A primary motivation of our research is the monitoring of physical, physiological, and biochemical parameters - in any environment and without activity restriction and behaviour modification - through using miniaturised, wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSN). Key research issues that are currently being addressed include novel sensor designs, ultra-low power microprocessor and wireless platforms, energy scavenging, biocompatibility, system integration and miniaturisation, processing-on-node technologies combined with novel ASIC design, autonomic sensor networks and light-weight communication protocols. Our research is aimed at addressing the future needs of life-long health, wellbeing and healthcare, particularly those related to demographic changes associated with an ageing population and patients with chronic illnesses. This research theme is therefore closely aligned with the IGHI’s vision of providing safe, effective and accessible technologies for both developed and developing countries.

Some of our latest works were exhibited at the 2015 Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition.

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  • Journal article
    Vyas K, Hughes M, Gil Rosa B, Yang GZet al., 2018,

    Fiber bundle shifting endomicroscopy for high resolution imaging

    , Biomedical Optics Express, Vol: 9, Pages: 4649-4664, ISSN: 2156-7085

    Flexible endomicroscopes commonly use coherent fiber bundles with high core densities to facilitate high-resolution in vivo imaging during endoscopic and minimally-invasive procedures. However, under-sampling due to the inter-core spacing limits the spatial resolution, making it difficult to resolve smaller cellular features. Here, we report a compact and rapid piezoelectric transducer (PZT) based bundle-shifting endomicroscopy system in which a super-resolution (SR) image is restored from multiple pixelation-limited images by computational means. A miniaturized PZT tube actuates the fiber bundle behind a GRIN micro-lens and a Delaunay triangulation based algorithm reconstructs an enhanced SR image. To enable real-time cellular-level imaging, imaging is performed using a line-scan confocal laser endomicroscope system with a raw frame rate of 120 fps, delivering up to 2 times spatial resolution improvement for a field of view of 350 µm at a net frame rate of 30 fps. The resolution enhancement is confirmed using resolution phantoms and ex vivo fluorescence endomicroscopy imaging of human breast specimens is demonstrated.

  • Journal article
    Zhao T, Deng L, Wang W, Elson DS, Su Let al., 2018,

    Bayes' theorem-based binary algorithm for fast reference-less calibration of a multimode fiber

    , Optics Express, Vol: 26, Pages: 20368-20378, ISSN: 1094-4087

    In this paper, we present a Bayes’ theorem-based high-speed algorithm, to measure the binary transmission matrix of a multimode fiber using a digital micromirror device, in a reference-less multimode fiber imaging system. Based on conditional probability, we define a preset threshold to locate those digital-micromirror-device pixels that can be switched ‘ON’ to form a focused spot at the output. This leads to a binary transmission matrix consisting of ‘0’ and ‘1’ elements. High-enhancement-factor light focusing and raster-scanning at the distal end of the fiber are demonstrated experimentally. The key advantage of our algorithm is its capability for fast calibration of a MMF to form a tightly focused spot. In our experiment, for 5000 input-output pairs, we only need 0.26 s to calibrate one row of the transmission matrix to achieve a focused spot with an enhancement factor of 28. This is more than 10 times faster than the prVBEM algorithm. The proposed Bayes’ theorem-based binary algorithm can be applied not only in multimode optical fiber focusing but also to other disordered media. Particularly, it will be valuable in fast multimode fiber calibration for endoscopic imaging.

