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  • Conference paper
    Vrielink TJCO, Chao M, Darzi A, Mylonas GPet al., 2018,

    ESD CYCLOPS: A new robotic surgical system for GI surgery

    , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE Computer Soc., Pages: 150-157, ISSN: 1050-4729

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers account for 1.5 million deaths worldwide. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) is an advanced therapeutic endoscopy technique with superior clinical outcome due to the minimally invasive and en bloc removal of tumours. In the western world, ESD is seldom carried out, due to its complex and challenging nature. Various surgical systems are being developed to make this therapy accessible, however, these solutions have shown limited operational workspace, dexterity, or low force exertion capabilities. The current paper shows the ESD CYCLOPS system, a bimanual surgical robotic attachment that can be mounted at the end of any flexible endoscope. The system is able to achieve forces of up to 46N, and showed a mean error of 0.217mm during an elliptical tracing task. The workspace and instrument dexterity is shown by pre-clinical ex vivo trials, in which ESD is successfully performed by a GI surgeon. The system is currently undergoing pre-clinical in vivo validation.

  • Journal article
    Thomson HH, Srivanichakorn W, Oliver N, Godsland I, Darzi A, Majeed A, Johnston Det al., 2018,

    Protocol for a clinical trial of text messaging in addition to standard care versus standard care alone in prevention of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification in India and the UK

    , BMC Endocrine Disorders, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1472-6823

    BackgroundType 2 diabetes is a serious clinical problem in both India and the UK. Adoption of a healthy lifestyle through dietary and physical activity modification can help prevent type 2 diabetes. However, implementing lifestyle modification programmes to high risk groups is expensive and alternative cheaper methods are needed. We are using a short messaging service (SMS) programme in our study as a tool to provide healthy lifestyle advice and an aid to motivation. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy and user acceptability of text messaging employed in this way for people with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 6.0% to ≤6.4%; 42–47 mmol/mol) in the UK and India.Methods/designThis is a randomised, controlled trial with participants followed up for 2 years. After being screened and receiving a structured education programme for prediabetes, participants are randomised to a control or intervention group. In the intervention group, text messages are delivered 2–3 times weekly and contain educational, motivational and supportive content on diet, physical activity, lifestyle and smoking. The control group undergoes monitoring only. In India, the trial involves 5 visits after screening (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months). In the UK there are 4 visits after screening (0, 6, 12 and 24 months). Questionnaires (EQ-5D, RPAQ, Transtheoretical Model of Behavioural Change, and food frequency (UK)/24 h dietary recall (India)) and physical activity monitors (Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers) are assessed at baseline and all follow-up visits. The SMS acceptability questionnaires are evaluated in all follow-up visits. The primary outcome is progression to type 2 diabetes as defined by an HbA1c of 6.5% or over(India) and by any WHO criterion(UK). Secondary outcomes are the changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose; lipids; proportion of participants achieving HbA1c ≤6.0%; HOMA-IR; HOMA-β; acceptability of SMS; dieta

  • Conference paper
    Runciman M, Darzi A, Mylonas G, 2018,

    Deployable disposable self-propelling and variable stiffness devices for minimally invasive surgery

    , Conference on New Technologies for Computer/Robot Assisted Surgery
  • Journal article
    Dewa LH, Cecil E, Eastwood L, Darzi A, Aylin Pet al., 2018,

    Indicators of deterioration in young adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review protocol

    , Systematic Reviews, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2046-4053

