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  • Journal article
    Emmott CJM, Urbina A, Nelson J, 2012,

    Environmental and economic assessment of ITO-free electrodes for organic solar cells

    , Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol: 97, Pages: 14-21, ISSN: 0927-0248
  • Journal article
    Horie M, Kettle J, Yu C-Y, Majewski LA, Chang S-W, Kirkpatrick J, Tuladhar SM, Nelson J, Saunders BR, Turner MLet al., 2012,

    Cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole oligomers and polymers; synthesis, characterisation, field-effect transistor and photovoltaic characteristics

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, Vol: 22, Pages: 381-389, ISSN: 0959-9428
  • Journal article
    Faist MA, Kirchartz T, Gong W, Ashraf RS, McCulloch I, de Mello JC, Ekins-Daukes NJ, Bradley DDC, Nelson Jet al., 2012,

    Competition between the Charge Transfer State and the Singlet States of Donor or Acceptor Limiting the Efficiency in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells

    , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 134, Pages: 685-692, ISSN: 0002-7863
  • Journal article
    Xia R, Al-Hashimi M, Tsoi WC, Heeney M, Bradley DDC, Nelson Jet al., 2012,

    Fused pyrrolo[3,2-d:4,5-d ']bisthiazole-containing polymers for using in high-performance organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    , SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, Vol: 96, Pages: 112-116, ISSN: 0927-0248
  • Journal article
    Lutz T, MacLachlan A, Sudlow A, Nelson J, Hill MS, Molloy KC, Haque SAet al., 2012,

    Thermal decomposition of solution processable metal xanthates on mesoporous titanium dioxide films: a new route to quantum-dot sensitised heterojunctions

    , PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 14, Pages: 16192-16196, ISSN: 1463-9076
  • Conference paper
    Zolgafhari A, Sivakumar A, Polak JW, 2012,

    Choice set pruning in residential location choice modelling: a comparison of sampling and choice set generation approaches in greater London

    , 43rd Annual Conference of the Universities-Transport-Studies-Group (UTSG), Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Pages: 87-106, ISSN: 0308-1060

    The discrete choice analysis of residential location choice forms an important part of land use-transport modelling systems but gives rise to a number of significant modelling

  • Journal article
    Chaudry M, Skea J, Wang X, Jenkins Net al., 2012,

    Modelling UK energy system response to natural gas supply infrastructure failures

  • Journal article
    Niedermeyer H, Hallett JP, Villar-Garcia IJ, Hunt PA, Welton Tet al., 2012,

    Mixtures of ionic liquids

    , CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS, Vol: 41, Pages: 7780-7802, ISSN: 0306-0012
  • Journal article
    Dhanirama D, Gronow J, Voulvoulis N, 2012,

    Cosmetics as a potential source of environmental contamination in the UK

    , Environmental Technology, Vol: 33, Pages: 1597-1608, ISSN: 0959-3330
  • Journal article
    Buytaert W, 2012,

    Assessment of impacts of climate change on mountain hydrology: Development methodology based on situation-th example of the Peruvian Andes (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Hydrology: Development of a Methodology Through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru)

    , Mountain Research and Development, Vol: 32, Pages: 143-144, ISSN: 0276-4741
  • Journal article
    Rodriguez J, Mac Dowell N, Llovell F, Adjiman CS, Jackson G, Galindo Aet al., 2012,

    Modelling the fluid phase behaviour of aqueous mixtures of multifunctional alkanolamines and carbon dioxide using transferable parameters with the SAFT-VR approach

    , MOLECULAR PHYSICS, Vol: 110, Pages: 1325-1348, ISSN: 0026-8976
  • Journal article
    Flatt RJ, Roussel N, Cheeseman CR, 2012,

    Concrete: An eco material that needs to be improved

    , Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol: 32, Pages: 2787-2798, ISSN: 1873-619X

    Concrete is the largest volume material used by man and is irreplaceable for innumerable large infrastructure developments. From the point of view of natural resources, ecology and economy, it is virtually impossible to imagine substituting concrete by any other material. However, because of the large volumes used, its total energy and CO2 footprint is important. This material therefore needs to be improved and small steps can have a big impact, once again because of the large volumes involved. This review paper examines some of the routes that may be followed to further improve the environmental performance of concrete.

