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  • Journal article
    Guadagnini A, Blunt MJ, Riva M, Bijeljic Bet al., 2014,

    Statistical Scaling of Geometric Characteristics in Millimeter Scale Natural Porous Media

    , TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA, Vol: 101, Pages: 465-475, ISSN: 0169-3913
  • Journal article
    Alkhatib A, King P, 2014,

    Robust quantification of parametric uncertainty for surfactant-polymer flooding

    , COMPUTATIONAL GEOSCIENCES, Vol: 18, Pages: 77-101, ISSN: 1420-0597
  • Journal article
    Muggeridge A, Cockin A, Webb K, Frampton H, Collins I, Moulds T, Salino Pet al., 2014,

    Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits

    , Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 372, ISSN: 1364-503X
  • Journal article
    Carriero A, Zimmermann EA, Paluszny A, Tang SY, Bale H, Busse B, Alliston T, Kazakia G, Ritchie RO, Shefelbine SJet al., 2014,

    How Tough Is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone

    , Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol: 29, Pages: 1392-1401, ISSN: 1523-4681

    The multiscale hierarchical structure of bone is naturally optimized to resist fractures. In osteogenesis imperfecta, or brittle bone disease, genetic mutations affect the quality and/or quantity of collagen, dramatically increasing bone fracture risk. Here we reveal how the collagen defect results in bone fragility in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (oim), which has homotrimeric α1(I) collagen. At the molecular level, we attribute the loss in toughness to a decrease in the stabilizing enzymatic cross-links and an increase in nonenzymatic cross-links, which may break prematurely, inhibiting plasticity. At the tissue level, high vascular canal density reduces the stable crack growth, and extensive woven bone limits the crack-deflection toughening during crack growth. This demonstrates how modifications at the bone molecular level have ramifications at larger length scales affecting the overall mechanical integrity of the bone; thus, treatment strategies have to address multiscale properties in order to regain bone toughness. In this regard, findings from the heterozygous oim bone, where defective as well as normal collagen are present, suggest that increasing the quantity of healthy collagen in these bones helps to recover toughness at the multiple length scales.

  • Conference paper
    Petvipusit R, El Sheikh AM, King PR, Blunt MJet al., 2014,

    Robust optimisation using spectral high dimensional model representation - An application to CO2 sequestration strategy

    Successful CO2 sequestration relies on operation strategies that maximise performance criteria in the presence of uncertainties. Designing optimal injection strategies under geological uncertainty requires multiple simulation runs at different geological models, rendering it computationally expensive. A surrogate model has been successfully used in several studies to reduce the computational burden by approximating the input-output relationships of the simulator with a limited number of simulation runs. However, building the surrogate is a challenging problem since the cost of building the surrogate increases exponentially with dimension. In the current work, we propose the use of Adaptive Sparse Grid Interpolation coupled with High Dimensional Model Representation (ASGI-HDMR) to build a surrogate of high-dimensional problems. This surrogate is then used to assist with finding robust CO2 injection strategies. High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) is an ANOVA like technique, which is based on the fact that high-order interactions amongst the input variables may not necessarily have an impact on the output variable; the combination of low-order correlations of the input variables can represent the model in high-dimensional problem. Adaptive Sparse Grid Interpolation (ASGI) is a novel surrogate technique that allows automatic refinement in the dimension where added resolution is needed (dimensional adaptivity). The proposed technique is evaluated on several benchmark functions and on the PUNQ-S3 reservoir model that is based on a real field. For the PUNQ-S3 model, robust CO2 injection strategies were estimated efficiently using the combined ASGI-HDMR technique. Based on our numerical results, ASGIHDMR is a promising approach since it requires significantly fewer forward runs in building an accurate surrogate model for high-dimensional problems in comparison to ASGI without coupling with HDMR. Hence, the ASGI-HDMR enables efficient construction of the surrogates

  • Conference paper
    Wen H, King PR, Muggeridge AH, Vittoratos ESet al., 2014,

    Using percolation theory to estimate recovery from poorly connected sands using pressure depletion