    BackgroundThe first signs of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression are likely to occur before the age of 25. The combination of high prevalence of severe mental health symptoms, inability to recognise mental health deterioration and increased likelihood of comorbidity in a complex transitional young group makes detecting deterioration paramount. Whilst studies have examined physical and mental health deterioration in adults, no systematic review has examined the indicators of mental and physical deterioration in young adults with SMI. The study aim is to systematically review the existing evidence from observational studies that examine the indicators of mental and physical deterioration in young adults with SMI and highlight gaps in knowledge to inform future research.MethodsSeven databases including CINHAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Health Management Information Consortium, Cochrane databases and Web of Science will be searched against five main facets (age, serious mental illness, sign, deterioration and patient) and a subsequent comprehensive list of search terms. Searches will be run individually in each database to reflect each unique set of relevant subject headings and appropriate MeSH terms. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed and refined by the research team. Two reviewers will participate in each search stage including abstract/title and full text screening, data extraction and appraisal, to ensure reliability. A narrative synthesis of the data will also be conducted.DiscussionThis systematic review will likely make a significant contribution to the field of mental health and help inform future research pertaining to interventions that help highlight deteriorating patients. This may vary depending on the patient group, mental illness or deterioration type.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42017075755

  • Journal article
    Neves AL, Carter AW, Freise L, Laranjo L, Darzi A, Mayer EK, Fernandes Neves Soares A, Carter AW, Freise L, Laranjo L, Darzi A, Mayer Eet al., 2018,

    Impact of sharing electronic health records with patients on the quality and safety of care: a systematic review and narrative synthesis protocol

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055

    Introduction: Providing patients with access to electronic health records (EHRs) has emerged as a promising solution to improve quality of care and safety. As the efforts to develop and implement EHR-based data sharing platforms mature and scale up worldwide, there is a need to evaluate the impact of these interventions and to weigh their relative risks and benefits, in order to inform evidence-based health policies. The aim of this work is to systematically characterise and appraise the demonstrated benefits and risks of sharing EHR with patients, by mapping them across the six domains of quality of care of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) analytical framework (ie, patient-centredness, effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness, equity and safety).Methods and analysis: CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, HMIC, Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO databases will be searched from January 1997 to August 2017. Primary outcomes will include measures related with the six domains of quality of care of the IOM analytical framework. The quality of the studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, the ROBINS-I Tool and the Drummond’s checklist. A narrative synthesis will be conducted for all included studies. Subgroup analysis will be performed by domain of quality of care domain and by time scale (ie, short-term, medium-term or long-term impact). The body of evidence will be summarised in a Summary of Findings table and its strength assessed according to the GRADE criteria.Ethics and dissemination: This review does not require ethical approval as it will summarise published studies with non-identifiable data. This protocol complies with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Protocols guidelines. Findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations, and patient partners will be included in summarising the research findings into lay summaries and reports.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017070092.

  • Journal article
    Flott K, Durkin M, Darzi A, 2018,

    The Tokyo Declaration on patient safety

    , BMJ, Vol: 362, ISSN: 0959-8138
  • Journal article
    Maa J, Darzi A, 2018,

    Firearm injuries and violence prevention - the potential power of a Surgeon General's report

    , New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 379, Pages: 408-410, ISSN: 0028-4793
  • Journal article
    Judah G, Darzi A, Vlaev I, Gunn L, King D, King D, Valabhji J, Bicknell Cet al., 2018,

    Financial disincentives? A three-armed randomised controlled trial of the effect of financial Incentives in Diabetic Eye Assessment by Screening (IDEAS) trial

    , British Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol: 102, Pages: 1014-1020, ISSN: 0007-1161

    OBJECTIVE: Conflicting evidence exists regarding the impact of financial incentives on encouraging attendance at medical screening appointments. The primary aim was to determine whether financial incentives increase attendance at diabetic eye screening in persistent non-attenders. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A three-armed randomised controlled trial was conducted in London in 2015. 1051 participants aged over 16 years, who had not attended eye screening appointments for 2 years or more, were randomised (1.4:1:1 randomisation ratio) to receive the usual invitation letter (control), an offer of £10 cash for attending screening (fixed incentive) or a 1 in 100 chance of winning £1000 (lottery incentive) if they attend. The primary outcome was the proportion of invitees attending screening, and a comparative analysis was performed to assess group differences. Pairwise comparisons of attendance rates were performed, using a conservative Bonferroni correction for independent comparisons. RESULTS: 34/435 (7.8%) of control, 17/312 (5.5%) of fixed incentive and 10/304 (3.3%) of lottery incentive groups attended. Participants who received any incentive were significantly less likely to attend their appointment compared with controls (risk ratio (RR)=0.56; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.92). Those in the probabilistic incentive group (RR=0.42; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.98), but not the fixed incentive group (RR=1.66; 95% CI 0.65 to 4.21), were significantly less likely to attend than those in the control group. CONCLUSION: Financial incentives, particularly lottery-based incentives, attract fewer patients to diabetic eye screening than standard invites in this population. Financial incentives should not be used to promote screening unless tested in context, as they may negatively affect attendance rates.