  • Journal article
    Banks-Leite C, Ewers RM, Metzger JP, 2012,

    Unravelling the drivers of community dissimilarity and species extinction in fragmented landscapes

    , ECOLOGY, Vol: 93, Pages: 2560-2569
  • Journal article
    Lira PK, Ewers RM, Banks-Leite C, Pardini R, Metzger JPet al., 2012,

    Evaluating the legacy of landscape history: extinction debt and species credit in bird and small mammal assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    , Journal of Applied Ecology, Pages: 1325-1333
  • Journal article
    Howe C, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2012,

    Evaluating indices of conservation success: A comparative analysis of outcome- and output-based indices

    , Animal Conservation, Vol: 15, Pages: 217-226, ISSN: 1367-9430

    Conservation funders require methods by which to evaluate the relative success of projects within their portfolios. One approach is to develop robust indices of success that are consistent between projects and evaluators. We used three contrasting indices to evaluate factors contributing to success of projects funded by the UK Government's Darwin Initiative. The indices were: Darwin Outputs (related to the Darwin Initiative's own method of evaluating the success of the projects it supports), Impact Assessment (based on the method developed by Mace et al. for evaluating the success of projects supported by zoos) and a Ranked Outcomes (a qualitatively ranked outcome index). We evaluated the internal consistency of the indices by comparing the assessments of multiple independent scorers. We assessed their robustness by checking for differences between indices and assessors in the success level assigned to a given project. We then used mixed effects models to analyse the factors contributing to project success, as expressed by each index, and compared the factors highlighted as important by each index. Although there were systematic differences between scorers, relative rankings between scorers were consistent. The indices were in fair agreement as to project success ranks, although the success ranks assigned by subjective ranked outcome- and output-based indices were more consistent between assessors than the impact assessment index. Higher levels of funding led to projects receiving consistently higher success scores. Other variables varied in their importance between indices, although metrics of education were consistently important. This study shows that it is possible to develop robust outcome-based indices of conservation success for comparison of projects within a funder's portfolio, although the nuances picked up by different indices suggest a need for multiple indices to capture different facets of success. We also highlight the need for thorough testing

  • Journal article
    Hill J, Piggott MD, Ham DA, Popova EE, Srokosz MAet al., 2012,

    On the performance of a generic length scale turbulence model within an adaptive finite element ocean model

    , Ocean Modelling, Vol: 56, Pages: 1-15

    Research into the use of unstructured mesh methods for ocean modelling has been growing steadily in the last few years. One advantage of using unstructured meshes is that one can concentrate resolution where it is needed. In addition, dynamic adaptive mesh optimisation (DAMO) strategies allow resolution to be concentrated when this is required. Despite the advantage that DAMO gives in terms of improving the spatial resolution where and when required, small-scale turbulence in the oceans still requires parameterisation. A two-equation, generic length scale (GLS) turbulence model (one equation for turbulent kinetic energy and another for a generic turbulence length-scale quantity) adds this parameterisation and can be used in conjunction with adaptive mesh techniques. In this paper, an implementation of the GLS turbulence parameterisation is detailed in a non-hydrostatic, finite-element, unstructured mesh ocean model, Fluidity-ICOM. The implementation is validated by comparing to both a laboratory-scale experiment and real-world observations, on both fixed and adaptive meshes. The model performs well, matching laboratory and observed data, with resolution being adjusted as necessary by DAMO. Flexibility in the prognostic fields used to construct the error metric used in DAMO is required to ensure best performance. Moreover, the adaptive mesh models perform as well as fixed mesh models in terms of root mean square error to observation or theoretical mixed layer depths, but uses fewer elements and hence has a reduced computational cost.

