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  • Journal article
    Ukkola AM, Prentice IC, Keenan TF, van Dijk AIJM, Viney NR, Myneni RB, Bi Jet al., 2015,

    Reduced streamflow in water-stressed climates consistent with CO2 effects on vegetation

    , Nature Climate Change, Vol: 6, Pages: 75-78, ISSN: 1758-6798

    Global environmental change has implications for the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources, but quantifying its effects remains a challenge. The impact of vegetation responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the hydrologic cycle is particularly poorly constrained1, 2, 3. Here we combine remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and long-term water-balance evapotranspiration (ET) measurements from 190 unimpaired river basins across Australia during 1982–2010 to show that the precipitation threshold for water limitation of vegetation cover has significantly declined during the past three decades, whereas sub-humid and semi-arid basins are not only ‘greening’ but also consuming more water, leading to significant (24–28%) reductions in streamflow. In contrast, wet and arid basins show nonsignificant changes in NDVI and reductions in ET. These observations are consistent with expected effects of elevated CO2 on vegetation. They suggest that projected future decreases in precipitation4 are likely to be compounded by increased vegetation water use, further reducing streamflow in water-stressed regions.

  • Journal article
    Yu W, Graham NJD, 2015,

    Performance of an integrated granular media - Ultrafiltration membrane process for drinking water treatment

    , JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, Vol: 492, Pages: 164-172, ISSN: 0376-7388
  • Journal article
    Yu W, Graham N, Yang Y, Zhou Z, Campos LCet al., 2015,

    Effect of sludge retention on UF membrane fouling: The significance of sludge crystallization and EPS increase

    , WATER RESEARCH, Vol: 83, Pages: 319-328, ISSN: 0043-1354
  • Report
    MacLean K, Gross R, Hannon M, Rhodes AR, Parrish Bet al., 2015,

    Energy system crossroads - time for decisions:UK 2030 low carbon scenarios and pathways - key decision points for a decarbonised energy system

    , ICEPT/WP/2015/019
  • Journal article
    Parfitt R, Czaja A, 2015,

    On the contribution of synoptic transients to the mean atmospheric state in the Gulf Stream region

    , Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol: 142, Pages: 1554-1561, ISSN: 1477-870X

    A new decomposition of the time mean sea level pressure, precipitation, meridional velocity (v) and pressure vertical velocity (ω) is applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data over the North Atlantic ocean for the December-February 1979–2011 time period. The decomposition suggests that the atmosphere over the Gulf Stream is dominated by a continuous series of synoptic systems, or baroclinic waves, propagating across the region. The time mean value of precipitation, meridional velocity and ω (the latter being taken as a proxy for upward and downward motion) is accordingly set by the propagating waves. The result is particularly striking for ω (v) considering that ascent and descent (poleward and equatorward flow) could reasonably be expected to cancel out in such a series of waves.These results shed a new light on analyses of the storm track heat budget in which the residual between diabatic heating and “transient” eddy heat fluxes (singled out through band pass time filtering or spatial Fourier analysis) is interpreted as a Rossby wave source. This interpretation is questioned because, as a consequence of the filtering used, these studies prevent any direct contribution of the “transients” to the time mean ω or meridional velocity, attributing entirely both fields to the circulation associated with the thermally forced Rossby wave. The fact that “transients” directly contribute to the observed time mean ω over the Gulf Stream might also explain the discrepancy between the observed and predicted response of the vertical motion field to heating in midlatitudes.

  • Journal article
    Moulds S, Buytaert W, Mijic A, 2015,

    An open and extensible framework for spatially explicit land use change modelling: the lulcc R package

    , Geoscientific Model Development, Vol: 8, Pages: 3215-3229, ISSN: 1991-9603

    We present the lulcc software package, an object-oriented framework for land use change modelling written in the R programming language. The contribution of the work is to resolve the following limitations associated with the current land use change modelling paradigm: (1) the source code for model implementations is frequently unavailable, severely compromising the reproducibility of scientific results and making it impossible for members of the community to improve or adapt models for their own purposes; (2) ensemble experiments to capture model structural uncertainty are difficult because of fundamental differences between implementations of alternative models; and (3) additional software is required because existing applications frequently perform only the spatial allocation of change. The package includes a stochastic ordered allocation procedure as well as an implementation of the CLUE-S algorithm. We demonstrate its functionality by simulating land use change at the Plum Island Ecosystems site, using a data set included with the package. It is envisaged that lulcc will enable future model development and comparison within an open environment.

