BibTex format

author = {Chayen, N and shaffer and govada and Khurshid and Kassen and Leese, H S and Hu, S and Menzel and Chain, B and Saridakis},
doi = {10.1038/srep20053},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
title = {Exploring Carbon Nanomaterial Diversity for Nucleation of Protein Crystals},
url = {},
volume = {6},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Controlling crystal nucleation is a crucial step in obtaining high quality protein crystals for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and carbon black provide a range of surface topographies, porosities and length scales; functionalisation with two different approaches, gas phase radical grafting and liquid phase reductive grafting, provide routes to a range of oligomer functionalised products. These grafted materials, combined with a range of controls, were used in a large-scale assessment of the effectiveness for protein crystal nucleation of 20 different carbon nanomaterials on five proteins. This study has allowed a direct comparison of the key characteristics of carbon-based nucleants: appropriate surface chemistry, porosity and/or roughness are required. The most effective solid system tested in this study, carbon black nanoparticles functionalised with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether of mean molecular weight 5000, provides a novel highly effective nucleant, that was able to induce crystal nucleation of four out of the five proteins tested at metastable conditions.
AU - Chayen,N
AU - shaffer
AU - govada
AU - Khurshid
AU - Kassen
AU - Leese,H S
AU - Hu,S
AU - Menzel
AU - Chain,B
AU - Saridakis
DO - 10.1038/srep20053
PY - 2016///
SN - 2045-2322
TI - Exploring Carbon Nanomaterial Diversity for Nucleation of Protein Crystals
T2 - Scientific Reports
UR -
UR -
VL - 6
ER -