The Centre has a long history of developing new techniques for medical imaging (particularly in magnetic resonance imaging), transforming them from a primarily diagnostic modality into an interventional and therapeutic platform. This is facilitated by the Centre's strong engineering background in practical imaging and image analysis platform development, as well as advances in minimal access and robotic assisted surgery. Hamlyn has a strong tradition in pursuing basic sciences and theoretical research, with a clear focus on clinical translation.

In response to the current paradigm shift and clinical demand in bringing cellular and molecular imaging modalities to an in vivo – in situ setting during surgical intervention, our recent research has also been focussed on novel biophotonics platforms that can be used for real-time tissue characterisation, functional assessment, and intraoperative guidance during minimally invasive surgery. This includes, for example, SMART confocal laser endomicroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and flexible FLIM catheters.

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  • Journal article
    Zhang H, Khushi V, Yang G-Z, 2019,

    Line scanning, fiber bundle fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy with confocal slit detection

    , Journal of Biomedical Optics, Vol: 24, ISSN: 1083-3668

    Fiber bundle fluorescence endomicroscopy is an effective method for in vivo imaging of biological tissue samples. Line-scanning confocal laser endomicroscopy realizes confocal imaging at a much higher frame rate compared to the point scanning system, but with reduced optical sectioning. To address this problem, we describe a fiber bundle endomicroscopy system that utilizes the HiLo technique to enhance the optical sectioning while still maintaining high image acquisition rates. Confocal HiLo endomicroscopy is achieved by synchronizing the scanning hybrid-illumination laser line with the rolling shutter of a CMOS camera. An evident improvement of axial sectioning is achieved as compared to the line-scanning confocal endomicroscopy without the HiLo technique. Comparisons are also made with epifluorescence endomicroscopy with and without HiLo. The optical sectioning enhancement is demonstrated on lens tissue as well as porcine kidney tissue

  • Journal article
    Berthelot M, Ashcroft J, Boshier P, Henry FP, Hunter J, Lo B, Yang G-Z, Leff Det al., 2019,

    Use of near infrared spectroscopy and implantable Doppler for postoperative monitoring of free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    , Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2169-7574

    Background: Failure to accurately assess the perfusion of free tissue transfer (FTT) in the early postoperative periodmay contribute to failure, which is a source of major patient morbidity and healthcare costs.Goal: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate and appraise current evidence for the use of nearinfrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and/or implantable Doppler (ID) devices compared with conventional clinicalassessment (CCA) for postoperative monitoring of FTT in reconstructive breast surgery.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Studies in humansubjects published within the last decade relevant to the review question were identified. Meta-analysis using randomeffects models of FTT failure rate and STARD scoring were then performed on the retrieved publications.Results: 19 studies met the inclusions criteria. For NIRS and ID, the mean sensitivity for the detection of FTT failure is99.36% and 100% respectively, with average specificity of 99.36% and 97.63% respectively. From studies withsufficient reported data, meta-analysis results demonstrated that both NIRS (OR = 0.09 [0.02, 0.36], P < 0.001) and ID(OR = 0.39 [0.27, 0.95], P = 0.04) were associated with significant reduction of FTT failure rates compared to CCA.Conclusion: The use of ID and NIRS provide equivalent outcomes in detecting FTT failure and were superior to CCA.The ability to acquire continuous objective physiological data regarding tissue perfusion is a perceived advantage ofthese techniques. Reduced clinical staff workload and minimised hospital costs are also perceived as positiveconsequences of their use.

  • Journal article
    Guo Y, Deligianni F, Gu X, Yang G-Zet al., 2019,

    3-D Canonical pose estimation and abnormal gait recognition with a single RGB-D camera

    , IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, Vol: 4, Pages: 3617-3624, ISSN: 2377-3766

    Assistive robots play an important role in improvingthe quality of life of patients at home. Among all the monitoringtasks, gait disorders are prevalent in elderly and people with neurological conditions and this increases the risk of fall. Therefore,the development of mobile systems for gait monitoring at home innormal living conditions is important. Here, we present a mobilesystem that is able to track humans and analyze their gait incanonical coordinates based on a single RGB-D camera. First,view-invariant three-dimensional (3-D) lower limb pose estimationis achieved by fusing information from depth images along with2-D joints derived in RGB images. Next, both the 6-D camerapose and the 3-D lower limb skeleton are real-time tracked in acanonical coordinate system based on simultaneously localizationand mapping (SLAM). A mask-based strategy is exploited to improve the re-localization of the SLAM in dynamic environments.Abnormal gait is detected by using the support vector machine andthe bidirectional long-short term memory network with respect toa set of extracted gait features. To evaluate the robustness of thesystem, we collected multi-cameras, ground truth data from 16healthy volunteers performing 6 gait patterns that mimic commongait abnormalities. The experiment results demonstrate that ourproposed system can achieve good lower limb pose estimation andsuperior recognition accuracy compared to previous abnormal gaitdetection methods.

  • Journal article
    Zheng J-Q, Zhou X-Y, Riga C, Yang G-Zet al., 2019,

    Real-Time 3-D Shape Instantiation for Partially Deployed Stent Segments From a Single 2-D Fluoroscopic Image in Fenestrated Endovascular Aortic Repair

    , IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS, Vol: 4, Pages: 3703-3710, ISSN: 2377-3766
  • Journal article
    He C, Chang J, Hu Q, Wang J, Antonello J, He H, Liu S, Lin J, Dai B, Elson DS, Xi P, Ma H, Booth MJet al., 2019,

    Complex vectorial optics through gradient index lens cascades

    , Nature Communications, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-1723

    Graded index (GRIN) lenses are commonly used for compact imaging systems. It is not widely appreciated that the ion-exchange process that creates the rotationally symmetric GRIN lens index profile also causes a symmetric birefringence variation. This property is usually considered a nuisance, such that manufacturing processes are optimized to keep it to a minimum. Here, rather than avoiding this birefringence, we understand and harness it by using GRIN lenses in cascade with other optical components to enable extra functionality in commonplace GRIN lens systems. We show how birefringence in the GRIN cascades can generate vector vortex beams and foci, and how it can be used advantageously to improve axial resolution. Through using the birefringence for analysis, we show that the GRIN cascades form the basis of a new single-shot Müller matrix polarimeter with potential for endoscopic label-free cancer diagnostics. The versatility of these cascades opens up new technological directions.

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