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  • Journal article
    Milner-Gulland EJ, Barlow J, Cadotte M, Hulme P, Whittingham MJet al., 2013,

    Celebrating the golden jubilee of the Journal of Applied Ecology

    , JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Vol: 50, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 0021-8901
  • Journal article
    Layer K, Hildrew AG, Woodward G, 2013,

    Grazing and detritivory in 20 stream food webs across a broad pH gradient.

    , Oecologia, Vol: 171, Pages: 459-471

    Acidity is a major driving variable in the ecology of fresh waters, and we sought to quantify macroecological patterns in stream food webs across a wide pH gradient. We postulated that a few generalist herbivore-detritivores would dominate the invertebrate assemblage at low pH, with more specialists grazers at high pH. We also expected a switch towards algae in the diet of all primary consumers as the pH increased. For 20 stream food webs across the British Isles, spanning pH 5.0-8.4 (the acid sites being at least partially culturally acidified), we characterised basal resources and primary consumers, using both gut contents analysis and stable isotopes to study resource use by the latter. We found considerable species turnover across the pH gradient, with generalist herbivore-detritivores dominating the primary consumer assemblage at low pH and maintaining grazing. These were joined or replaced at higher pH by a suite of specialist grazers, while many taxa that persisted across the pH gradient broadened the range of algae consumed as acidity declined and increased their ingestion of biofilm, whose nutritional quality was higher than that of coarse detritus. There was thus an increased overall reliance on algae at higher pH, both by generalist herbivore-detritivores and due to the presence of specialist grazers, although detritus was important even in non-acidic streams. Both the ability of acid-tolerant, herbivore-detritivores to exploit both autochthonous and allochthonous food and the low nutritional value of basal resources might render chemically recovering systems resistant to invasion by the specialist grazers and help explain the sluggish ecological recovery of fresh waters whose water chemistry has ameliorated.

  • Journal article
    Gallego-Sala AV, Prentice IC, 2013,

    Blanket peat biome endangered by climate change

    , NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, Vol: 3, Pages: 152-155, ISSN: 1758-678X
  • Journal article
    Spence P, van Sebille E, Saenko OA, England MHet al., 2013,

    Using Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches to Investigate Wind-Driven Changes in the Southern Ocean Abyssal Circulation

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, Vol: 44, Pages: 662-675, ISSN: 0022-3670
  • Journal article
    Tang R, Clark JM, Bond T, Graham N, Hughes D, Freeman Cet al., 2013,

    Assessment of potential climate change impacts on peatland dissolved organic carbon release and drinking water treatment from laboratory experiments.

    , Environmental Pollution, Vol: 173, Pages: 270-277, ISSN: 0269-7491

    Catchments draining peat soils provide the majority of drinking water in the UK. Over the past decades, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have increased in surface waters. Residual DOC can cause harmful carcinogenic disinfection by-products to form during water treatment processes. Increased frequency and severity of droughts combined with and increased temperatures expected as the climate changes, have potentials to change water quality. We used a novel approach to investigate links between climate change, DOC release and subsequent effects on drinking water treatment. We designed a climate manipulation experiment to simulate projected climate changes and monitored releases from peat soil and litter, then simulated coagulation used in water treatment. We showed that the 'drought' simulation was the dominant factor altering DOC release and affected the ability to remove DOC. Our results imply that future short-term drought events could have a greater impact than increased temperature on DOC treatability.

  • Journal article
    Al-Jeboori MJ, Nguyen M, Dean C, Fennell PSet al., 2013,

    Improvement of Limestone-Based CO<sub>2</sub> Sorbents for Ca Looping by HBr and Other Mineral Acids

    , INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 52, Pages: 1426-1433, ISSN: 0888-5885
  • Journal article
    Staffell I, Green R, 2013,

    The cost of domestic fuel cell micro-CHP systems

    , International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 38, Pages: 1088-1102, ISSN: 0360-3199
  • Journal article
    Wearn OR, Reuman DC, Ewers RM, 2013,

    Response to Comment on "Extinction Debt and Windows of Conservation Opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon"

    , SCIENCE, Vol: 339, ISSN: 0036-8075
  • Journal article
    Jagadevan S, Graham NJ, Thompson IP, 2013,

    Treatment of waste metalworking fluid by a hybrid ozone-biological process

    , JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, Vol: 244, Pages: 394-402, ISSN: 0304-3894
  • Journal article
    Reeve M, Bell RE, Jackson CA-L, 2013,

    Origin and significance of intra-basement seismic reflections offshore western Norway

    , Journal of the Geological Society, Vol: 171, Pages: 1-4

    We use 3D seismic data to image a series of enigmatic, SW-dipping reflection packets within pre-Mesozoic crystalline basement offshore western Norway. Based on their low-angle dip and complex reflection wave-train our preferred interpretation is that the reflection packets are the seismic expression of mylonitic zones generated by nappe emplacement during the Caledonian Orogeny. Late Jurassic faults truncate and offset these reflection packets by several hundred metres, suggesting that these faults did not exploit pre-existing basement weaknesses. Our observations suggest that older basement fabrics may not always play a significant role in determining the geometry of later fault systems.