  • Journal article
    Gonzalez B, Blamey J, Al-Jeboori MJ, Florin NH, Clough PT, Fennell PSet al., 2015,

    Additive effects of steam addition and HBr doping for CaO-based sorbents for CO2 capture

    , Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, Vol: 103, Pages: 21-26, ISSN: 1873-3204

    Calcium looping is a developing CO2 capture and storage technology that employs the reversible carbonation of CaO (potentially derived from natural limestone). The CO2 uptake potential of CaO particles reduces upon repeated reaction, largely through loss of reactive surface area and densification of particles. Doping of particles has previously been found to reduce the rate of decay of CO2 uptake, as has the introduction of steam into calcination and carbonation stages of the reaction. Here, the synergistic effects of steam and doping, using an HBr solution, of 5 natural limestones have been investigated. The enhancement to the CO2 uptake was found to be additive, with CO2 uptake after 13 cycles found to be up to 3 times higher for HBr-doped limestones subjected to cycles of carbonation and calcination in the presence of 10% steam, in comparison to natural limestone cycled in the absence of steam. A qualitative discussion of kinetic data is also presented.

  • Journal article
    Blamey J, Al-Jeboori MJ, Manovic V, Fennell PS, Anthony EJet al., 2015,

    CO2 capture by calcium aluminate pellets in a small fluidized bed

    , Fuel Processing Technology, Vol: 142, Pages: 100-106, ISSN: 1873-7188

    Synthetic pellets made using calcium aluminate cement and quicklime have been examined in a small fluidized bed reactor to determine their performance in cyclic CO2 capture for up to 20 calcination/capture cycles. Two batches were examined one a “fresh” batch, and the second an “aged” batch of pellets and their performance was compared with the original parent limestone. Carbonation was carried out at 650 °C and calcination at 900 °C, both with 15% CO2, balance N2, as a synthetic flue gas. Experiments were also performed with and without steam in the flue gas and showed that steam always improved capture performance. In addition, there was no major attrition associated with the pellets, and pellets tended to perform better in terms of carbon capture than the parent limestone.

  • Journal article
    Yi N, Unruangsri J, Shaw J, Williams CKet al., 2015,

    Carbon dioxide capture and utilization: using dinuclear catalysts to prepare polycarbonates.

    , Faraday Discussions, Vol: 183, Pages: 67-82, ISSN: 1364-5498

    The copolymerization of epoxides, including cyclohexene oxide and vinyl-cyclohexene oxide with carbon dioxide are presented. These processes are catalyzed using a homogeneous di-zinc complex that shows good activity and very high selectivities for polycarbonate polyol formation. The polymerizations are investigated in the presence of different amounts of exogenous reagents, including water, diols and diamines, as models for common contaminants in any carbon dioxide capture and utilization scenario.

  • Journal article
    Nerini D, Zulkafli Z, Wang L-P, Onof C, Buytaert W, Lavado-Casimiro W, Guyot J-Let al., 2015,

    A Comparative Analysis of TRMM-Rain Gauge Data Merging Techniques at the Daily Time Scale for Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Applications

    , Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol: 16, Pages: 2153-2168, ISSN: 1525-755X

