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  • Book chapter
    Gutiérrez-Montes C, Rein G, Sanmiguel-Rojas E, Viedma Aet al., 2009,

    Smoke and fire dynamics in atria and large enclosures: An overview

    , Fire Safety, Editors: Søgaard, Krogh, Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, Pages: 1-42, ISBN: 9781607414902

    The proliferation of atria within modern large buildings is relatively recent. An atrium can be defined as a large open space connecting two or more storeys. Atria are important architectonical features since the 60's and can be found, among others, in shopping centres, office buildings and high-rise buildings, airports, stations and sports centres. However, the atrium represents an innovative, complex and non conventional architectonical element that can lead to fire environments diverging significantly from those in conventional compartments used in the development of current codes and standards. They are a source of discussion in the fire safety community because smoke can easily spread from one floor to another making the traditional methodologies for compartmentation of little or null effect. The design of smoke management in atria has been based on prescriptive codes since the 70's. It was not until the mid 80's that the phenomena started to be the objective of both experimental and numerical studies. It is because of the subsequent improved understanding on fire dynamics and smoke management together with the increased computing power available nowadays, that there is a progressive movement from prescriptive-based to performance-based codes which is also chaning the way atria are designed. The aim of the present work is to provide a broad overview of the current state-of-the-art of fires in atria. A brief introduction to the characteristics and types of atrium structures is presented first. Then, a description of the fire dynamics as well as the main safety problems that arise in case of fire are considered. A historical discussion of the research, including experimental and numerical studies, is presented, and current design methodologies and fire safety strategies are discussed. The final part of the overview addresses the international tendencies towards the introduction of performance-based fire protection codes. This overview highlights the need for furt

  • Journal article
    Stern-Gottfried J, Rein G, Torero J, 2009,

    Travel guide

    , Fire Risk Management, Pages: 12-16, ISSN: 1757-1324

    The concept of 'traveling fires' in large enclosures, which assist with structural fire analysis, is discussed. These fires represent a new understanding of fire behavior in modern building layouts. Fire scenarios currently used for the structural fire design of modern buildings are based on traditional methods that come from the extrapolation of existing fire test data. This test geometry allows for good mixing of the fire gases and thus for a uniform temperature distribution throughout the compartment. The standard fire came from collating various fire tests into one idealized curve. A traveling fire can therefore inflict the structure with elevated temperatures for longer durations. The traditional design methods for thermal inputs for structural analysis are known to be valid for small enclosures.

  • Journal article
    Valencia LB, Rogaume T, Guillaume E, Rein G, Torero JLet al., 2009,

    Analysis of principal gas products during combustion of polyether polyurethane foam at different irradiance levels

    , FIRE SAFETY JOURNAL, Vol: 44, Pages: 933-940, ISSN: 0379-7112
  • Journal article
    Gutierrez-Montes C, Sanmiguel-Rojas E, Viedma A, Rein Get al., 2009,

    Experimental data and numerical modelling of 1.3 and 2.3 MW fires in a 20 m cubic atrium

    , BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 44, Pages: 1827-1839, ISSN: 0360-1323
  • Journal article
    Switzer C, Pironi P, Gerhard JI, Rein G, Torero JLet al., 2009,

    Self-Sustaining Smoldering Combustion: A Novel Remediation Process for Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids in Porous Media

    , ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 5871-5877, ISSN: 0013-936X
  • Journal article
    Rein G, Torero JL, Jahn W, Stern-Gottfried J, Ryder NL, Desanghere S, Lazaro M, Mowrer F, Coles A, Joyeux D, Alvear D, Capote JA, Jowsey A, Abecassis-Empis C, Reszka Pet al., 2009,

    Round-robin study of a priori modelling predictions of the Dalmarnock Fire Test One

    , FIRE SAFETY JOURNAL, Vol: 44, Pages: 590-602, ISSN: 0379-7112
  • Journal article
    Pironi P, Switzer C, Rein G, Fuentes A, Gerhard JI, Torero JLet al., 2009,

    Small-scale forward smouldering experiments for remediation of coal tar in inert media

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE, Vol: 32, Pages: 1957-1964, ISSN: 1540-7489
  • Journal article
    Rein G, Cohen S, Simeoni A, 2009,

    Carbon emissions from smouldering peat in shallow and strong fronts

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE, Vol: 32, Pages: 2489-2496, ISSN: 1540-7489
  • Journal article
    Rein G, 2009,

    Smouldering Combustion Phenomena in Science and Technology

    , International Review of Chemical Engineering, Vol: 1, Pages: 3-18

    G Rein, Smouldering Combustion Phenomena in Science and Technology, International Review of Chemical Engineering (11 non-self citations) (Invited review paper).