  • Journal article
    Bulygina N, McIntyre N, Wheater H, 2013,

    A comparison of rainfall-runoff modelling approaches for estimating impacts of rural land management on flood flows

    , Hydrology Research, Vol: 44, Pages: 467-483
  • Journal article
    Plant JA, Bone J, Voulvoulis N, Kinniburgh DG, Smedley PL, Fordyce FM, Klinck Bet al., 2013,

    Arsenic and Selenium

    , Vol: 11, Pages: 13-57

    This chapter outlines the main effects of arsenic and selenium on human and animal health, their abundance and distribution in the environment, sampling and analysis, and the main factors controlling their speciation and cycling. Such information should help identify aquifers, water resources and soils at risk from high concentrations of arsenic and selenium, and areas of selenium deficiency. Human activity has had, and is likely to continue to have, a major role in releasing arsenic and selenium from the geosphere and in perturbing the natural distribution of these and other elements over the Earth's surface. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Journal article
    Lambelet M, Rehkaemper M, de Flierdt TV, Xue Z, Kreissig K, Coles B, Porcelli D, Andersson Pet al., 2013,

    Isotopic analysis of Cd in the mixing zone of Siberian rivers with the Arctic Ocean-New constraints on marine Cd cycling and the isotope composition of riverine Cd

    , EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, Vol: 361, Pages: 64-73, ISSN: 0012-821X
  • Journal article
    Mac Dowell N, Samsatli NJ, Shah N, Mac Dowell N, Samsatli NJ, Shah Net al., 2013,

    Dynamic modelling and analysis of an amine-based post-combustion CO₂ capture absorption column

  • Journal article
    Zulkafli Z, Buytaert W, Onof C, Lavado W, Guyot JLet al., 2013,

    A critical assessment of the JULES land surface model hydrology for humid tropical environments

    , HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, Vol: 17, Pages: 1113-1132, ISSN: 1027-5606
  • Journal article
    Vineis P, 2013,

    Politics and climate change

    , EPIDEMIOLOGIA & PREVENZIONE, Vol: 37, Pages: 185-186, ISSN: 1120-9763
  • Conference paper
    Terdich N, Martinez-Botas R, 2013,

    Experimental efficiency characterization of an electrically assisted turbocharger

    , ISSN: 0148-7191

    Electrically assisted turbochargers consist of standard turbochargers modified to accommodate an electric motor/generator within the bearing housing. Those devices improve engine transient response and low end torque by increasing the power delivered to the compressor. This allows a larger degree of engine down-sizing and down-speeding as well as a more efficient turbocharger to engine match, which translates in lower fuel consumption. In addition, the electric machine can be operated in generating mode during steady state engine running conditions to extract a larger fraction of the exhaust energy. Electric turbocharger assistance is therefore a key technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper an electrically assisted turbocharger, designed to be applied to non-road medium duty diesel engines, is tested to obtain the turbine and electrical machine efficiency characteristics. The radial turbine is of the variable geometry type where the mass flow characteristics are changed by varying the vanes angle. The motor/generator is of the switched reluctance type and has a maximum speed of over 135,000 rev/min. The turbine and the motor/generator have been characterized with two different experiments. The turbine has been tested in cold flow on a specifically built dynamometer available at Imperial College. This allowed extending the turbine maps available from the manufacturer and to separate the bearing and heat transfer losses from the aerodynamic performance. To test the electrical machine, a prototype of the assisted turbocharger has been modified by removing the compressor and by placing the bearing housing on gimbal bearings. By measuring the speed, the reaction torque on the bearing housing and the electrical power, the efficiency of the electrical machine has been calculated. Turbine testing results show a peak turbine efficiency of 69% at a velocity ratio of 0.65 with 60% vane opening. Results in the electrical machine testing

  • Journal article
    Marinescu M, Wu B, Von Srbik M, Yufit V, Offer GJet al., 2013,

    The effect of thermal gradients on the performance of battery packs in automotive applications

    , IET Conference Publications, Vol: 2013

    Thermal gradients arising inside a battery pack for automotive applications are calculated for 200 A discharge via a multiparticle thermal-electrochemical coupled high fidelity model for a 12P7S 4.8 Ah cell pack. The effect of such gradients at the cell level are studied in a first approximation under a corresponding discharge at 15 A, by discretising the cell into units at fixed temperatures throughout the discharge. The immediate time evolution of load distribution through the various parts of the cell shows a complex behaviour, dependent on parameters such as temperatures, state of charge and load characteristics.