    This study compares two nonparametric rainfall data merging methods—the mean bias correction and double-kernel smoothing—with two geostatistical methods—kriging with external drift and Bayesian combination—for optimizing the hydrometeorological performance of a satellite-based precipitation product over a mesoscale tropical Andean watershed in Peru. The analysis is conducted using 11 years of daily time series from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) research product (also TRMM 3B42) and 173 rain gauges from the national weather station network. The results are assessed using 1) a cross-validation procedure and 2) a catchment water balance analysis and hydrological modeling. It is found that the double-kernel smoothing method delivered the most consistent improvement over the original satellite product in both the cross-validation and hydrological evaluation. The mean bias correction also improved hydrological performance scores, particularly at the subbasin scale where the rain gauge density is higher. Given the spatial heterogeneity of the climate, the size of the modeled catchment, and the sparsity of data, it is concluded that nonparametric merging methods can perform as well as or better than more complex geostatistical methods, whose assumptions may not hold under the studied conditions. Based on these results, a systematic approach to the selection of a satellite–rain gauge data merging technique is proposed that is based on data characteristics. Finally, the underperformance of an ordinary kriging interpolation of the rain gauge data, compared to TMPA and other merged products, supports the use of satellite-based products over gridded rain gauge products that utilize sparse data for hydrological modeling at large scales.

  • Journal article
    Al-Menhali A, Niu B, Krevor S, 2015,

    Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    , Water Resources Research, Vol: 51, Pages: 7895-7914, ISSN: 0043-1397

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage - CO2 displacing brine - through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50°C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 mol kg−1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  • Journal article
    Cole-Hunter T, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Curto A, Ambros A, Valentin A, Garcia-Aymerich J, Martinez D, Braun LM, Mendez M, Jerrett M, Rodriguez D, de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen Met al., 2015,

    Objective correlates and determinants of bicycle commuting propensity in an urban environment

    , Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol: 40, Pages: 132-143, ISSN: 1879-2340

    ObjectiveBicycle use for commuting is being encouraged not only to address physical inactivity, but also vehicular congestion, air pollution and climate change. The current study aimed to ascertain the urban environmental correlates and determinants of bicycle use for commuting (bicycle commuting) among the working or studying population in Barcelona, Spain.MethodsAdults (n = 769; 52% females) recruited whilst commuting within Barcelona (Spain) responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour. Based upon responses collected from June 2011 to May 2012, participants were categorised into four groups: frequent bicyclists, infrequent bicyclists, willing non-bicyclists, and unwilling non-bicyclists. The determinants of frequency and willingness (propensity) to commute by bicycle were assessed by multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders and covariates.ResultsThe number of public bicycle stations surrounding the home address and amount of greenness surrounding the work/study address were significant positive determinants of bicycle commuting propensity. On the other hand, the number of public transport stations surrounding the home address and elevation of the work/study address were significant negative determinants of bicycle commuting propensity. Individual age, education level, gender, nationality, physical activity level and commute distance significantly affected this propensity.ConclusionGreater availability of public bicycle stations and higher levels of urban greenness may increase bicycle use by adults commuting within a city such as Barcelona, Spain. Electrically-assisted public bicycles may address the challenge of elevation, making this system a more competitive mode against traditional motorised public transport.

  • Journal article
    Woodward G, 2015,

    10 Years Later: Revisiting Priorities for Science and Society a Decade After the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    , Advances in Ecological Research
  • Journal article
    Castelltort S, Whittaker AC, Verges J, 2015,

    Tectonics, sedimentation and surface processes: from the erosional engine to basin deposition

    , Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol: 40, Pages: 1839-1846, ISSN: 1096-9837
  • Journal article
    Alexander JS, McNamara J, Rowcliffe JM, Oppong J, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2015,

    The role of bushmeat in a West African agricultural landscape

    , ORYX, Vol: 49, Pages: 643-651, ISSN: 0030-6053
  • Report
    Parrish B, Heptonstall PJ, Gross R, 2015,

    HubNet Position Paper No. 11 - How much can we really expect from smart consumers?

  • Journal article
    Gray CE, Figueroa D, Hudson LN, Ma A, Perkins D, Woodward Get al., 2015,

    Joining the dots: an automated method for constructing food webs from compendia of published interactions

