Critical care wardCritical care involves the care of the sickest patients in the hospital. Critically ill patients have usually been through a significant insult to their body (such as trauma, infection, burn) and have developed organ failure and require life-support. Critical Care is the largest theme bringing together clinicians and scientists from diverse backgrounds and includes collaborative research from hospitals throughout north-west London. Investigations range from evaluating biological mechanisms of organ failure through to the development of innovative technologies which allow the short-term and long-term support and recovery of organs. 

Many people are exposed to the environment of an Intensive care unit (ICU) either personally or through a family member. It is often a life-changing event and our work aims to reduce this impact facilitating post-ICU recovery.

Research themes:


BibTex format

author = {Farmakis, D and Alvarez, J and Gal, TB and Brito, D and Fedele, F and Fonseca, C and Gordon, AC and Gotsman, I and Grossini, E and Guarracino, F and Harjola, V-P and Hellman, Y and Heunks, L and Ivancan, V and Karavidas, A and Kivikko, M and Lomivorotov, V and Longrois, D and Masip, J and Metra, M and Morelli, A and Nikolaou, M and Papp, Z and Parkhomenko, A and Poelzl, G and Pollesello, P and Ravn, HB and Rex, S and Riha, H and Ricksten, S-E and Schwinger, RHG and Vrtovec, B and Yilmaz, MB and Zielinska, M and Parissis, J},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.202},
journal = {International Journal of Cardiology},
pages = {303--312},
title = {Levosimendan beyond inotropy and acute heart failure: Evidence of pleiotropic effects on the heart and other organs: An expert panel position paper},
url = {},
volume = {222},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Levosimendan is a positive inotrope with vasodilating properties (inodilator) indicated for decompensated heart failure (HF) patients with low cardiac output. Accumulated evidence supports several pleiotropic effects of levosimendan beyond inotropy, the heart and decompensated HF. Those effects are not readily explained by cardiac function enhancement and seem to be related to additional properties of the drug such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic ones. Mechanistic and proof-of-concept studies are still required to clarify the underlying mechanisms involved, while properly designed clinical trials are warranted to translate preclinical or early-phase clinical data into more robust clinical evidence. The present position paper, derived by a panel of 35 experts in the field of cardiology, cardiac anesthesiology, intensive care medicine, cardiac physiology, and cardiovascular pharmacology from 22 European countries, compiles the existing evidence on the pleiotropic effects of levosimendan, identifies potential novel areas of clinical application and defines the corresponding gaps in evidence and the required research efforts to address those gaps.
AU - Farmakis,D
AU - Alvarez,J
AU - Gal,TB
AU - Brito,D
AU - Fedele,F
AU - Fonseca,C
AU - Gordon,AC
AU - Gotsman,I
AU - Grossini,E
AU - Guarracino,F
AU - Harjola,V-P
AU - Hellman,Y
AU - Heunks,L
AU - Ivancan,V
AU - Karavidas,A
AU - Kivikko,M
AU - Lomivorotov,V
AU - Longrois,D
AU - Masip,J
AU - Metra,M
AU - Morelli,A
AU - Nikolaou,M
AU - Papp,Z
AU - Parkhomenko,A
AU - Poelzl,G
AU - Pollesello,P
AU - Ravn,HB
AU - Rex,S
AU - Riha,H
AU - Ricksten,S-E
AU - Schwinger,RHG
AU - Vrtovec,B
AU - Yilmaz,MB
AU - Zielinska,M
AU - Parissis,J
DO - 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.202
EP - 312
PY - 2016///
SN - 1874-1754
SP - 303
TI - Levosimendan beyond inotropy and acute heart failure: Evidence of pleiotropic effects on the heart and other organs: An expert panel position paper
T2 - International Journal of Cardiology
UR -
UR -
VL - 222
ER -