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author = {Ezzat, A and Kogkas, A and Holt, J and Thakkar, R and Darzi, A and Mylonas, G},
doi = {10.1007/s00464-021-08569-w},
pages = {5381--5391},
title = {An eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse: proof of concept},
url = {},
volume = {35},
year = {2021}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundWithin surgery, assistive robotic devices (ARD) have reported improved patient outcomes. ARD can offer the surgical team a “third hand” to perform wider tasks and more degrees of motion in comparison with conventional laparoscopy. We test an eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse (RSN) in a simulated operating room based on a novel real-time framework for theatre-wide 3D gaze localization in a mobile fashion.MethodsSurgeons performed segmental resection of pig colon and handsewn end-to-end anastomosis while wearing eye-tracking glasses (ETG) assisted by distributed RGB-D motion sensors. To select instruments, surgeons (ST) fixed their gaze on a screen, initiating the RSN to pick up and transfer the item. Comparison was made between the task with the assistance of a human scrub nurse (HSNt) versus the task with the assistance of robotic and human scrub nurse (R&HSNt). Task load (NASA-TLX), technology acceptance (Van der Laan’s), metric data on performance and team communication were measured.ResultsOverall, 10 ST participated. NASA-TLX feedback for ST on HSNt vs R&HSNt usage revealed no significant difference in mental, physical or temporal demands and no change in task performance. ST reported significantly higher frustration score with R&HSNt. Van der Laan’s scores showed positive usefulness and satisfaction scores in using the RSN. No significant difference in operating time was observed.ConclusionsWe report initial findings of our eye-tracking based RSN. This enables mobile, unrestricted hands-free human–robot interaction intra-operatively. Importantly, this platform is deemed non-inferior to HSNt and accepted by ST and HSN test users.
AU - Ezzat,A
AU - Kogkas,A
AU - Holt,J
AU - Thakkar,R
AU - Darzi,A
AU - Mylonas,G
DO - 10.1007/s00464-021-08569-w
EP - 5391
PY - 2021///
SN - 0930-2794
SP - 5381
TI - An eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse: proof of concept
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 35
ER -