    , Food Webs, Vol: 5, Pages: 11-20, ISSN: 2352-2496

    Food webs are important tools for understanding how complex natural communities are structured and how they respond to environmental change. However their full potential has yet to be realised because of the huge amount of resources required to construct them de novo. Consequently, the current catalogue of networks that are suitable for rigorous and comparative analyses and theoretical development still suffers from a lack of standardisation and replication.Here, we present a novel R function, WebBuilder, which automates the construction of food webs from taxonomic lists, and a dataset of trophic interactions. This function works by matching species against those within a dataset of trophic interactions, and ‘filling in’ missing trophic interactions based on these matches. We also present a dataset of over 20,000 freshwater trophic interactions, and use this and four well-characterised freshwater food webs to test the method.The WebBuilder function facilitates the generation of food webs of comparable quality to the most detailed published food webs, but at a fraction of the research effort or cost. Furthermore, it matched and often outperformed a selection of predictive models, which are currently among the best, in terms of capturing key properties of empirical food webs. The method is simple to use, systematic and, perhaps most importantly, reproducible, which will facilitate (re-) analysis and data sharing. Although developed and tested on a sample of freshwater food webs, this method could easily be extended to cover other types of ecological interactions (such as mutualistic interactions).

  • Journal article
    Wang LP, Ochoa-Rodriguez S, Onof C, Willems Pet al., 2015,

    Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    , Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol: 19, Pages: 4001-4021, ISSN: 1027-5606

    Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field) that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive) technique and the commonly used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2) (Edinburgh, UK) during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban drainage syst

  • Journal article
    Gray CE, Thompson M, Bankier C, Bell T, Dumbrell A, Ledger M, Lehmann K, McKew B, Sayer C, Shelley F, Trimmer M, Warren S, Woodward Get al., 2015,

    Gene-to-ecosystem impacts of a catastrophic pesticide spill: testing a multilevel bioassessment approach in a river ecosystem

    , Freshwater Biology, Vol: 61, Pages: 2037-2050, ISSN: 1365-2427

    1.Pesticides can have strong deleterious impacts in fresh waters, but understanding how these effects cascade through natural ecosystems, from microbes to apex predators, is limited because research that spans multiple levels of biological organisation is rare.2.We report how an accidental insecticide spill altered the structure and functioning of a river across levels ranging from genes to ecosystems. We quantified the impacts on assemblages of microbes, diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish and measured leaf-litter decomposition rates and microbial functional potential at upstream control and downstream impacted sites 2 months after the spill.3.Both direct and indirect impacts were evident across multiple levels of organisation and taxa, from the base of the food web to higher trophic levels. At the molecular level, differences in functional gene abundance within the impacted sites reflected a combination of direct and indirect effects of the pesticide, via elevated abundances of microbial populations capable of using chlorpyrifos as a resource (i.e. direct effect) and oxidising ammonia released by decaying macroinvertebrate carcasses (i.e. indirect effect).4.At the base of the food chains, diatom taxa found only in the impacted sites were an order-of-magnitude larger in cell size than the largest comparable taxa in control communities, following the near extirpation of their consumers. Population biomass of the key detritivore Gammarus pulex was markedly lower, as was the rate of litter decomposition in the impacted sites. This was partially compensated for, however, by elevated microbial breakdown, suggesting another indirect food-web effect of the toxic spill.5.Although many species exhibited population crashes or local extirpation, total macroinvertebrate biomass and abundance were largely unaffected due to a compensatory elevation in small tolerant taxa such as oligochaetes, and/or taxa which were in their adult aerial life stage at the time of the spill (e.g.

  • Report
    Balcombe P, Anderson K, Speirs J, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2015,

    Methane and CO2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain: an evidence assessment

    , Publisher: Sustainable Gas Institute
  • Journal article
    Prado R, Brandt A, Erdocia X, Hallet J, Welton T, Labidi Jet al., 2015,

    Lignin oxidation and depolymerisation in ionic liquids

    , Green Chemistry, Vol: 18, Pages: 834-841, ISSN: 1463-9262

    The depolymerisation of lignin directly in the black liquor was studied, comparing two ionic liquids as extracting solvents (butylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate and triethylammonium hydrogen sulphate), under oxidising conditions. H2O2 was chosen as the oxidant agent. It was observed that lignins derived from butylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate were more susceptible to degradation. The main degradation products found in the extracted oils were aromatic acids, such as vanillic acid, benzoic acid and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.