  • Journal article
    Putzeys OM, Fernandez-Pello AC, Rein G, Urban DLet al., 2008,

    The piloted transition to flaming in smoldering fire retarded and non-fire retarded polyurethane foam

    , FIRE AND MATERIALS, Vol: 32, Pages: 485-499, ISSN: 0308-0501
  • Conference paper
    Jahn W, Rein G, Torero JL, 2008,

    The effect of model parameters on the simulation of fire dynamics

    , Pages: 1341-1352, ISSN: 1817-4299

    The sensitivity of computer fire modelling using results from NIST's Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to a set of input parameters related to fire growth has been analyzed. The scenario simulated is the real-scale Dalmarnock Fire Test One and the modelling results are compared to the measurements. Fire size and location, convection, radiation and combustion parameters were varied in order to determine the associated degree of sensitivity. Emphasis is put in the prediction of secondary ignition and time to flashover. In this context and while keeping the HRR constant, simulations of fire growth are significantly sensitive to location of the heat release rate (HRR), fire area, flame radiative fraction, and material thermal and ignition properties. The simulations are relatively insensitive to the heat of combustion (while keeping the HRR constant), the soot yield and the heating from the smoke layer. The results indicate that the future development of successful fire forecast methodologies of fire growth using CFD must focus on the global HRR as well as the important parameters identified here. Copyright © 2008 International Association For Fire Safety Science.

  • Journal article
    Abecassis-Empis C, Reszka P, Steinhaus T, Cowlard A, Biteau H, Welch S, Rein G, Torero JLet al., 2008,

    Characterisation of Dalmarnock fire Test One

    , Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 32, Pages: 1334-1343, ISSN: 0894-1777
  • Conference paper
    Rein G, Garcia J, Simeoni A, Tihay V, Ferrat Let al., 2008,

    Smouldering natural fires: comparison of burning dynamics in boreal peat and Mediterranean humus

    , 1st International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Forest Fires, Publisher: WIT PRESS, Pages: 183-+, ISSN: 1743-3541
  • Conference paper
    Switzer C, Pironi P, Rein G, Torero JL, Gerhard JIet al., 2008,


    , 10th International UFZ-Deltares/TNO Conference on Soil-Water Systems, Publisher: HELMHOLTZ CENTRE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH-UFZ, Pages: 365-371
  • Conference paper
    Roxburgh R, Rein G, 2008,

    Study of wildfire in-draft flows for counter fire operations

    , 1st International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Forest Fires, Publisher: WIT PRESS, Pages: 13-22, ISSN: 1746-448X
  • Journal article
    Rein G, Cleaver N, Ashton C, Pironi P, Torero JLet al., 2008,

    The Severity of Smouldering Peat Fires andDamage to the Forest Soil

    , Catena, Vol: 74, Pages: 304-309, ISSN: 1872-6887
  • Journal article
    Rein G, Fernandez-Pello AC, Urban DL, 2007,

    Computational model of forward and opposed smoldering combustion in microgravity

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE, Vol: 31, Pages: 2677-2684, ISSN: 1540-7489
  • Journal article
    Putzey O, Bar-Ilan A, Rein G, Fernandez-Pello AC, Urban DLet al., 2007,

    The role of secondary char oxidation in the transition from smoldering to flaming

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE, Vol: 31, Pages: 2669-2676, ISSN: 1540-7489
  • Conference paper
    Putzeys OM, Rein G, Fernandez-Pello AC, Urban DLet al., 2006,

    Piloted ignition to flaming in smoldering polyurethane foam

    , Pages: 13747-13755

    Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in flexible polyurethane foam. The experiments are conducted with small parallelepiped samples vertically placed in a wind tunnel. Three of the sample lateral-sides are insulated and the fourth side is exposed to an upward oxidizer flow and to a variable radiant flux. Thermocouples placed along the sample centerline allow monitoring of the smolder temperatures and calculation of the smolder velocity. The results show that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming is possible under a wider range of external conditions than the spontaneous transition from smoldering to flaming. It is found that the smolder velocity and peak smolder temperature, which are strongly affected by the oxygen mole fraction and radiant heat flux, are strongly correlated to the ignition to flaming event, in that there are minimum values of these parameters for ignition to take place. The minimum smolder velocity and temperature for ignition are found to be approximately 0.185 mm/s, and 363°C, respectively. The existence of a minimum smolder velocity for ignition supports the concept of a gaseous mixture reaching a lean flammability limit as the criteria for ignition to flaming, because the pyrolysate mass production rate is proportional to the smolder velocity. The critical mass production rate of smolder gaseous products is calculated from the minimum smolder velocity to be approximately 7.35 mg/s. A one-step Arrheniustype reaction proposed for the solid-to-gas conversion in smoldering helps explain the relationship between the peak smolder temperature and the pyrolysate mass production, and the observed effects of smolder temperature on the piloted ignition.

  • Journal article
    Rein G, Bar-Ilan A, Fernandez-Pello AC, Alvares Net al., 2006,

    A comparison of three models for the simulation of accidental fires

    , JOURNAL OF FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING, Vol: 16, Pages: 183-209, ISSN: 1042-3915

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