  • Journal article
    Wu B, Yufit V, Campbell J, Offer GJ, Martinez-Botas RF, Brandon NPet al., 2013,

    Simulated and experimental validation of a fuel cell-supercapacitor passive hybrid system for electric vehicles

    , IET Conference Publications, Vol: 2013

    The concept of a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid system involves the direct coupling of the two devices to achieve the same benefits of hybridisation but without the need for costly DCDC converters. Using an experimentally validated steady state fuel cell model and a transmission line based supercapacitor model, it has been shown that the passive hybridisation allows for efficiency gains of approximately 16% compared to a pure fuel cell system. Under load, the supercapacitors meets the peak power requirement due to their lower impedance giving the FC time to ramp up. Under no load conditions, the fuel cell gradually charges the supercapacitors back to the steady state thermodynamic equilibrium potential. A fast fourier transform analysis of the respective loads under an automotive drive cycle showed that the supercapacitors act as a low pass filter, reducing the magnitude of load oscillations from the fuel cell. This therefore addresses two of the main modes of fuel cell degradation in automotive applications: rapid power cycling and no load idling.

  • Journal article
    Vineis P, 2013,

    Why climate change is not taken seriously?

    , EPIDEMIOLOGIA & PREVENZIONE, Vol: 37, Pages: 406-407, ISSN: 1120-9763
  • Conference paper
    Mac Dowell N, Shah N, 2013,

    Dynamic modelling and analysis of a coal fired power plant integrated with post- Combustion CO<inf>2</inf> capture process

    , Pages: 12-13
  • Journal article
    Li X, Hylton NP, Giannini V, Lee K-H, Ekins-Daukes NJ, Maier SAet al., 2013,

    Multi-dimensional modeling of solar cells with electromagnetic and carrier transport calculations

    , PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS, Vol: 21, Pages: 109-120, ISSN: 1062-7995
  • Journal article
    Hudson LN, Emerson R, Jenkins GB, Layer K, Ledger ME, Pichler DE, Thompson MSA, O'Gorman EJ, Woodward G, Reuman DCet al., 2013,

    Cheddar: analysis and visualisation of ecological communities in R

    , METHODS IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 4, Pages: 99-104, ISSN: 2041-210X
  • Journal article
    Orr A, Bracegirdle TJ, Hosking JS, Feng W, Roscoe HK, Haigh JDet al., 2013,

    Strong Dynamical Modulation of the Cooling of the Polar Stratosphere Associated with the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    , JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, Vol: 26, Pages: 662-668, ISSN: 0894-8755
  • Journal article
    Chignell S, Gross RJK, 2013,

    Not locked-in? The overlooked impact of new gas-fired generation investment on long-term decarbonisation in the UK

    , ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 52, Pages: 699-705, ISSN: 0301-4215
  • Journal article
    Banks JR, Brindley HE, 2013,

    Evaluation of MSG-SEVIRI mineral dust retrieval products over North Africa and the Middle East

    , REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 128, Pages: 58-73, ISSN: 0034-4257
  • Journal article
    Romagnoli A, Copeland CD, Martinez-Botas R, Seiler M, Rajoo S, Costall Aet al., 2013,

    Comparison Between the Steady Performance of Double-Entry and Twin-Entry Turbocharger Turbines

  • Journal article
    Hughes N, Strachan N, Gross R, 2013,

    The structure of uncertainty in future low carbon pathways

    , Energy Policy, Vol: 52, Pages: 45-54, ISSN: 0301-4215

    Low carbon scenario and transition pathway analysis involves the consideration of uncertainties around future technological and social changes. This paper argues that uncertainty can be better understood, and the strategic and policy effectiveness of scenarios or pathways thereby improved, through a systematic categorisation of the different kinds of certain and uncertain elements of which the future is comprised. To achieve this, this paper makes two novel methodological contributions. First it proposes a system conceptualisation which is based on a detailed description of the dynamics of the actors and institutions relevant to the system under study, iteratively linked to a detailed representation of the technological system. Second, it argues that as a result of developing this actor-based low carbon scenarios approach it is possible to characterise future elements of the system as either pre-determined, actor contingent or non-actor contingent. An outline scenario approach is presented, based on these two contributions. It emerges that the different categories of future element are associated with different types of uncertainty and each prompt different strategic policy responses. This categorisation of future elements therefore clarifies the relationship of scenario content to specific types of policy response, and thus improves the policy tractability of resulting scenarios.

  • Journal article
    Correia AW, Pope CA, Dockery DW, Wang Y, Ezzati M, Dominici Fet al., 2013,

    Effect of Air Pollution Control on Life Expectancy in the United States <i>An Analysis of 545 US Counties for the Period from 2000 to 2007</i>

    , EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 24, Pages: 23-31, ISSN: 1044-3983
  • Journal article
    Harrison SP, Morfopoulos C, Dani KGS, Prentice IC, Arneth A, Atwell BJ, Barkley MP, Leishman MR, Loreto F, Medlyn BE, Niinemets U, Possell M, Penuelas J, Wright IJet al., 2013,

    Volatile isoprenoid emissions from plastid to planet

    , NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 197, Pages: 49-57, ISSN: 0028-646X

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