  • Journal article
    Flott K, Darzi A, Mayer E, 2018,

    Care pathway and organisational features driving patient experience: Statistical analysis of large NHS datasets

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the care pathway and organisational factors that predict patient experience Design: Statistical analysis of large NHS datasets Setting & participants: England; Acute NHS organisational-level dataPrimary and secondary outcome measures: The relationship of care pathway and organisational variables to organisation-level patient experience Results: A framework of 18 care pathway and organisational variables were created based on the existing literature. Eleven of these correlated to patient experience in univariate analyses. Multi-collinearity tests resulted in one of the 11 variables holding a correlation to another variable larger than r=0.70. A significant multi-linear regression equation including the final ten variables was found (F(10,108) = 6.214, p < 0.00), with an R^2 of 0.365. Two variables were significant in predicting better in patient experience: Amount of support to clinical staff (Beta = 0.2, p = 0.02) and the proportion of staff who would recommend the trust as a place to work or receive treatment (Beta = 0.26, p = 0.01). Two variables were significant in predicting a negative impact on the patient’s rating of their experience: Number of patients spending over 4 hours from decision to admit to admission (Beta =-1.99 p = 0.03) and the percentage of estates and hotel services contracted out (Beta = -0.23, p = 0.01). Conclusions: These results indicate that augmenting clinical support and investing in the mechanisms that facilitate positive staff experience is essential to delivering appropriate, informative and patient-centric care. Reducing wait times and the extent of external contracting within hospitals is also likely to improve patient ratings of experience. Understanding the relationship between patient experience and objective, measurable organisational features promotes a more patient-centric interpretation of quality and compels a better use of patient experience feedback to drive im

  • Journal article
    Rao A, Bicknell C, Bottle R, Darzi A, Aylin PPet al., 2018,

    Common sequences of emergency readmissions among high-impact users following AAA repair

    , Surgery Research and Practice, Vol: 2018, ISSN: 2356-7759

    IntroductionThe aim of the study was to examine common sequences of causes of readmissions among those patients with multiple hospital admissions, high-impact users, after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to focus on strategies to reduce long-term readmission rate. MethodsThe patient cohort (2006-2009) included patients from Hospital Episodes Statistics, the national administrative data of all NHS English hospitals, and followed up for 5 years. Group-based trajectory modelling and sequence analysis were performed on the data. ResultsFrom a total of 16,973 elective AAA repair patients, 18% (n=3055) were high-impact users. The high-impact users among rAAA repair constituted 17.3% of the patient population (n=4144). There were 2 subtypes of high-impact users, short-term (7.2%) with initial high readmission rate following by rapid decline and chronic high-impact (10.1%) with persistently high readmission rate. Common causes of readmissions following elective AAA repair were respiratory tract infection (7.3%), aortic graft complications (6.0%), unspecified chest pain (5.8%), and gastro-intestinal haemorrhage (4.8%). However, high-impact users included significantly increased number of patients with multiple readmissions and distinct sequences of readmissions mainly consisting of COPD (4.7%), respiratory tract infection (4.7%) and ischaemic heart disease (3.3%).ConclusionA significant number of patients were high-impact users after AAA repair. They had a common and distinct sequence of causes of readmissions following AAA repair, mainly consisting of cardiopulmonary conditions and aortic graft complications. The common causes of long-term mortality were not related to AAA repair. The quality of care can be improved by identifying these patients early and focusing on prevention of cardiopulmonary diseases in the community.

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