  • Journal article
    Barraclough TG, Bell T, Scheuerl T, 2015,

    Saturating effects of species diversity on life-history evolution in bacteria

    , Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol: 282, ISSN: 0080-4649

    Species interactions can play a major role in shaping evolution in new environments. In theory, species interactions can either stimulate evolution by promoting coevolution or inhibit evolution by constraining ecological opportunity. The relative strength of these effects should vary as species richness increases, and yet there has been little evidence for evolution of component species in communities. We evolved bacterial microcosms containing between 1 and 12 species in three different environments. Growth rates and yields of isolates that evolved in communities were lower than those that evolved in monocultures, consistent with recent theory that competition constrains species to specialize on narrower sets of resources. This effect saturated or reversed at higher levels of richness, consistent with theory that directional effects of species interactions should weaken in more diverse communities. Species varied considerably, however, in their responses to both environment and richness levels. Mechanistic models and experiments are now needed to understand and predict joint evolutionary dynamics of species in diverse communities.

  • Journal article
    Zhu Y, Romain C, Williams CK, 2015,

    Selective polymerization catalysis: controlling the metal chain end group to prepare block copolyesters

    , Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 137, Pages: 12179-12182, ISSN: 1520-5126

    Selective catalysis is used to prepare block copolyesters by combining ring-opening polymerization of lactones and ring-opening copolymerization of epoxides/anhydrides. By using a dizinc complex with mixtures of up to three different monomers and controlling the chemistry of the Zn–O(polymer chain) it is possible to select for a particular polymerization route and thereby control the composition of block copolyesters.

  • Conference paper
    Alonso Alvarez D, Lackner D, Philipps SP, Bett AW, Ekins-Daukes NJet al., 2015,

    Photoluminescence-Based Current-Voltage Characterisation of Individual Subcells in Multi-Junction Devices

    , 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Publisher: European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Pages: 1509-1513

    We demonstrate a photoluminescence based, contactless method to determine the current-voltage characteristics of the individual subcells in a multi-junction solar cell. The method, furthers known results for single junction devices and relies upon the reciprocity relation between the absorption and emission properties on a solar cell. Laser light with a suitable energy is used to excite carriers selectively in one junction and the internal voltages are deduced from the intensity of the resulting luminescence. The IV curves obtained this way on 1J, 2J and 6J devices are compared to those obtained using electroluminescence. Good agreement is obtained at high injection conditions while discrepancies at low injection are attributed to in-plane carrier transport.

  • Journal article
    Minas K, Karunakaran E, Bond T, Gandy C, Honsbein A, Madsen M, Amezaga J, Amtmann A, Templeton MR, Biggs CA, Lawton Let al., 2015,

    Biodesalination: an emerging technology for targeted removal of Na<sup>+</sup>and Cl<sup>−</sup>from seawater by cyanobacteria

    , Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol: 55, Pages: 2647-2668, ISSN: 1944-3994
  • Journal article
    Winter K, Woodward J, Ross N, Dunning SA, Bingham RG, Corr HFJ, Siegert MJet al., 2015,

    Airborne radar evidence for tributary flow switching in Institute Ice Stream, West Antarctica: Implications for ice sheet configuration and dynamics

    , Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, Vol: 120, Pages: 1611-1625, ISSN: 2169-9011

    Despite the importance of ice streaming to the evaluation of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) stability we know little about mid- to long-term dynamic changes within the Institute Ice Stream (IIS) catchment. Here we use airborne radio echo sounding to investigate the subglacial topography, internal stratigraphy, and Holocene flow regime of the upper IIS catchment near the Ellsworth Mountains. Internal layer buckling within three discrete, topographically confined tributaries, through Ellsworth, Independence, and Horseshoe Valley Troughs, provides evidence for former enhanced ice sheet flow. We suggest that enhanced ice flow through Independence and Ellsworth Troughs, during the mid-Holocene to late Holocene, was the source of ice streaming over the region now occupied by the slow-flowing Bungenstock Ice Rise. Although buckled layers also exist within the slow-flowing ice of Horseshoe Valley Trough, a thicker sequence of surface-conformable layers in the upper ice column suggests slowdown more than ~4000 years ago, so we do not attribute enhanced flow switch-off here, to the late Holocene ice-flow reorganization. Intensely buckled englacial layers within Horseshoe Valley and Independence Troughs cannot be accounted for under present-day flow speeds. The dynamic nature of ice flow in IIS and its tributaries suggests that recent ice stream switching and mass changes in the Siple Coast and Amundsen Sea sectors are not unique to these sectors, that they may have been regular during the Holocene and may characterize the decline of the WAIS.