  • Journal article
    Wang L, Ochoa-Rodriguez S, Simoes N, Onof C, Maksimović Čet al., 2012,

    Radar-raingauge data combination techniques: a revision and analysis of their suitability for urban hydrology

  • Journal article
    Hu G, Sivakumar A, Polak JW, 2012,

    Modelling travellers’ risky choice in a revealed preference context: A comparison of EUT and non-EUT approaches

    , Transportation

    Recent work on risky choice modelling has sought to address the shortcomings of expected utility theory (EUT) by using non-expected utility theoretic (non-EUT) approaches. However, to date these approaches have been merely tested on stated choice data which is flexible and cheap. In this study, we empirically investigate the feasibility and validity of non-EUT approaches in a revealed preference (RP) context in which travel time distribution is extracted from observed historical travel time data, and subsequently present systematic comparisons between EUT, weighted utility theory (WUT), rank-dependent expected utility theory (RDT), and prospect theory (PT). The empirical evidence indicates that each non-EUT model has important behavioural insights to offer, moreover, EUT as well as non-EUT models can be applied to the RP context. However, the EUT and non-EUT model fits are generally similar with only PT providing a marginally improved model fit over EUT. The key findings presented in this study reinforce the importance of exploring non-EUT models within a revealed preference context before they can be applied reliably to modelling risky choices in the real world.

  • Journal article
    Sivakumar A, Keirstead J, Polak JW, 2012,

    Integrated Modelling of the Demand & Supply Vectors in Urban Energy Systems: Conceptual and Modelling Frameworks for the Development of a New Toolkit

    , Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering

    This paper presents the conceptual and modelling frameworks underlying the development of SynCity, an urban systems modelling tool developed as part of the BP-sponsored Urban Energy Systems (UES) project at Imperial College London. SynCity, a hierarchical model system developed in Java, comprises four layers – a spatial layout model, an agent-based microsimulation model of urban activities (AMMUA), a resource flow and conversion/network optimisation model; and an urban energy service networks model. The AMMUA comprises three inter-related modules -- an activity travel demand model, an urban freight logistics component, and a land use module – and simulates a variety of agents including individuals, households, businesses, and industries. While the spatial layout and resource flow models are optimization models aimed at producing normative and potentially optimal solutions, the AMMUA is a descriptive model that aims to predict realistic patterns of agent behaviour. This combination forms a novel approach to modelling urban energy systems which is, to the best of our knowledge, among the first of its kind (this approach has some precedent in continuous equilibrium network design models). The complexity of integrated systems modelling does not typically allow for normative models and our approach conceptually overcomes the difficulty, thus simultaneously serving as a descriptor of behaviour and a design tool. The implementation of SynCity described in this paper is not only the first empirical application of an activity-based travel demand system in the UK but goes further to tie activity and travel demand patterns to resource consumption and energy demand. More importantly, the research breaks new ground in the way that transport demand is conceptualised – as part of a wider system of interactive social and economic relationships that are examined both from a normative and descriptive perspective.

  • Journal article
    Zolfaghari A, Sivakumar A, Polak JW, 2012,

    Choice set pruning in residentiallocation choice modelling: acomparison of sampling and choiceset generation approaches in greaterLondon

    , Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol: 1, Pages: 87-106

    The discrete choice analysis of residential location choice forms an important part of land use-transport modelling systems but gives rise to a number of significant modelling challenges, one of which is the choice set formation problem. A number of alternative approaches exist to addressing the choice set formation problem,but to the best of our knowledge, there have been no efforts to empirically compare their performance using real choice data. In this paper, we propose to address this gap by examining the performance of several choice set formation methods within the context of residential location choice in London. The paperpresents a brief review of the relevant theoretical and empirical literature on thetreatment of the choice set formation problem in the context of spatial choice and sets out the characteristics of the specific modelling approaches implemented in the empirical research. In particular, we compare a recently proposed hazard-based screening model with more conventional pure statistical treatments. Theempirical research uses a specially constructed data-set on residential location choice, developed by the authors for the Greater London area, which draws on information from a number of separate data sources (including revealed preference data from the London Area Travel Survey). The alternative choice set formation approaches are assessed in terms of their prediction performance on a hold-out validation sub-sample and also in terms of estimated modelparameters.