    In conventional waterflooding of low to intermediate net to gross reservoirs there is always some oil unswept even in the sands connected to both injection and production wells. This is oil trapped in "dangling ends": flow units only poorly connected to the main flow path. In many cases the unswept volumes can be very large, depending on the properties of the reservoir and fluids and the well locations. In this paper we show how percolation theory can be used to estimate the volumes of oil recovered and those left behind in these dangling ends following a conventional waterflood, without recourse to large scale simulation. Percolation theory is a general mathematical framework for connectivity and has been used previously to investigate the connectivity of flow units. The structure of these connected clusters in terms of backbones and dangling ends has not been previously studied. The results are also used to estimate the recovery of the unswept oil from dangling ends by a waterflood with a voidage replacement ratio <1. We use a simple model of stochastically-distributed sandbodies to describe the reservoir. Many realizations for a range of net to gross ratio values and sandbody: system sizes were generated. In each realization the clusters connecting the injection and production wells were identified. These spanning clusters were subdivided into backbones and dangling ends. The volume fractions of the backbone and dangling end were then obtained. The statistical average and standard deviation of the volumes association with these clusters were obtained from the ensemble of realisations. These were used to determine the percolation scaling relationships in terms of simple algebraic formulae that cover the whole range of net to gross ratio and system sizes. Our results show that the fraction of dangling ends can reach 20% of the clusters, and 80% among the spanning clusters, indicating a major proportion of the oil would be unswept by conventional waterf

  • Conference paper
    Al-Shamma B, Gosselin O, King P, 2014,

    Parameterization using sensitivity methods for global history matching techniques

    , Pages: 887-891

    For any history-matching method, an efficient optimisation method is required, but more importantly an effective selection of parameters. The parameterisation assists in reducing a large number of possible parameters, in the absence of available data measurements, lowering also the number of altered parameters. This paper describes the implementation of flexible integrated parameterization and optimization methods, tested on the PUNQS3 synthetic model, an iterative series of parameterisation, as a pragmatic strategy, and a comparison between various parameterization methods: layer-based, gradient-based, median-based, and distribution-based. The chosen parameters are regions or zones where permeabilities and porosity are adjusted using a common multipliers. The selected parameters are then utilized as search parameters to minimize an objective function, which quantifies the mismatch between the observed and simulated production data, using a so-called global minimisation algorithm. Successive parameterizations can be used, as part of an iterative process, where the history match is improved by further parameterisation, based on the previous "best match". The optimisation techniques cannot perform well without a suitable and effective parameterisation method. This study shows a pragmatic combination of a global technique and various parameterisation methods. It emphasizes, that a low objective function can be far from the true models, and not predictive.

  • Conference paper
    Alkhatib A, King P, 2014,

    Enhanced decision making for chemical EOR processes under uncertainty - Applying the LSPC method

    The Least Squares Monte Carlo method is a decision evaluation method that can capture the value of flexibility of a process. This method was shown to provide us with some insight into the effect of uncertainty on decision making and to help us capture the upside potential or mitigate the downside effects for a chemical EOR process. The method is a stochastic approximate dynamic programming approach to decision making. It is based on a forward simulation coupled with a recursive algorithm which produces the near-optimal policy. It relies on Monte Carlo simulation to produce convergent results. This incurs a significant computational requirement when using this method to evaluate decisions for reservoir engineering problems because this requires running many reservoir simulations. The objective of this study was to enhance the performance of the Least Squares Monte Carlo method by improving the sampling method used to generate the technical uncertainties used in producing the production profiles. The probabilistic collocation method has been proven to be a robust and efficient uncertainty quantification method. It approximates the random input distributions using polynomial chaos expansions and produces a proxy polynomial for the output parameter requiring a limited number of model responses that is conditional on the number of random inputs and the order of the approximation desired. The resulting proxy can then be used to generate the different statistical moments with negligible computational requirement. By using the sampling methods of the probabilistic collocation method to approximate the sampling of the technical uncertainties, it is possible to significantly reduce the computational requirement of running the decision evaluation method. Thus we introduce the least square probabilistic collocation method. Both methods are then applied to chemical EOR problems using a number of stylized reservoir models. The technical uncertainties considered include the residu

  • Conference paper
    Nunes JPP, Raeini AQ, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJet al., 2014,

