BibTex format

author = {Lalitharatne, SWH and Tan, Y and Leong, F and He, L and Van, Zalk N and De, Lusignan S and Iida, F and Nanayakkara, T},
doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3041173},
journal = {IEEE Access},
pages = {215874--215891},
title = {Facial Expression Rendering in Medical Training Simulators: Current Status and Future Directions},
url = {},
volume = {8},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Recent technological advances in robotic sensing and actuation methods have prompteddevelopment of a range of new medical training simulators with multiple feedback modalities. Learning tointerpret facial expressions of a patient during medical examinations or procedures has been one of the keyfocus areas in medical training. This article reviews facial expression rendering systems in medical trainingsimulators that have been reported to date. Facial expression rendering approaches in other domains are alsosummarized to incorporate the knowledge from those works into developing systems for medical trainingsimulators. Classifications and comparisons of medical training simulators with facial expression renderingare presented, and important design features, merits and limitations are outlined. Medical educators,students and developers are identified as the three key stakeholders involved with these systems and theirconsiderations and needs are presented. Physical-virtual (hybrid) approaches provide multimodal feedback,present accurate facial expression rendering, and can simulate patients of different age, gender and ethnicitygroup; makes it more versatile than virtual and physical systems. The overall findings of this review andproposed future directions are beneficial to researchers interested in initiating or developing such facialexpression rendering systems in medical training simulators.
AU - Lalitharatne,SWH
AU - Tan,Y
AU - Leong,F
AU - He,L
AU - Van,Zalk N
AU - De,Lusignan S
AU - Iida,F
AU - Nanayakkara,T
DO - 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3041173
EP - 215891
PY - 2020///
SN - 2169-3536
SP - 215874
TI - Facial Expression Rendering in Medical Training Simulators: Current Status and Future Directions
T2 - IEEE Access
UR -
UR -
VL - 8
ER -