  • Journal article
    Saso S, Tziraki M, Clancy NT, Song L, Bracewell-Milnes T, Jones BP, Al-Memar M, Yazbek J, Thum M-Y, Sayasneh A, Bourne T, Smith JR, Elson DS, Ghaem-Maghami Set al., 2018,

    Use of Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis during pelvic surgery in a uterine transplantation model

    , Future Science OA, Vol: 4, Pages: FSO324-FSO324, ISSN: 2056-5623

    Aim: Uterine transplantation (UTx) is proposed for treatment of uterine factor infertility. Our aim was to assess whether Endoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (eLASCA) could evaluate pelvic blood flow at anastomotic sites required for sheep and rabbit UTx. Results/methodology: eLASCA detected blood flow in rabbit UTx #7 and #9. In sheep UTx #2, #3 and #5, the results allowed us to conclude that blood flow was present in the uterine graft following transplantation; and post-UTx, the animal had heart and respiratory rates, and oxygen saturation compatible with a normal hemodynamic status. Conclusion: These preliminary results establish the potential of Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis as noncontact and real-time tool for observation of spatially-resolved blood flow from which other parameters can be derived.

  • Journal article
    Constantinescu MA, Lee S-L, Ernst S, Hemakom A, Mandic D, Yang G-Zet al., 2018,

    Probabilistic guidance for catheter tip motion in cardiac ablation procedures

    , Medical Image Analysis, Vol: 47, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1361-8415

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation is one of the commonly available therapeutic methods for patients suffering from cardiac arrhythmias. The prerequisite of successful ablation is sufficient energy delivery at the target site. However, cardiac and respiratory motion, coupled with endocardial irregularities, can cause catheter drift and dispersion of the radiofrequency energy, thus prolonging procedure time, damaging adjacent tissue, and leading to electrical reconnection of temporarily ablated regions. Therefore, positional accuracy and stability of the catheter tip during energy delivery is of great importance for the outcome of the procedure. This paper presents an analytical scheme for assessing catheter tip stability, whereby a sequence of catheter tip motion recorded at sparse locations on the endocardium is decomposed. The spatial sliding component along the endocardial wall is extracted from the recording and maximal slippage and its associated probability are computed at each mapping point. Finally, a global map is generated, allowing the assessment of potential areas that are compromised by tip slippage. The proposed framework was applied to 40 retrospective studies of congenital heart disease patients and further validated on phantom data and simulations. The results show a good correlation with other intraoperative factors, such as catheter tip contact force amplitude and orientation, and with clinically documented anatomical areas of high catheter tip instability.

  • Journal article
    Kwasnicki RM, Cross GW, Geoghegan L, Zhang Z, Reilly P, Darzi A, Yang GZ, Emery Ret al., 2018,

    A lightweight sensing platform for monitoring sleep quality and posture: a simulated validation study


    BackgroundThe prevalence of self-reported shoulder pain in the UK has been estimated at 16%. This has been linked with significant sleep disturbance. It is possible that this relationship is bidirectional, with both symptoms capable of causing the other. Within the field of sleep monitoring, there is a requirement for a mobile and unobtrusive device capable of monitoring sleep posture and quality. This study investigates the feasibility of a wearable sleep system (WSS) in accurately detecting sleeping posture and physical activity.MethodsSixteen healthy subjects were recruited and fitted with three wearable inertial sensors on the trunk and forearms. Ten participants were entered into a ‘Posture’ protocol; assuming a series of common sleeping postures in a simulated bedroom. Five participants completed an ‘Activity’ protocol, in which a triphasic simulated sleep was performed including awake, sleep and REM phases. A combined sleep posture and activity protocol was then conducted as a ‘Proof of Concept’ model. Data were used to train a posture detection algorithm, and added to activity to predict sleep phase. Classification accuracy of the WSS was measured during the simulations.ResultsThe WSS was found to have an overall accuracy of 99.5% in detection of four major postures, and 92.5% in the detection of eight minor postures. Prediction of sleep phase using activity measurements was accurate in 97.3% of the simulations. The ability of the system to accurately detect both posture and activity enabled the design of a conceptual layout for a user-friendly tablet application.ConclusionsThe study presents a pervasive wearable sensor platform, which can accurately detect both sleeping posture and activity in non-specialised environments. The extent and accuracy of sleep metrics available advances the current state-of-the-art technology. This has potential diagnostic implications in musculoskeletal pathology and with the addition of aler

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