  • Journal article
    Hadden R, Alkatib A, Rein G, Torero Jet al., 2012,

    Radiant Ignition of Polyurethane Foam: The Effect of Sample Size

    , Fire Technology, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0015-2684
  • Journal article
    Howe C, Obgenova O, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2012,

    Evaluating the effectiveness of a public awareness campaign as a conservation intervention: The saiga antelope Saiga tatarica in Kalmykia, Russia

    , ORYX, Vol: 46, Pages: 269-277
  • Journal article
    Kirkpatrick J, Keivanidis PE, Bruno A, Ma F, Haque SA, Yartsev A, Sundstrom V, Nelson Jet al., 2011,

    Ultrafast Transient Optical Studies of Charge Pair Generation and Recombination in Poly-3-Hexylthiophene(P3ht):[6,6]Phenyl C61 Butyric Methyl Acid Ester (PCBM) Blend Films

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, Vol: 115, Pages: 15174-15180, ISSN: 1520-6106
  • Journal article
    Leem D-S, Edwards A, Faist M, Nelson J, Bradley DDC, de Mello JCet al., 2011,

    Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Solution-Processed Silver Nanowire Electrodes

    , ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 23, Pages: 4371-+, ISSN: 0935-9648
  • Journal article
    Dibb GFA, Kirchartz T, Credgington D, Durrant JR, Nelson Jet al., 2011,

    Analysis of the Relationship between Linearity of Corrected Photocurrent and the Order of Recombination in Organic Solar Cells

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, Vol: 2, Pages: 2407-2411, ISSN: 1948-7185
  • Journal article
    Azzopardi B, Emmott CJM, Urbina A, Krebs FC, Mutale J, Nelson Jet al., 2011,

    Economic assessment of solar electricity production from organic-based photovoltaic modules in a domestic environment

    , ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, Vol: 4, Pages: 3741-3753, ISSN: 1754-5692
  • Journal article
    Nelson J, 2011,

    Polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    , MATERIALS TODAY, Vol: 14, Pages: 462-470, ISSN: 1369-7021
  • Journal article
    Lilliu S, Agostinelli T, Verploegen E, Pires E, Hampton M, Al-Hashimi M, Heeney MJ, Toney MF, Nelson J, Macdonald JEet al., 2011,

    Effects of Thermal Annealing Upon the Nanomorphology of Poly(3-hexylselenophene)-PCBM Blends

    , MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 32, Pages: 1454-1460, ISSN: 1022-1336
  • Journal article
    Agostinelli T, Ferenczi TAM, Pires E, Foster S, Maurano A, Mueller C, Ballantyne A, Hampton M, Lilliu S, Campoy-Quiles M, Azimi H, Morana M, Bradley DDC, Durrant J, Macdonald JE, Stingelin N, Nelson Jet al., 2011,

    The Role of Alkane Dithiols in Controlling Polymer Crystallization in Small Band Gap Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells (vol 49, pg 717, 2011)

    , JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART B-POLYMER PHYSICS, Vol: 49, Pages: 1345-1345, ISSN: 0887-6266
  • Journal article
    Ferenczi TAM, Mueller C, Bradley DDC, Smith P, Nelson J, Stingelin Net al., 2011,

    Organic Semiconductor: Insulator Polymer Ternary Blends for Photovoltaics

    , ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 23, Pages: 4093-+, ISSN: 0935-9648

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