    Simulation of carbonate dissolution at the porescale using a streamline method

    , Pages: 2549-2553

    Carbon dioxide is currently being injected into saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas reservoirs with both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) purposes. The injected CO2 in contact with the reservoir fluids creates an acidic mixture that can potentially react with the host rock causing changes in the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. From the experimental point of view much work has been recently published in the scientific literature about the impact of acidic brine in carbonate reservoirs. These laboratory results indicate that strong rock-fluid interactions may occur, however, pore-scale models capable of predicting how the petrophysical changes associated with these reactions can be related to transport properties are yet to be developed. The recent increase in computational power and tomographic capability made possible the acquisition of high resolution images of heterogeneous carbonates that are very suitable to study in detail the flow and transport properties of such rocks. In this paper we demonstrate how micro-CT images of carbonate rocks can be used to model reactive transport at the pore scale. We apply a particle tracking algorithm based on a pore-scale streamline tracing method to simulate carbonate dissolution.

  • Conference paper
    Andrew MG, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ, 2014,

    Reservoir-condition pore-scale imaging -contact angle, wettability, dynamics and trapping

    , Pages: 2804-2808

    Firstly capillary trapping is examined in a range of five different rock types, including both carbonates and sandstones. Rocks are imaged both after drainage and imbibition, and in all cases between 65-70% of the CO2 in place after drainage was trapped. Trapped cluster size distributions are compared to rock connectivity as determined using pore network modelling. Better connected pore-spaces tend to have more large clusters relative to small clusters, and visa-versa. This is important as small clusters are more difficult to remobilise by viscous and gravitational forces. They also present a relatively larger surface area for reaction and mineralization. Secondarily wettability is analysed by measuring contact angle manually. In order to do this the contact line was found in 3D and the data set resampled onto planes perpendicular to the contact line at a particular point. Contact angles ranging from 35-55o were found, indicating that the super-critical CO2-brine-carbonate system is weakly water wet. The range in contact angles is interpreted as the result of contact angle hysteresis associated with surface heterogeneity. Finally the first images of CO2 drainage at reservoir conditions are also presented, imaged at Diamond Light Source, represented an unprecented depth of information about pore-scale flow processes.

  • Conference paper
    Menke HP, Bijeljic B, Andrew MG, Blunt Met al., 2014,

    Dynamic pore-scale imaging of reactive transport in heterogeneous carbonates at reservior conditions

    , Pages: 2554-2558

    Four carbonate rock types were studied, two relatively homogeneous carbonates, Ketton and Mt. Gambier, and two very heterogeneous carbonates, Estalliades and Portland Basebed. Each rock type was imaged using dynamic x-ray microtomography under the same reservoir and flow conditions to gain insight into the impact of heterogeneity. A 4-mm carbonate core was injected with CO2-saturated brine at 10 MPa and 50oC for 2 hours. Depending on sample heterogeneity and X-ray source, tomographic images were taken at between 30-second and 20-minute time-resolutions and a 4-micron spatial resolution during injection. Changes in porosity, permeability, and structure were obtained and a pore-throat network was extracted. Furthermore, pore-scale flow modelling was performed directly on the binarized image and used to track velocity distributions as the pore network evolved.

  • Journal article
    Raeini AQ, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ, 2014,

    Numerical Modelling of Sub-pore Scale Events in Two-Phase Flow Through Porous Media

    , TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA, Vol: 101, Pages: 191-213, ISSN: 0169-3913
  • Conference paper
    Bardy G, Biver P, Caumon G, Renard P, Corpel V, King PRet al., 2014,

    Proxy comparison for sorting models and assessing uncertainty on oil recovery profiles

