A primary motivation of our research is the monitoring of physical, physiological, and biochemical parameters - in any environment and without activity restriction and behaviour modification - through using miniaturised, wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSN). Key research issues that are currently being addressed include novel sensor designs, ultra-low power microprocessor and wireless platforms, energy scavenging, biocompatibility, system integration and miniaturisation, processing-on-node technologies combined with novel ASIC design, autonomic sensor networks and light-weight communication protocols. Our research is aimed at addressing the future needs of life-long health, wellbeing and healthcare, particularly those related to demographic changes associated with an ageing population and patients with chronic illnesses. This research theme is therefore closely aligned with the IGHI’s vision of providing safe, effective and accessible technologies for both developed and developing countries.

Some of our latest works were exhibited at the 2015 Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition.


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  • Journal article
    Bergmann JHM, Goodier H, Spulber I, Anastasova S, Georgiou P, McGregor AHet al., 2015,

    The "Wear and Measure" Approach: Linking Joint Stability Measurements from a Smart Clothing System to Optical Tracking

    , Journal of Sensors, Vol: 2015, ISSN: 1687-7268

    Joint stability is essential for maintaining normal everyday function. However, assessment of stability often still relies on subjective or obtrusive methods. An unobtrusive approach would be to have our clothes assess our joint stability. Methods. A new application consisting of an attachable clothing sensing system (ACSS), constructed from a flexible carbon black and polyurethane composite film, was tested against an optical tracking system to assess if the ACSS placed across the knee could provide stability results that correlate with the optical tracking outcomes. Stability was challenged by reducing the base of support and by removing vision generating different experimental conditions. Results. Bland and Altman plots indicated a general proportional error between the measurement systems within each stability condition. However, across all conditions a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.81 () was found between the displacement values and ACSS, showing a good association between stability measurements. Electromyography (EMG) also indicated that joint stability was challenged between the different conditions. The ACSS was experienced by users as comfortable and hardly noticeable. Conclusions. This study indicates that smart clothing can measure important physiological parameters in an unobtrusive manner. This “wear and measure” approach might change how we gather relevant clinical data in the future.

  • Journal article
    Andreu-Perez J, Solnais C, Sriskandarajah K, 2015,

    EALab (Eye Activity Lab): A MATLAB Toolbox for Variable Extraction, Multivariate Analysis and Classification of Eye-Movement Data

    , Neuroinformatics, Vol: 14, Pages: 51-67, ISSN: 1539-2791

    Recent advances in the reliability of the eye-tracking methodology as well as the increasing availability of affordable non-intrusive technology have opened the door to new research opportunities in a variety of areas and applications. This has raised increasing interest within disciplines such as medicine, business and education for analysing human perceptual and psychological processes based on eye-tracking data. However, most of the currently available software requires programming skills and focuses on the analysis of a limited set of eye-movement measures (e.g., saccades and fixations), thus excluding other measures of interest to the classification of a determined state or condition. This paper describes ‘EALab’, a MATLAB toolbox aimed at easing the extraction, multivariate analysis and classification stages of eye-activity data collected from commercial and independent eye trackers. The processing implemented in this toolbox enables to evaluate variables extracted from a wide range of measures including saccades, fixations, blinks, pupil diameter and glissades. Using EALab does not require any programming and the analysis can be performed through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) consisting of three processing modules: 1) eye-activity measure extraction interface, 2) variable selection and analysis interface, and 3) classification interface.

  • Journal article
    Jarchi D, Lo B, Wong C, Ieong E, Nathwani D, Yang GZet al., 2015,

    Gait Analysis From a Single Ear-Worn Sensor: Reliability and Clinical Evaluation for Orthopaedic Patients

    , IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol: 24, Pages: 882-892, ISSN: 1558-0210

    Objective assessment of detailed gait patterns after orthopaedic surgery is important for post-surgical follow-up and rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a single ear-worn sensor for clinical gait analysis. A reliability measure is devised for indicating the confidence level of the estimated gait events, allowing it to be used in free-walking environments and for facilitating clinical assessment of orthopaedic patients after surgery. Patient groups prior to or following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and knee replacement were recruited to assess the proposed method. The ability of the sensor for detailed longitudinal analysis is demonstrated with a group of patients after lower limb reconstruction by considering parameters such as temporal and force-related gait asymmetry derived from gait events. The results suggest that the ear-worn sensor can be used for objective gait assessments of orthopaedic patients without the requirement and expense of an elaborate laboratory setup for gait analysis. It significantly simplifies the monitoring protocol and opens the possibilities for home-based remote patient assessment.

  • Journal article
    Cola G, Avvenuti M, Vecchio A, Yang G-Z, Lo Bet al., 2015,

    An on-node processing approach for anomaly detection in gait

    , IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol: 15, Pages: 6640-6649, ISSN: 1558-1748
  • Journal article
    Kwasnicki RM, Hettiaratchy S, Okogbaa J, Lo B, Yang G-Z, Darzi Aet al., 2015,

    Return of functional mobility after an open tibial fracture a sensor-based longitudinal cohort study using the Hamlyn Mobility Score

    , Bone and Joint Journal, Vol: 97B, Pages: 1118-1125, ISSN: 2049-4394

    In this study we quantified and characterised the return of functional mobility following open tibial fracture using the Hamlyn Mobility Score. A total of 20 patients who had undergone reconstruction following this fracture were reviewed at three-month intervals for one year. An ear-worn movement sensor was used to assess their mobility and gait. The Hamlyn Mobility Score and its constituent kinematic features were calculated longitudinally, allowing analysis of mobility during recovery and between patients with varying grades of fracture. The mean score improved throughout the study period. Patients with more severe fractures recovered at a slower rate; those with a grade I Gustilo-Anderson fracture completing most of their recovery within three months, those with a grade II fracture within six months and those with a grade III fracture within nine months.Analysis of gait showed that the quality of walking continued to improve up to 12 months post-operatively, whereas the capacity to walk, as measured by the six-minute walking test, plateaued after six months.Late complications occurred in two patients, in whom the trajectory of recovery deviated by > 0.5 standard deviations below that of the remaining patients. This is the first objective, longitudinal assessment of functional recovery in patients with an open tibial fracture, providing some clarification of the differences in prognosis and recovery associated with different grades of fracture.

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