection systems

    , 18th Joint Int Conf of the APS Topical-Grp on Shock Compress of Condensed Matter / 24th Int Conf of the Int-Assoc-for-the-Advancement-of-High-Pressure-Sci-and-Technol, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588
  • Conference paper
    Khan AS, Balzer JE, Wilgeroth JM, Proud WGet al., 2014,

    Aspect ratio compression effects on metals and polymers

    , 18th Joint Int Conf of the APS Topical-Grp on Shock Compress of Condensed Matter / 24th Int Conf of the Int-Assoc-for-the-Advancement-of-High-Pressure-Sci-and-Technol, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588
  • Conference paper
    Grigoriadis G, Newell N, Masouros SD, Bull AMJet al., 2014,

    The material properties of the human heel fat pad across strain-rates: An inverse finite element approach

    , Pages: 478-479
  • Conference paper
    Proud WG, 2014,

    Gas percolation through sand

    , 18th Joint Int Conf of the APS Topical-Grp on Shock Compress of Condensed Matter / 24th Int Conf of the Int-Assoc-for-the-Advancement-of-High-Pressure-Sci-and-Technol, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588
  • Conference paper
    Reichenbach T, 2014,

    Otoacoustic emission through waves on Reissner's membrane and bone deformation

    , ISSN: 2221-3767

    The inner ear acts not only as a detector of sound, but can produce sound itself. These otoacoustic emissions are generated by an active process in the inner ear. The active process leads to a nonlinearity that produces distortion that is emitted as sound from the ear. How such a distortion propagates from its generation site within the inner ear back to the middle ear remains, however, unclear. Here we describe two novel modes of wave propagation in the cochlea, namely a wave on the elastic Reissner's membrane as well as a wave of deformation of the cochlear bone. Each mode can explain a distinct component of otoacoustic emissions. The cochlear-bone deformation can also underlie bone conduction, the phenomenon by which we can hear a vibration of the skull as sound.

  • Conference paper
    Bo C, Williams A, Rankin S, Proud WG, Brown KAet al., 2014,

    Integrated experimental platforms to study blast injuries: a bottom-up approach

    , 18th Joint Int Conf of the APS Topical-Grp on Shock Compress of Condensed Matter / 24th Int Conf of the Int-Assoc-for-the-Advancement-of-High-Pressure-Sci-and-Technol, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588
  • Conference paper
    Villette C, Modenese L, Phillips ATM, 2014,

    Combined finite element and musculoskeletal predictive structural modelling of the femur: Potential mechanobiology applications

  • Journal article
    Harris K, Armstrong SP, Campos-Pires R, Kiru L, Franks NP, Dickinson Ret al., 2013,

    Neuroprotection against traumatic brain injury by xenon but not argon, is mediated by inhibition at the NMDA receptor glycine site

    , Anesthesiology, Vol: 119, Pages: 1137-1148, ISSN: 1528-1175

    Background. The inert anesthetic gas xenon is neuroprotective in models of brain injury. Weinvestigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of the inert gases xenon, argon, krypton, neon andhelium in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury.Methods. We use an in vitro model using mouse organotypic hippocampal brain-slices, subjectedto a focal mechanical trauma, with injury quantified by propidium-iodide fluorescence. Patch-clampelectrophysiology is used to investigate the effect of the inert gases on N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)-receptors and TREK-1 channels, two molecular targets likely to play a role inneuroprotection.Results. Xenon(50%) and, to a lesser extent, argon(50%) are neuroprotective against traumaticinjury when applied following injury [xenon 43±1% protection 72hours after injury (N=104); argon30±6% protection (N=44); mean±SEM]. Helium, neon and krypton are devoid of neuroprotectiveeffect. Xenon(50%) prevents development of secondary injury up to 48 hours after trauma.Argon(50%) attenuates secondary injury, but is less effective than xenon [xenon 50±5% reductionin secondary injury 72hours after injury (N=104); argon 34±8% reduction (N=44); mean±SEM].Glycine reverses the neuroprotective effect of xenon, but not argon, consistent with competitiveinhibition at the NMDA receptor glycine-site mediating xenon neuroprotection against traumaticbrain injury. Xenon inhibits NMDA receptors and activates TREK-1 channels, while argon,krypton, neon and helium have no effect on these ion-channels.Conclusions. Xenon neuroprotection against traumatic brain injury can be reversed by elevatingthe glycine concentration, consistent with inhibition at the NMDA-receptor glycine site playing asignificant role in xenon neuroprotection. Argon and xenon do not act via the same mechanism.

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