  • Journal article
    Raum S, Potter C, 2015,

    Forestry paradigms and policy change: The evolution of forestry policy in Britain in relation to the ecosystem approach

    , Land Use Policy, Vol: 49, Pages: 462-470, ISSN: 1873-5754

    Forestry policy and practice in Britain has been subject to a series of paradigm changes since the establishment of the Forestry Commission in 1919. Drawing on a documentary analysis of legislation, published policy statements, commentaries and scholarly critiques, this paper argues that British forestry policy has undergone three significant paradigm shifts since it was first mooted in the late 19th century. With origins in a largely ad hoc and laissez-faire attitude towards forest expansion and management which dominated up to World War I, a productivist stance based on intensive mono-culture plantations in order to reduce import dependence then held sway until the early 1970s. This has since been overlain with ideas about multi-functionality and sustainability that continue to be important today. The new Ecosystem Approach (and its specific emphasis on the provision of ecosystem services) can arguably be viewed as an emerging new forestry paradigm era in which ideas of resilience and sustainability are to the fore. It is suggested in conclusion that while the policy and practice of forestry in Britain continues to mirror broader shifts in environmental governance within the country, these in turn are increasingly influenced by international debates and obligations.

  • Journal article
    Martynov S, Mac Dowell N, Brown S, Mahgerefteh Het al., 2015,

    Assessment of Integral Thermo-Hydraulic Models for Pipeline Transportation of Dense-Phase and Supercritical CO<sub>2</sub>

    , INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 54, Pages: 8587-8599, ISSN: 0888-5885
  • Journal article
    Duffy OB, Bell RE, Jackson CA-L, Gawthorpe RL, Whipp PSet al., 2015,

    Fault Growth and Interactions in a Multiphase Rift Fault Network: Horda Platform, Norwegian North Sea

    , Journal of Structural Geology, Vol: 80, Pages: 99-119, ISSN: 0191-8141

    Physical models predict that multiphase rifts that experience a change in extension direction between stretching phases will typically develop non-colinear normal fault sets. Furthermore, multiphase rifts will display a greater frequency and range of styles of fault interactions than single-phase rifts. Although these physical models have yielded useful information on the evolution of fault networks in map view, the true 3D geometry of the faults and associated interactions are poorly understood. Here, we use an integrated 3D seismic reflection and borehole dataset to examine a range of fault interactions that occur in a natural multiphase fault network in the northern Horda Platform, northern North Sea. In particular we aim to: i) determine the range of styles of fault interaction that occur between non-colinear faults; ii) examine the typical geometries and throw patterns associated with each of these different styles; and iii) highlight the differences between single-phase and multiphase rift fault networks. Our study focuses on a ca. 350 km2 region around the >60 km long, N-S-striking Tusse Fault, a normal fault system that was active in the Permian-Triassic and again in the Late Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous. The Tusse Fault is one of a series of large (>1500 m throw) N-S-striking faults forming part of the northern Horda Platform fault network, which includes numerous smaller (2-10 km long), lower throw (<100 m), predominantly NW-SE-striking faults that were only active during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. We examine how the 2nd-stage NW-SE-striking faults grew, interacted and linked with the N-S-striking Tusse Fault, documenting a range of interaction styles including mechanical and kinematic isolation, abutment, retardation and reactivated relays. Our results demonstrate that: i) isolated, non-interacting and abutting interactions are the most common fault interaction styles in the northern Horda Platform; ii) pre-existing faults can act as

  • Book chapter
    Haigh JD, Matthes K, Hanslmeier A, 2015,

    The Impact of Solar Variability on Climate.

    , Earth’s climate response to a changing Sun, Editors: Lilensten, Dudok de Wit, Matthes, ISBN: 978-2-7598-1733-7

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