    To study the impact of subsurface uncertainties on oil recovery, it is common to build a large set of models which cover these uncertainties. Despite increase of computational capabilities, as models become more complex, it is not possible to perform full physic flow simulation for all the generated models. This is why stochastic reservoir model sets are often decimated to assess the impact of static uncertainties on dynamic reservoir performance. This contribution will focus on the use of proxy to perform this data set reduction. A lot of different proxies have been developed, from the simplest to the more complicated so it is difficult to choose the good one according to a particular goal. We present different criteria to compare the proxy quality and their helps to assess uncertainties on oil recovery. A first criterion will be based on the relation which may exists between the model distances computed on the proxy responses and those compute on flow responses. Another criterion is the speed factor and simplification provide by the proxy compared to the full physic simulator. These two criteria are very simple and can be applied in an early time to avoid deploying time consuming proxies which won't provide accurate information. The last criterion presented here, is the confidence intervals which can be computed around probabilistic reservoir production forecasts computed on a small representative subset of model. Even if this criterion can be used only when the entire dataset has been simulated, it provides some quantification about a possible bias created by a proxy and the remaining uncertainties on oil recovery. We present here a comparison study between widely different proxy responses applied on a real dataset of that methodology. This will give us some keys to choose a proxy which is a good compromise between accuracy and easy to handle methodology.

  • Conference paper
    Paluszny A, Zimmerman RW, Potjewyd, Jarvis Bet al., 2014,

    Finite Element-Based Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation due to the Plunge of a Spherical Indenter

    , Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

    AbstractNumerical simulations have been conducted to model the deformation, damage, and fracture growth caused by the plunge of a spherical drill bit insert into a brittle rock. The deformation of the rock, which is initially homogeneous and isotropic, is modeled using the finite element method. Fracture geometry evolves as a function of fracture growth, and the rock domain is continuously re-meshed to capture this geometric change. Contact forces are applied radially over the contact area as a function of the depth of the plunge. A series of simulations is presented, having varying initial flaw distributions, and which capture the fracture pattern formation during the progressive indentation of the insert into the rock. The ensuing patterns depict the formation of horizontal and Hertzian fractures. A large fracture density is created around the contact area. The complexity of the internal fracture structure is less apparent at the surface of the deformed rock, as compared to the internal fracture pattern. Fracturing leads to the formation of surface chips in the form of tilted elliptical domains parallel to the rock surface. Early stages of chipping are not always apparent from the fracture pattern at the surface of the rock. Results are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  • Journal article
    Tang X, Paluszny A, Zimmerman RW, 2014,

    An impulse-based energy tracking method for collision resolution

    , Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol: 278, Pages: 160-185, ISSN: 0045-7825

    Abstract Discrete element methods can be based on either penalties or impulses to resolve collisions. A generic impulse based method, the energy tracking method (ETM), is described to resolve collisions between multiple non-convex bodies in three dimensions. As opposed to the standard sequential impulse method (SQM) and simultaneous impulse method (SMM), which also apply impulses to avoid penetration, the energy tracking method changes the relative velocity between two colliding bodies iteratively yet simultaneously. Its main novelty is that impulses are applied gradually at multi-point contacts, and energy changes at the contact points are tracked to ensure conservation. Three main steps are involved in the propagation of the impulses during the single- and multi-contact resolution: compression, restitution-related energy loss, and separation. Numerical tests show that the energy tracking method captures the energy conservation property of perfectly elastic single- and multi-point collisions. ETM exhibits improved angular velocity estimation, as compared to SMM and SQM, as demonstrated by two numerical examples that model multi-point contact between box-shaped objects. Angles of repose estimated for multi-object pack repositioning of spheres, cubes, and crosses are in good agreement with the reported experimental values.

  • Journal article
    Mijic A, LaForce TC, Muggeridge AH, 2014,

    CO2 injectivity in saline aquifers: the impact of non-Darcy flow, phase miscibility and gas compressibility

    , Water Resources Research
  • Conference paper
    Anastasaki E, Xiang J, Latham JP, 2014,


    , Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters 2013: From Sea to Shore - Meeting the Challenges of the Sea
  • Conference paper
    Vire A, Xiang J, Piggott MD, Cotter CJ, Latham JP, Pain CCet al., 2014,

    Towards the Numerical Modelling of Floating Offshore Renewables.

    , Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control, Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Pages: 413-417
  • Journal article
    Go J, Bortone I, Smalley PC, Muggeridge Aet al., 2014,

    Predicting Vertical Flow Barriers Using Tracer Diffusion in Partially Saturated, Layered Porous Media

    , Transport in Porous Media
  • Conference paper
    Lei Q, Latham JP, Xiang J, Lang Pet al., 2014,

    Representation of large scale network geometry with realistic apertures determined by mesoscale geomechanical modelling of a natural fracture system

    , 48th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium
  • Conference paper
    Lei Q, Latham JP, Xiang J, Lang Pet al., 2014,

    Coupled FEMDEM-DFN model for characterising thestress-dependent permeability of an anisotropic fracture system

    , 1st International Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering
  • Journal article
    Lang PS, Paluszny A, Zimmerman RW, 2014,

    Permeability tensor of three-dimensional fractured porous rock and a comparison to trace map predictions

    , Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Pages: n/a-n/a, ISSN: 2169-9356
  • Conference paper
    Gharbi O, Bijelic B, Boek ES, Blunt MJet al., 2013,

    Changes in Pore Structure and Connectivity Induced by CO2 Injection in Carbonates: A Combined Pore-Scale Approach

    , International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies (GHGT) 11, Energy Procedia, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 5367-5378

    We investigate at the pore scale fluid-rock interactions that occur in the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in saline carbonate aquifers. Brine saturated with super critical CO2 is injected into two carbonate samples (Estaillades limestone and an aquifer sample) at typical storage conditions (9 MPa and 50oC). Dry high resolution micro-computed tomography scans are obtained prior to and after the experiments and the pore structure, connectivity and computed flow fields are compared using image analysis and pore-scale modeling techniques. We perform direct simulations of transport properties and velocity fields on the 3D scans and we extract representative pore-throat networks to compute average coordination number and assess changes in pore and throat size distributions. In this study, we experimentally mimic near wellbore region conditions by injecting fluids at relatively high flow rates. For high Péclet and Damköhler numbers, experimental observations confirm the formation of highly conductive channels i.e wormholes. A significant increase in porosity and permeability is found with fewer pore and throats after dissolution while the average coordination number does not change significantly. Flow becomes concentrated in the wormhole regions after reactions although a very wide range of velocities is still observed.

  • Journal article
    Sadeghnejad S, Masihi M, King PR, 2013,

    Dependency of percolation critical exponents on the exponent of power law size distribution

  • Journal article
    Ciotta F, Trusler JPM, Vesovic V, 2013,

    Extended hard-sphere model for the viscosity of dense fluids

    , Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol: 363, Pages: 239-247, ISSN: 0378-3812

    An extended hard-sphere model is reported that may be applied to correlate and predict the viscosity of gases, liquids and supercritical fluids. The method is based on the hard-sphere model of Dymond and Assael and uses their roughness factors and molar core volumes to relate reduced viscosity to a universal function of reduced volume. The extended model behaves correctly in the limit of low densities and offers improved accuracy at high densities. The new universal reference function was determined from a large database of experimental viscosities for alkanes extending up to reduced densities of 0.84. It has been tested by correlating the viscosity of two high-viscosity liquids not used in the development of the universal function and has shown to perform satisfactorily up to reduced densities of approximately 0.9.

  • Conference paper
    Andrew M, Bijeljic B, Blunt MJ, 2013,

    Reservoir-condition pore-scale imaging of supercritical carbon dioxide

    , Pages: 4977-4985

    We present the results from a novel experimental apparatus that can image - at the micron scale - fluid displacements at elevated temperatures and pressures. The images are acquired using a micro-CT scanner (Xradia Versa 500) that has been adapted to allow core flood experiments to be conducted in situ, allowing continuous imaging at resolutions down to around 1 μm. A small cylindrical core - approximately 6 mm in diameter - is placed in a carbon fibre core holder that allows high pressures and temperatures to be imposed, while remaining largely transparent to x-rays. Fluids are injected into this mini-core holder, with flexible tubing to allow the core to rotate during scanning. We use this apparatus to study the displacement of supercritical carbon dioxide by brine, with application to carbon storage in aquifers. We study displacement in carbonate and sandstone rocks. Experiments in carbonates introduce additional challenges, since the carbon dioxide, brine and rock need to pre-equilibrated to prevent dissolution of carbon dioxide and chemical reaction (dissolution) with the rock during the experiments: this then reproduces conditions in the centre of a carbon dioxide plume where local thermodynamic equilibrium has been reached. We study displacement in Ketton limestone and Bentheimer sandstone. Both rocks have large inter-granular pores. In Ketton there is also significant intra-granular micro-porosity that remains brine-saturated during the experiments. We study primary drainage (injection of carbon dioxide) followed by secondary imbibition (injection of brine). We image the distribution of the phases during and at the end of the experiment. We show that significant quantities of carbon dioxide can be trapped as a residual phase in the pore space of both rock types, with a saturation matching that measured in core-scale (cm scale) experiments (0.202±0.012 in Ketton and 0.320±0.009 in Bentheimer). Trapped ganglia of all sizes are observed, with a

  • Journal article
    Petvipusit R, Elsheikh AH, Laforce T, King PR, Blunt MJet al., 2013,

    A robust multi-criterion optimization of CO2 sequestration under model uncertainty

    , Sustainable Earth Sciences, SES 2013: Technologies for Sustainable Use of the Deep Sub-Surface

    Successful CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers relies on economic efficiency, sufficient capacity and longterm security of the storage formation. Unfortunately, these three criteria of CO2 storage are generally in conflict, and often difficult to guarantee when there is a lack of geological characteristics of the storage site. We overcome these challenges by developing: 1) multiwell CO2 injection strategies using a multi-criterion optimization to handle conflicting objectives; 2) CO2 injection management that is robust against model uncertainty. PUNQ-S3 model was modified as a leaky storage to study injection strategies associated with the risks of CO2 leakage under geological uncertainty. Based on our numerical results, the NSGA-II with the ASGI technique can effectively obtain a set of efficient-frontier injection strategies. For the uncertainty assessment, the impact of the model uncertainty to the outcomes is significant. Therefore, our findings suggest using the mixture distribution of the objective-function values, as opposed to the traditional Gaussian distribution to cover model uncertainty.

  • Journal article
    AlSofi AM, Blunt MJ, 2013,

    Control of Numerical Dispersion in Streamline-Based Simulations of Augmented Waterflooding

    , SPE JOURNAL, Vol: 18, Pages: 1102-1111, ISSN: 1086-055X
  • Journal article
    Ghosh B, King P, 2013,

    Optimisation of smart well completion design in the presence of uncertainty

    , Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, RCSC 2013: New Approaches in Characterisation andModelling of Complex Reservoirs, Vol: 2, Pages: 724-740

    Intelligent/smart completions are widely used to maximize the value of production wells through higher ultimate hydrocarbon recoveries, to promote better clean-up of unconventional wells during 'flow-back' and to improve sweep efficiency in case of injector wells. To maximize the economic value of these applications, especially in the presence of uncertainties (geological, reservoir and long term tool reliability) and minimize the economic risk it's vital to optimise the placement and operational settings of the Interval Control Devices (ICDs)/AICDs (Autonomous Inflow Control Devices)/Interval Control Valves (ICVs). The requirement for optimisation could also arise from the limitation imposed by present technology on the maximum number of valves deployable in a single completion string. In this paper an optimisation routine for determining the optimal placement of Interval Control Valves (ICVs), and their inflow settings is presented. The overall optimisation scheme uses the simulated annealing algorithm in conjunction with a commercial reservoir simulator to maximize an objective function that captures the mean and variance in the well's estimated value. Multiple geostatistical realizations are used to incorporate the element of geological/reservoir uncertainty in the optimisation process. The workflow also accounts for the risk of flow control valve failure. A brief description of the screening methodology (to choose the appropriate inflow control technology) and a decision analysis framework for deploying intelligent completion technology, based on utility theory, is also presented herein. The optimisation technique was applied to cooptimise the positions and flow cross-section areas of the ICVs in a horizontal well, completed in an oil reservoir using a composite objective function. Geologic/reservoir and valve-life uncertainties were incorporated in the routine. The improvement in the well's Net Present Value (which is between 55-70% for the cases investigated)

  • Journal article
    Leal AMM, Blunt MJ, LaForce TC, 2013,

    A robust and efficient numerical method for multiphase equilibrium calculations: Application to CO2-brine-rock systems at high temperatures, pressures and salinities

    , ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, Vol: 62, Pages: 409-430, ISSN: 0309-1708

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